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Electric Railway 



' o — 

July to December, 1909. 

— ' ' - O' ^ 


McQraw Publishing Company, 
239 West 39th Street, 
New York. 




Accident claim department: 

Advertising, Anderson, Ind., 215 

Boston, Letter to school committees, 859 

Bulletins, Baltimore, 54 

Bulletins, Philadelphia, 1001 

Co-operation of engineering and shop 

forces, . 168 

Co-operation of operating department 

[Smith], 143 

Information for newspapers, 1063 

Instruction for trainmen, 642 

Instruction for trainmen, Syracuse, N. Y., 


Relations with other departments, 1063 

Violations of rules on interurban rail- 
ways, 101 

Warning posters in Birmingham, * 1 1 3 

— ■ — Warning school children, Cleveland, 1146 

Warning signs in Chicago, 161 

(See also Claim Agents' Association; 

Accident claims: 

Pass-holder, Accident claim from [Lake], 


-Value of recording instruments, 1212 

Accident record, Syracuse, N. Y., "319 

Berlin car and omnibus, 437 

Cost of, 135 

Indiana, 237, 1083, 1282 

New York, 193, 635, 1118 

Pennsylvania, 53 

Preventing accidents [Carpenter], 1062 

Sparks from trolley wheel, 911 

Spokane & Inland Empire system. Find- 
ing, 447 
Accountants' Association: 

Convention sessions, 724, 790 

Interline accounting, Report on, 730 

President Wallis's address, 729 

Program for convention, 179 

Standard classification, 217, 726 


Accountants' Association, Standard classi- 
fication of accounts, 217; Report, 726 

Additions and betterments, Protest of 

Pennsylvania R. R., 908 
— — Amortization, Ruling in Wisconsin, 367 

Brooklyn classification of accounts, 283 

Car-miles and car-hours, Uniform practice 

in treatment of [Rogers, Forse, Jr., 
and Vordermark], 1235 

Chicago Railways accounts, Report on, 

354. .1023 

Construction and operating expenses, Re- 
port at convention of Railway Com- 
missioners, 1 148 

Corporation tax law and accounting, C609 

Depreciation : 

Car bodies, 839 

Causes and standard basis for [Stur- 
gis], 1224 

Depreciation [Linn], 33; Discussion, 
36 . . 

Great Britain, Rules in, 476 

Interstate Commerce Commission's 
ruling [Sturgis], 1224 

New York Public Service Commis- 
sion, 1073 

Railway accounts [Meyers], 1146 

Wisconsin accounting, 366 

Freight, Toronto, 8 

Interline accounting, Report on, 730 

Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Additions and betterments, Protest of 

Penn. R. R., 008 
Answers to questions submitted by 

railways, 601 
Balance sheet for steam roads, 939 
Depreciation, Ruling on [Sturgis], 


Report on system by H. C. Adams, 

Ruling on reporting, 217 

Interurban operation, 809 

New York Public Service Commission: 

Depreciation accounts, 1073; [Myers], 
1 147 

Experience with three schedules for 
six months [Linn], 30; Com- 
ment, 4; Discussion, 36 

Payroll, Discussion at Denver, 791, 814 

Steam roads, Form of general balance 

sheet, 939 

Stores accounting [Pattee], 834; Discus- 
sion, 792 

Ticket records, Utica & Mohawk Valley 

and Oneida Railways, 400 

Vermont, Standard classification ordered, 


Wisconsin system of accounts, 366, 388 

(See also Blanks and forms) 

Accounting Conference (See Central Electric 

Accounting Conference) 
Adirondack railroads, Cost of electrification, 


Advertising : 

Claim department (See Accident claim de- 

Games advertised, Fort Smith, Ark., * 1 1 5 

London underground railways, '"1134 

Newspaper "talks," Philadelphia, 155, 188, 

234, 299, 334, 4' 1, 479, 855, 918, 

1035, 1200, 1244 

Permanent traffic, Advertising for, 277 

Route connections in urban service, 455 

— — -Special car service, Boston, *ii4 
Traffic c-irculars, 963 

Transportation & Traffic Association, Dis- 
cussion, 641, 650 

Tunnel facilities in Boston, 890 

■ (See also Publicity; Traffic) 

Air brakes (see Brakes, Air) 

Air compressor car for track repairs, Detroit, 

Air compressors: 

• Motor-driven (G. E.), *6i2 

Portable (National), '853 

Akron, Ohio: 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., Im- 
provements, 857 

Riding in motormen's vestibules, 193, 199 

Telephones on railway, 371 

Akron, Bedford & Cleveland R. R., Histori- 
cal, 575 [Sloat], 577 

Albany, N. Y. 

Freight case decision, 128 

United Traction Co. leases Capitol Ry., 


Albany, Delaware & Hudson Co., Purchase of 
securities of Hudson Valley Ry., 1279 

Albany & Hudson Railroad (See Hudson, 
N. Y.) 

Albany & Southern Railroad (See Hudson, 
N. Y.) 

Alberta, Canada, Edmonton Radial Ry., Sta- 
tistics, 886 

Allentown, Pa., Lehigh Valley Transit Co., 

Through service, 1249 
Allis-Chalmers Co., Turbine-blade guessing 

contest, 782 

American Association of Public Accountants 
on corporation tax law, 937 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
Lunch at Denver, 789 

American Railway Association: 

Committee on electrical working, 180 

Report on electrical working, 1108 

American Society for Testing Materials, Speci- 
fications for hard-drawn copper wire, 

American Street & Interurban Railway Ac- 
countants' Association (see Account- 
ants' Association) 

American Street & Interurban Railway Associ- 
ation : 

Attendance at convention, 473 

Barbecue, 751 

Committee on education, Meeting, 44 

< Committee on Transportation to Den- 
ver, 79 

Committee work, 200 

Convention a success, 826 

Convention notes, 371, 404, 438, 474, 625 

Convention programs, 263, 474 

Convention sessions, 673, 783 

Conventionalities, 643, 671, 715, 775 

■ Correspondence course in electric railway 

engineering, 5, 692 

Denver as a convention city [Beeler], 17; 

Comment, 1, 62 

Denver points of interest, 118 

Denver reports, Written discussions sug- 
gested, 388 

Education, Report on, 692; Comment, 669 

Entertainment program. 648 

— Executive Committee report, 673 

Exhibits, * 1 1 6, 471, 661, 663, 664, 706, 


Financial status, 674, 681 

Hotel rates for Denver convention, 80 

Member companies and associate mem- 
bers, New, 951 

Membership circulars, 179 

Membership Committee report, 675 

Midwinter meeting, 1211, 1237 

■ President Shaw's address, 678; Comment, 


Secretary and Treasurer's report, 673 

Special trains from New York and Bos- 
ton to Denver, 117, 148, 316, 323, 
439. 472 

Standards published, 234 

Subjects Committee report. 675 

— — Taxes, Circular on, 155 

American Street & Interurban Railway Claim 
Agents' Association (see Claim 
Agents' Association) 

American Street & Interurban Railway En- 
gineering' Association : 

Convention sessions, 683, 718, 784 

Equipment committee meeting, 178 

Equipment, Report on, * 7 5 7 ; Discussion, 

718; Comment, 713; [Lindall] 718; 
[Case] 742; [Ayres] 744; [Ren- 
shaw] 754; [Doyle] 756 

Executive committee meeting, 1 190 

Officers, New, 789 

Power distribution committee meeting, 177 

Power distribution, Report on, 815, 832; 

Comment, 774; [Titus] 801; [Fos- 
ter] 803 

Power generation committee meeting, 149 

Power generation, Report of committee, 

738; Discussion, 722 

President Winsor's address, 688 

Purchasing agents at convention, 646 

Puestion box, 153, 8;6 

Standards, Report on, 805; Discussion, 784 

■ Way committee meeting, 148 

Way matters, Report on, '698; Comment, 

670; Discussion, 683, 734; [Filkins] 


American Street & Interurban Railway Manu- 
facturers' Association: 

Annual meeting, 1237 

Convention circulars, 43, 183, 216 

Convention sessions, 727 

Exhibit committee, 654 

Freight rates to Denver, 216 

American Street & Interurban Railway Trans- 
portation & Traffic Association: 

Advertising literature, Collection of, 641 

Annual report, 649 

Convention sessions, 649, 689, 728, 752, 


- — —Data sheet, 126, 133 

Fxecutive committee meeting, 147 

Express and freight traffic, Report of com- 
mittee on, 749; Discussion, 728; Com- 
ment, 714 

Interurban rules, 245, 259, 279, 690 

(See also Rules for interurban rail- 

Passenger traffic, Report on, 654 

President Allen's address, 653 

Review of Denver meeting [Crawford], 


Rules for city operation, 189, 357, 847 

Training of employees, Report, 777; Dis- 
cussion, 780; [Wells] 796 

Amortization, Ruling in Wisconsin, 367 (see 
also Accounting) 

Anderson, Ind.: 

Advertising the claim department, 215 

Beautifying property, *43o; Comment, 421 

Courtesy circular, 380 

■ Employees, Payment of, 791 

Freight traffic, 728 

Historical, 580 

Indiana Union Traction, Dividend on, 124 

Water backs in furnaces of power sta- 
tion, 1187 

Anderson, S. C, Traction Co., Sale, 123, 919, 
1117, 1246 

Appraisal of car bodies and equipment, 839 
Appraisal of intangible value, 1047 
Appraisal of railway property: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit, 1261 

Cleveland, Testimony of F. R. Ford, 1024; 

of B. J. Arnold, 1068; Finding of 

Judge Tayler, 1273 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R., 377, 398, 


Testimony of B. J. Arnold and G. A. 

Damon, 469, 878 
Testimony of F. R. Ford, 1108, 1149, 

1 1 88, 1263 
Detroit, 1077 

Massachusetts case, Testimony of Ballan- 

tine, 464 

Remarks by H. C. Adams, 219 

Remarks by F. W. Whitridge, 216 

Wisconsin Railroad Commission. 393, 1047 

(See also Accounting, Depreciation) 

Apprentice courses: 

Lewis Institute, Chicago, 1031 

— Technical graduates and apprentice courses, 


(See also Education) 

Architecture and rapid transit, 1091 
Armature bearing, Boring method, 840 
Armature coil winder, commutator and grind- 
er, Combination tool (American), *45 
Armature records, Brooklyn, *28i. 
Armature repair machine, Combination (A. 

G. E. Co.), *6i7 
Armatures, Inspection of [Leonhauser] , 1142 

(See also Commutators) 

Asbestos wire for motor coils, 8;>9 
Asheville, N. C, Mortgage to Old Colony 
Trust Co., 301 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XXXIV 

Association of Railway Electrical Engineers, 
Convention, 917 

Atlanta, Ga., Georgia Railway & Electric Co., 
Bond issue, 301 

Auburn & Syracuse Electric R. R. Co. (See 
Syracuse, N. Y.) 

Auditor of electric railway, his duties and 
relation to the organization [Brock- 
way], 819 

Augusta, Ga., Employees, Welfare meetings, 


Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. Bond sale, 51 
Austria, Electric railway conditions, 10 

Heat-treated, 177, 721, [Doyle] 756, 806 

Report of Committee, 806; Discussion, 

721, 786; [Doyle] 756. 

Specifications for heat-treated, 177 

Specifications, Standard, Report on, 806 

Standardization, Brooklyn, '64 

Standards discussed at Denver, 786, 806 


Babbitt metal, 839 

Baden, Germany, the Wiesental single-phase 
railway, 1177 

Baggage checks, Central Electric Traffic As- 
sociation, 147 

Baltimore : 

Accident bulletins, 54 

Car houses, 331, *427 

-Fiftieth anniversary celebration, "184 

Inspection and maintenance of car equip- 
ment [Leonhauser] , 1139 

Lecture room and recreation facilities, 331 

Merger rumors with Maryland Electric 

Rys., 379 

Oiling motors on a mileage basis, *no5 

Payrolls and timekeeping, 813 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R., Comparison with 

Great Northern Ry., 1059 
Bangor Railway & Electric Co., Dividends, 


Barber Asphalt Co. vs. New York City Ry., 

2 35. 

Bearing friction and power consumption 

[Ayres], 286 

Composition specifications, Brooklyn, 137 

Inspection of [Leonhauser], 1142 

Beaumont, Texas, Traction Co., Receivership, 


Beautifying grounds, Indiana Union Traction 
Co., *43o; Comment, 421 

Beebe syndicate interurban system in Central 
New York: 

Construction features, *456 

— : — Power supply, equipment and traffic fea- 
tures, *868 


Accidents, Car and omnibus, 437 

American exposition in 1910, 604 

Current recording clocks, *402 

Employees : 

Homes for, *323 

Paper of, 735 

Social and co-operative organization, 

Training motormen, 350 

Wages and other conditions, 1101 

Fares, 15 

Rail corrugation, ^365 

Rail welding, Electric, *i226 

— 1 — Return of lost articles, Scheme for, 407 

Signs in cars, 1227 

■ Subways for surface cars proposed, '363 

Birmingham, Ala.: 

Car, Radial axle, single-truck, '841 

Publicity campaign, 112 

Black River Traction Co. (See Watertown, 

N. Y.) 
Blanks and forms: 

Car equipment, Oakland, Cal., 558 

Carhouse record, Boston, 908 

■ Current clock record, 403 

■ Denver City Tramway, 496, 498, 500 

Denver Interurban R. R., 512 

— — Dispatcher's train record, 829 

Employment records, San Francisco, 556 

Fiber brake-shoe records, London, 944 

— ■ — Freight, Toronto, 6 

Freight and traffic, Puget Sound Electric 

Ry-» 542 

— ■ — Interline accounting. Report on, 730 

Manufacture, Brooklyn, 209 

■ — ■ — Mechanical department, Brooklyn, 282 
— ■ — Passenger receipts, Mobile, Ala., 1107 

Shop reports, Portland Railway, 547 

— — Ticket accounting, 400 

Track inspection. Fort Wayne & Wabash 

Valley Traction Co., 972 

Wheel records, Detroit, 405 

Wisconsin valuations, 393 

Block signal systems (See Signals) 
Bloomsburg, Pa., Columbia Power, Light & 


Incorporation, 333 

Purchases of, 301 

Blue Hill Street Ry., Rehabilitation, *i27o 

Feed water from rain water, Shreveport, 

La., 477 
Oil in, 827 

— - — Stoking, discussed at Milwaukee, 71 

Water backs at Anderson, Ind., 11 87 

(See also Power station practice; Power 


Bombay, India: 

Railway statistics, 119 

Street railway system, '974 

Boone, la., Reorganization of railway inter- 
ests, 159 

Boring machine, Elliptical (Covington), *620 
Boston : 

Accident liability to passenger momentari- 
ly leaving cars, 1008 

Accidents, Prevention of, to children, 859 

Cambridge subway stations, "1220, 1221 

Car house record, *9o8 

Charlestown, changes at City Square, 

* 12 1 6 

Dudley Street station, Changes, *i2i7, 


— — Egleston Square station, *i2i6 

Electrical Show, mo, *H37 

— — Elevated Ry. : 

Consolidation with West End Ry., 91, 
1 1 1 7 

Petition to acquire other properties, 


Proposed expansion, 857, 886 
Statistics, 1076 

Stockholders, List of largest, 333, 446 
Employees, Training of, Remarks by C. C. 

Learned, 780 

Extensions, *i2i4 

Forest Hills extension, *i2i6 

Forest Hills substation, 625 

Hyde Park, Cost of generating energy, 


North Station, Changes at, ""1215 

Power plans, 1261 

South Boston service, Hearing on, 484 

Subway, Hearing on proposed, 1036 

Sullivan Square station, Changes, 1218, 


Terminal electrification, Discussion by 

Josiah Quincy, 389 
Traffic control by "Superintendent of the 

Day," 2 

Transfers, Remarks by C. C. Learned, 779 

Transportation matters, Hearing on, 1076 

Tunnel facilities, Advertising, 890 

Washington Street tunnel, Plan of, *i2is 

Boston & Eastern Electric R. R., Hearings, 
948, _ 994 

Boston, Lexington & Boston Ry., Lexington 

£ark, "875 
owell & Lawrence R. R., Hearings, 
915, 949, 997, 1077 
Boston, Massachusetts Electric Companies: 

Annual report, 1203 

Dividends, 1165 

Boston & Northern and Old Colony Street 

— — Advertising special car service, *ii4 

Bond issue, 1203 

Fare reduction refused, 922 

Increase of stock, 269 

Methuen fares, Hearing, 54, 160 

Salem Willows fare case, 236 

Stock issue by Old Colony, 270 

Boston Pubic Service Investment Co., Divi- 
dend, 1 59 

Boston, Suburban Electric Companies: 

Reduction of capital, 857 

Tenders for stock, 919 

Boston Transit Commission, Annual Report, 
1 1 6 1 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry. Stock increase, 

1117, 1203 
Bow collectors: 

Hamburg-Blankenese-Ohlsdorf Ry., *goo 

Scheveningen single-phase railway, *6oi 

— i — (See also Pantograph; Trolley poles) 
Bozeman, Mont., Gallatin Valley Ry., Con- 
solidation, 124 
Brake-beam stop, Brooklyn, *6y 
Brake hanger. Self-adjusting, noiseless (Brill), 

Brake rigging: 

Iron for, Specifications, 805 

Requirements of [Leonhauser], 1143 

Standardization, Brooklyn, *6s 

— — Wear of, 840 
Brake shoes: 

Best for steel wheels, 840 

Costs per 1000 ton-miles, Brooklyn, 66 

Fiber, on London underground railways, 


Mileage records, 840 

Report, Engineering Association, 757 

Requirements of [Leonhauser], 1143 

Standardization, Brooklyn, 67 

Standards discussed at Denver, 784 

Brakes, Air: 

Equalizing and cleaning system, Spencer, 


Milwaukee, Compulsory on new cars, 4x6 

Quick service emergency straight air (G. 

E.), *992 

(See also Air Compressors) 

Braking, Pittsburgh recommendations, 213 
Bridge construction, Scheveningen railway, 

Holland, *594 

Bridges : 

Beebe syndicate, New York State, *458 

Delaware River, New Jersey & Pennsyl- 
vania Traction Co., *I048 

Ohio Electric Ry., * 1 76 

Waterbury extensions of Connecticut Co., 


British Columbia Electric Railway (See Van- 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Brooklyn, Coney Island & Erooklyn R. R. : 

Annual, report, 953 

Appraisal of property, 377, 398, 437; 

Testimony of Arnold and Damon, 469, 

878; Testimony of F. R. Ford, 1108, 

1 149, 1188, 1263 
Bond issue, Decision of Public Service 

Commission concerning, 1202 

Fare decision, 63, 74, 125, 302 

Hudson-Fulton traffic, 922 

Income account, Analysis of, 1108, 1149 

■ Passenger earnings, Analysis of, 1109 

Power improvements, *24» 

Track and line improvements, *ii76 

Brooklyn, Nassau Electric R. R. bond issue, 


Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Accounts, Classification of, 283 

Annual report of Rapid Transit Co., 344, 


Appraisal of property, 1261 

Gear ratios, Increase in, 278 

Mail contract, 88 

Oil handling, *no2; Comment, 1090 

Pension system, 1272; Comment, 1255 

Standardization of rolling stock: 

Manufacture of supplies, 209 

Organization and practice of mechan- 
ical department, *28o 

Pamphlet issued, 942 

Specifications for castings, forgings, 
etc., "136 

Truck and car alterations, '64 
Brunswick, Ga. : 

Car, One-man pay-as-you-enter, *ii94 

Dock & City Improvement Co., 378 

Brush, Matthew C, Farewell dinner to, 631 
Brush holders, Inspection of [Leonhauser], 

1 140 
Brush tension: 

Discussion by Engineering Association, 

7' 8 , . 

Practice of principal railways in U. S. 

[Squier], 428 

(See also Carbon brushes) 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

International Traction Co., Retirement of 

bonds, 1280 

Near-crossing stops, 447 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 127 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., Mileage 

tickets, 127 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., Receiver- 
ship, 269 

Buffer reinforcing casting, Brooklyn, *68 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 399 

Appraisal by Wisconsin Commission, 393 

Burlington County Railway (See Mt. Holly, 
N. J.) 

Cable railways, Reconstruction, San Fran- 
cisco, 555 

Cables for cars, Inspection of [Leonhauser], 

1 140 

Calgary, Alta., Pay-as-you-enter cars, *622 
California, Reports of earnings not compul- 
sory, 1244 

Camden, N. J., West Jersey & Sea Shore R. 

R., Dividend, 446 
Camden & Trenton Ry. : 

Foreclosure and sale, 919, 1038 

Reorganization, 90 

Canada, Electrification plans,_ 268 

Canton-Massillon Ry., Historical, 574 

Cape Electric Tramways of Capetown (See 

South Africa) 
Capitalization, cars and mileage of electric 

railways in U. S., 356 
(See also Appraisal) 

Capitol Traction Co. (See Washington, D. C.) 
Car cleaning (See Cleaning cars) 
Car construction : 

Chicago Rys., Reconstruction and stand- 
ardization, *I092 

Oakland Traction Co., *s6o 

Seattle, Wash., "658 

Standards, Brooklyn, *68 

Steel cars of Chicago Rys., *3i2, "315 

Steel cars, Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 


Car design: 

Brill, J. G., prize awards, 812 

Denver side-door car, "504 

Discussion by Engineering Association, 719 

— ■ — Distance of truck centers, 838 

Increasing size of cars, 201 

New York subway, * 1 1 79 

Paris subway, *H79 

Question box of Engineering Association, 


Steel cars of Hudson & Manhattan R. R., 


Weights (See Car weights) 

Car equipment, Repair shop and car house 
tests, Discussion by New York Street 
Railway Association, 1230 

Car fittings, Economy in, 168 

Car-hours, Practice in computing, 811, 1235 

Car house fire, New York, *404 

Car house record, Boston Elevated Ry., *9o8 

Car houses: 

Baltimore, 331, *427 

Blue Hill Street Ry., *i27i 

Concrete cantilever design, Seattle, *54o 

Denver & Interurban R. R., *5io 

Harrisburg, Pa., Reinforced concrete, 


July — December, 1909.] 



Car houses (Continued) : 
Los Angeles Ry., *570 

Question box of Engineering Association, 

837 . „ 

Seattle Electric Co., 537 

■ Spokane, Wash., 526 

Trolley wire connection for rolling doors, 


Utah Light & Railway, 519 

Car inspection (See Inspection) 

Car life, 839 

Car mileage meter, 839 

Car-miles, Practice in computing, 811 

Car-miles and car-hours, Uniform practice in 

the treatment of [Rogers, Forse, Jr., 

Vordermark], 1235 
Car skid wrecking device [Bradshaw], *327 
Car steps: 

Height of, Toronto, 145, * 1 83 

Standard, Brooklyn, *68 

Car washing (See Washing cars) 
Car weights, 838 

Effect on operating cost [Ayres], 744; 

Comment, 714 

Effect on power consumption [Ayres], *286 

Prepayment, and other cars, New York, 


Car wiring of steel cars, 310, *3i2 
Tests discussed by New York State 'As- 
sociation, 1230 
Cars, Closed: 

Beebe syndicate lines, '869 

Birmingham, Ala., '841 

-Denver & Interurban R. R., *5ii 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co., 


North-Eastern Ry., England, ""290 

Scheveningen single-phase railway, *599 

Spokane, Washington Water Power Co., 


Cars, Combination, Los Angeles Pacific Co., 

Cars, Freight: 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co., 


Ohio Electric Ry., *903 

Sea View R. R., '830 

Spokane & Inland Empire, 527 

Toledo & Western R. R., ^424 

Toronto, *6, *y 

Cars, Funeral: 

Denver, Rates, 507 

— — Los Angeles, Cal., *iio 
Cars, Observation: 

Santa Cruz, Cal., *iosi 

Vancouver, B. C, *52g 

Cars, Old, Retiring from service, 11 74 
Cars, Open: 

Advantages of [Cooper], C222 

Popularity of, 62 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter: 
Buffalo, N. Y., 127 

Chicago Rys., Reconstructed cars, "1092 

— — Chicago Rys., Steel, *3i2 
Detroit, 955 

■ Edmonton and Calgary, Alta., *622 

One-man car, Brunswick, Ga., *ii94 

Third Avenue, New York, *\$2 

Washington, D. C, 440 

Cars, Pay-on-platform, Milwaukee, Wis., *2&$ 
Cars, Pay-within, Washington, D. C, 237, 

Cars, Prepayment, Louisville, Ky. [Funk], 
C9 1 1 

Cars, Prison, Berlin, 753 

Cars, Rack railway, *407 

Cars, Sand, Cincinnati, *I223 

Cars, Semi-convertible, Blue Hill Street Ry., 


Cars, Side aisle, Hamburg, '898 
Cars, Side-door, Denver, 501 
Cars, Special, Interest in, 245 
Cars, Steel: 

Chicago Rys., "312; Comment, 310 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., "604 

Seattle, Wash., '658 

Cars, Trackless trolley, in Europe, *28s, *37° 
Cars, Trail, in Denver, 503, 506 
Carbon brushes: 
History, 609 

■ Inspection of [Leonhauser] , 1141 

— ■ — Progress, 896 

Report on, Engineering Association, 762; 

Discussion, 720 
(Speer) 119 

Carlisle & Mount Holly Ry., Sale, 158 
Cascade tunnel (See Great Northern Ry.) 
Castings, Steel, specifications, Brooklyn, 136, 

Catenary construction: 

Beebe lines, Central New York, *46o 

Huntington R. R., "1013 

Lyons, France, *35i 

Report, Engineering Association, 817 

Scheveningen single-phase railway, '598 

Cattle pass, Concrete, '458 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway & Light 


— - — Stock retired, 1280 
■ Two-cent fare, 1249 

Center plates. Ball-bearing or rolling. 839 
Centerville (la.) Light & Traction Co., Offi- 
cers, 446 

Central California Traction Co. (See Stock- 
ton, Cal.) 

Central Electric Accounting Conference: 

Affiliation with Central Electric Railway 

Association, 2 

Dayton meeting, 1234 

Indianapolis meeting, 436 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Detroit meeting, 360 

Indianapolis meeting, 1096 

List of members, 92 

Operating rules revision, Indiana, 192 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Interline tickets and joint baggage checks, 


Joint passenger tariff, 880, 906 

List of members, 92 

■ -Passenger and baggage tariffs, 124 

Central London Ry., Experience with loco- 
motives [Parshall], C369 
Central rating bureau (See Fire insurance) 

Champaign, 111., Illinois Traction System: 

Cars, 1072 

Freight service, 1248 

Increase in capital stock, 378 

Chattanooga Railway & Light Co.: 

Dividend, 857 

Incorporation, 236 

Chicago : 

Cars to stop on near side, 1040 

Earnings, Effect of rehabilitation on, 857 

Electrification of terminals: 

Illinois Central electrification, 608, 
917; Adverse report by President 
J. T. Harahan, 940; Comment, 

Opposed by railroads, 1245 

Public hearings, 11 14 

Slason Thompson's view, 1212 

Fare recorders (Dayton), 1156 

Gasoline-electric car, 289 

Lewis Institute, Apprenticeship course, 

1 03 1 

Power consumption, 1022 

Report of Board of Supervising Engineers, 

Chicago Traction, 1021 
Smoking cars on Elevated discontinued, 


Subways proposed, 412, 443 

Track construction. Permanent, Report of 

Board of Engineers, 1213 

Track spacing and car widths, 42, 79 

Traction affairs, 1277 

Transfers, Counterfeit, 336 

Ventilation of cars, Cooke vacuum system, 


■ Wage demands, 236, 270, 300, 335, 374> 

411, 442, 479 
Warning signs, 161 

Chicago, Aurora & DeKalb Railroad (See De 

Kalb, 111.) 
Chicago City Ry.: 

Employees, Payment of, 791 

V oting trust, 1280 

Chicago Consolidated Traction Co.: 

Purchase proposed, 123 

Receivership, 90 

Reorganization, 857, 919, 1038 

United Railway Co., incorporated, 1246 

Chicago, Illinois Tunnel Co., Receivership, 1203 
Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway 

(See South Bend, Ind.) 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R. : 

Cars, Prepayment, '265 

Menu cards on dining cars, 860 

■ Receivership, 51, 123 

Chicago, Northwestern Elevated R. R.: 

Annual report, 1000, 1037 

Dividend, 236 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., Smoking 
cars discontinued, 1039 

Chicago Rys.: 

Annual report, 157 

Car reconstruction and standardization, 


Cars, Steel, "312; Comment, 310 

Contract for electrical energy, 266 

Earnings, 158, 1164 

Rehabilitation progress, 942 

Report on accounts, 354, 1023 

Transfer crusade [Sullivan], 807 

Chico, Cal., Northern Electric Ry. System, 

Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Employees, Training of, Remarks by Dana 

Stevens, 781 
Inspection of rolling stock, Rules for, 


Cincinnati, Ohio, Electric Ry.: 

Beneficial Association, 208 

Earnings, 1204 

Extensions, 873 

Freight service, *go2 

Investigation by Railroad Commission, 1082 

Sand drying plant, *I223 

Toledo entrance and terminal, * 1 75 

Vestibules on cars, 1082 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Co., Sale to 
Southwestern Ohio Traction Co., 123 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Valley Traction Co., Divi- 
dend, 1000 

Circuit breakers, Inspection of [Leonhauser], 
1 139 

City planning and congestion, 277 

Claim Agents' Association: 

Convention sessions, 657, 677, 752 

Review of Denver meeting [Carpenter], 


— -—Subjects committee, 1162 
Cleaning cars, 838 

Clearances on straight and curved track, Los 
Angeles Pacific Ry., 933 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Cleveland, Ohio: 

Appraisal of railway property, Testimony 

of F. R. Ford, 1024; of B. J. Ar- 
nold, 1068; Finding of Judge Tayler, 

Articles that may be carried on cars, 859 

Improved service, 200 

Johnson defeated, 994, 1007 

— — Operation of system at 3-cent fare, Sta- 
tistics, 187 

— Power consumption of cars, Tests of, 1020 

Rail and joint with thermit steel shoe, 


Schmidt franchise campaign, 168, 180, 187, 

200, 220 

Situation, 47, 87, 120, 154, 187, 298, 331, 

374, 410, 441, 479, 630, 854, 883, 916, 
950, 1113, 1159, 1199, 1244 

Tayler plan, Restriction of, 246 

Traffic circulars, 238 

Cleveland & Berea Ry., Historical, 573 
Cleveland & Chagrin Falls R. R. Sale, 886 
Cleveland, Eastern Ohio Traction Co. Sale, 

1203, 1246 
Cleveland Electric Ry., Bond sale, 90 
Cleveland, Lake Shore Electric Ry., Bond sale, 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry., 

Campaign concerning accidents among 

school children, 1146 
Clinton (la.), Iowa & Illinois Ry., Employees, 

Training of, Remarks by P. P. Crafts, 


Coal : 

Purchase of, on B.t.u. basis [Gunn], 71, 

Specifications, for anthracite, Third Ave- 
nue R. R., 172 

Specifications, Heat value, 169, 173 

Coal and ash handling, Brooklyn & Coney 
Island R. R. power plant, '251, '253, 

Coasting registers on Manhattan Elevated, 
New York, 938; Comment, 928; 
[Smith] C1029 

(See also Current clocks) 

Coin counting and packaging machine (Couch 
& Seeley), *6i8 

Coin separating and registering fare box (C. 
C. M. Co.), *62 3 

Coinage and street railway fares, Relation be- 
tween, 200 

Color scheme for new types of cars, 421 

Colorado Electric Light, Power & Railway As- 
sociation : 

Convention, 697, 793 

Officers, 997 

Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District Ry., 


Colorado Springs & Interurban Ry., ^514 
Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. : 

Bondholders' committee, 1080, 1246 

Receivership, 270, 301, 857 

Statement of stockholders' committee, 482 

■ Trust agreement, 414 

Columbus, Magnetic Springs & Northern Rail- 
way (See Delaware, Ohio) 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Railway (See 
Delaware, Ohio) 

Columbus, New Albany & Johnstown Traction 
Co., Control, 999 

Columbus Railway & Light Co. : 

Dividend, 446 

Store rooms, 397 

Commutator grooving machine (G. E.), "83 
Commutators : 

— — Discussion by New York State Association, 

Inspection of, 1141 

Minimum diameter, 839 

Report, Engineering Association, '758 

Slotting, Discussion by New York State 

Association, 719 

Slotting [Leonhauser], 1143 

Concrete breaker, Detroit, *g8i 
Concrete mixer, Memphis, Tenn., '392 
Concrete mixing and handling, Detroit, *977 
Concrete mixing car, Denver, 504 
Condensers : 

Leblanc, Sea View R. R., '831 

Use of, 100 

Conductor, Hints from a, 463, 626 

Conduit, Electric, Construction and cleaning, 

London, 10 
— — (See also Underground Conduit) 
Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad (See Brook- 

Conneaut & Erie Traction Co. (See Erie. Pa.) 

Legislation, 122, 156, 189, 268 

Public utility legislation failed, 415 

Seats for motormen, 416 

Connecticut Co. (See New Haven, Conn.) 
Connector, Mechanical, Aluminum to copper, 
*8 5 3 

Construction work, Payrolls of, 813 
Controllers : 

Developments in motor control [Ren- 

shaw], *754 

Hamburg-Blankenese-Ohlsdorf line, 901 

Inspection of [Leonhauser], 1140 

— - — Report, Engineering Association, *759; 

[Renshaw] *754 
C. O. Recorders (See Flue gas analyzers) 
Copenhagen, Denmark, Statistics for 1908, 158 
Copper quotations, Changing method of bas- 
ing, 191 
Corporation tax (See Taxes) 
Correspondence course in electric railway en- 
gineering recommended by Committee 
on Education, 5 



Couplers : 

Janney radial, Improved (McConway & 

Torley), *6i5 
A., 1096 

Radial draft attachment (Van Dorn), 

Standardization, Discussion by C. E. R. 

Coupling pins and links, Oil-treated drop- 
forged steel, Specifications, "138 

Courtesy bulletins [Simms], C405 

Cradles for high-tension wires discussed at 
Denver, 788 


Combined locomotive crane and steam 

shovel [Vulcan], *6i8 
Locomotive, Use of, in concrete mixing, 


Wrecking, San Francisco, 555 

Crossings, Stops at, Washington order, 336 

(See also Near crossing stops) 

Crowding must be denned, District of Colum- 
bia, 920 

Culverts, Reinforced concrete, *74, *457, *459 
Cumberland & Westernport Ry., improve- 
ments, 1081 

Current clocks: 
— — Berlin, '402 
— — Use of, 928 

(See also Coasting registers) 

Curtain fixture (Planet), * 1 86 
Curtains in car vestibules, Reports at New 
York Street Railway Association, 39 
Curtains, Standardizing in Brooklyn, 69 
Cutter head, Safety (Fay & Egan), "1154 


Dallas Interurban Electric Ry., Receivership, 

Dallas Electric Corporation, Sale of stock, 158 
Damage to street cars, Fines in Europe, 604 
Dayton, Ohio, Freight station, 859 
Dayton & Xenia Transit Co., Reorganization, 


Decorated cars: 

Boston, *ii37 

Grand Rapids, *iso 

Holland, *947 

San Francisco, * 1 1 5 1 

Decoration of grounds (See Beautifying 


DeKalb, 111., Chicago, Aurora & DeKalb R. R., 

Bond issue, 414 
Delaware, Ohio: 

Columbus, Magnetic Springs & Northern 

Ry., Officers, 857. 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus R. R., Re- 

"ceivership, 446, 1280 
Denmark, Proposed interurban electric line, 


Denver : 

— — Auditorium, *4g8, 660 

Bond issue, 1280 

Employees, Payment of, 791 

Horse car, Last, *795 

Statistics, 491 

Tramway Mutual Aid Association, 507 

Tramway system, *493 

Denver & Inter-Mountain R. R., *si3 

Denver & Interurban R. R., '509 

Denver & South Platte Ry., 794 

Denver convention. (See American Street 

and Interurban Railway Association) 
Denver Country Club reception, 808 
Depreciation. (See Accounting) 
Des Moines, la., franchise, Proposed, 187 
Des Moines City Ry. : 

Negotiations for sale, Rumor, 191 

— Reported purchase, 999 

Des Moines Electric Co., Negotiations for sale 
of, 159 ■ 

Des Moines Railway & Light Co., Incorpora- 
tion, 301 


Appraisal of property, 1077 

Car wheel records, 405 

Gear and pinion grease, 902, 1051 

Investigating results, 1276 

Operating permit. Temporary, 996 

Pay-as- You-Enter cars, 955 

— — Representatives at Central Electric Rail- 
way Association, it 13 

Roadbed and track repairs, *977 

Sprinkling tracks. Cost, 42 

— — United Rys., Bond issue, 919 

Valuing franchises, 443 

— — Wage increase, 884 
Disinfectants, 838 
Dispatching systems: 
— ■ — Denver, 506 

Discussion by Transportation & Traffic 

Association, 689 
Tacoma, Wash., 541 

Telephone, Use of, Syracuse, N. Y. 

[Wharff], *909 

Distribution system, Calculation of, 837 

District of Columbia, Crowding must be de- 
fined, 920 

(See also Washington, D. C.) 

Dogs, Transportation prohibited, Syracuse, N. 
Y., 3.15 

Dover, Del., General Electric Ry. sale, 301 
Drain, Corrugated metal [Canton], *iiio 
Drain tile, Concrete, '458 
Dredge, Gravel, Detroit, '977 
Duluth-Superior Traction Co., Dividend, 446 



East Liverpool Traction & Light Co., Annual 

report, 1080 
East St. Louis, Tests with friction drive, 372 
Eau Claire, Wis., "Blue law" against Sunday 

operation, 416 
Edmonton, Alta., Pay-as-You-Enter cais, *622 
Education : 

Apprentice courses and technical grad- 
uates, 202 

Apprentice courses at Lewis Institute, Chi- 
cago, 103 1 

Report on education, American Associa- 
tion, 692; Comment, 669 

Work of committee. Correspondence 

course recommended, 5 

Electric railway apparatus, Developments in 
[Eveleth], 24; [Davis] 25 

Electric Railway Journal: 

Convention issue, 592 

Semi-annual index, 1256 

Twenty-fifth anniversary, 591 

Electric railways, Central power-station power 
for, 827 

Electrolysis case in Peoria, 43 

Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Co., Bond is- 
sue, 633 

Emergent y repair wagon and car, Denver, 


Employees : 

Accidents, Instructions concerning, Syra- 
cuse, 319 

Apprentice courses and technical grad- 
uates, 202 

Benefit associations: 

Beebe syndicate lines, 872 
Berlin, 991 

Denver Mutual Aid Association, 507 

Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Trac- 
tion Co., 161, 1205 

Ohio Electric Ry., 208 

Bonuses, Washington, D. C, 127 

Circulars to, St. Louis, 1206 

Club rooms, Baltimore car house, '428 

Committees on grievances and suggestions, 

1 173 

Conduct, Rules of, Springfield, 111., 160 

Co-operative building association, Berlin, 

Germany, *323 

Courtesy bulletin, Anderson, Ind., 380 

Courtesy bulletin, Hartford, Conn., 194 

Discipline. Demerit system, Oregon Elec- 
tric Ry., 552 

Discipline, Merit system, Little Rock, Ark., 


Don'ts for trainmen, Syracuse, N. Y., 320 

Dress of trainmen for summer, New Ha- 
ven, 272 

Dwellings, Berlin, Germany, *323 

Employment methods, Hudson & Manhat- 
tan R. R., 1 185; Comment, 1175 

Employment methods, San Francisco, 555 

— Enforcing permanent instructions, 62 

Fire drills at car houses, 203 

Hints from a conductor, 463, 626 

Lecture and recreation rooms, Baltimore, 


Monthly bulletin of information, London 

underground railways, 11 10 

Motormen's records. (See Coasting rec- 
ords: Current clocks; Wattmeters) 

Paper published, Berlin, 735 

Payment of, Discussion at Denver, 790, 


Payrolls and timekeeping [Stubbs], 813 

Pension department, Denver, 508 

Pension system, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co., 1272; Comment, 1255 
Physical test records, Oregon Electric 

Ry-. 551 

Qualifications of [Gonzenbach], 695 

Repairmen, Apprentice course suggested 

by W. H. Evans, 896 

Rewards of money. Memphis, 93 

Rewards, Philadelphia, 161 

— ■ — Rules. (See Rules) 

Schooling of trainmen [Bolen], 27; Dis- 
cussion, 37 

Service card records, Oakland, Cab, 851 

Superintendent of the Day, 2 

Surety bonds, Boston, 790 

Tests, Surprise, 454 

Time clock (Dey), 814 

Training men for executive positions, 867 

Training motormen in Berlin, 350 

Training motormen, Hudson & Manhattan 

R. R., 1 175. "85 
Training transportation employees. Re- 
port, 777; Discussion, 780; [Wells], 


Berlin, 1101 

Chicago, 236, 270, 300, 335, 374, 411, 
442, 479 

Detroit, 884 

Kansas City, 335 

Milwaukee, 380 

Welfare meetings, Augusta, Ga., 1083 

Employer's liability in New York State, 865 
Engineering department, Clerical work in, 246 

Cars, Motor, for North Eastern Ry., *2go 

— — Supervision of street railways, 100 

Erie, Cambridge, Union & Corry Ry., Sale, 


Erie, Pa., Reorganization of Conneaut & Erie 

Traction Co., 90 
Erie R. R., Fresh air cars, 1045 

[Vol. XXXIV 

Evansvill?, Ind.: 

Combined limited trolley and boat service, 


Injunction against boycott, 52 

Interchange order, 93, 161 

Wailing stations of concrete block, *iso 

Everett Railway, Light & Water Co., Mon- 
tage, 919 


Fare boxes: 

Brunswick, Ga., *ii94 

[Langslow], "329 

— — Registering (Johnson), *623 

(Werden), *82 

Fare collection: 

■ Hat check (A. B. N. Co.), *gn 

One fare at a time, 61 

1 Thompson], 12 6 

— — Transfer and ticket box in Little Rock, 


Fare register patents, Ehrlich, 115 
Fare registers: 

■ (Dayton), 1156 

(Johnson) fare box, *623 

(Langslow) register and money changer, 



Coinage and street railway fares, Relation 

between, 200 
Coney Island & Brooklyn (See Brooklyn, 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R.) 
Development of long-distance business 

[Norviel], 361 
Increase, Hartford & Springfield Ry., 927, 


Increase, in Massachusetts. (See Massa- 

Increase, Oneida Ry., Proposed, 1248 

Increase, in Tacoma, 1000 

Joint passenger tariff of Central Electric 

Traffic Association, 880, 906 
Liabilities on which proper returns should 

be allowed, Middlesex & Boston Ry., 


(See also Appraisal) 

New Bedford, Mass., case, 858 

New York City to New England cities, 


New York and Paris compared, 11 80 

Philadelphia & West Chester Ry., In- 
crease, Reasons for, 888; Comment, 

■ — ■ — School rates, Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission rules against, 194 

Seats, No legal obligation to provide, 201 

Summer resort rates, 421 

Two-cent fare law in Iowa, 1249 

Uniform fares abandoned in London and 

Waverly, 'N. 4 Y., Ruling, 843 

— ■ — What constitutes a legal tender for a fare 

[Lake], 256 
Zone systems: 

Berlin, 15 

London to Croydon, 396 

Restricting limits of 5-cent fare zone 
[Wilson], 1 1 06 
Farmington, Mo., St. Francois County Ry., 

Receivership, 1081 
Fayetteville, N. C. : 

Bond issue, 919 

Receivership, 90 

Feeder conduits. (See Underground conduits) 

Feeders : 

Cable testing methods, 838 

Calculation of system, 837 

Connection of, 837 

Data, in Chicago, 1022 

High-tension, Report Engineering Associ- 
ation, 815 

Low-tension, Report Engineering Associ- 
ation, 815 

Rubber-covered wire, 806 

(See also Underground conduits) 


■ -San Francisco, Discussion, 380; Ordinance, 


Seattle, Wash., 193 

Fenders and wheel guards: 

New York, Hearing, 1193 

— — -Washington, D. C, Hearings, 1205 

(See also Wheel guards) 

Festival cars. (See Decorated cars) 

"Figure of merit," a new unit suggested by 

J. H. Rider, 1090 
Filing cabinets, Brooklyn, *28o 
Financial: . 

Adirondack roads, Cost of electrification, 


Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 344, 376 

Chicago Rys., 354 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. (See 

Brooklyn, Coney Island & Brooklyn 
R. R.) 

Costs of overhead construction, 818 

Cost of track with steel and wooden ties 

in Utica, 836 

Costs of gasoline car, single-phase and 

steam locomotives compared [Harring- 
ton], 1260 

Hired power, Chicago Rys., 266 

Operating cost as affected by car weights 

[Ayres], 744; Comment, 714 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, 1909.] 



Financial : (Continued) 

Operating expenses of Connecticut Co. and 

Rhode Island Co. compared, 962, 999 

Operating expenses of Massachusetts rail- 
ways. 872 

Reasonable return on the investment 

[Kemmann], 13; Comment, 3 

Subway statistics, New York and Paris, 


Findlay, Ohio, Toledo, Bowling Green & 
Southern Traction Co.: 

Increase of capital stock, 302 

Reorganization, 91 

Drills at large car houses, 203 

Fire insurance, Central rating bureau: 

Attitude of A. S. & I. R. A. [Ford], C406 

■ — —Boston, Plan defeated, 331 
Bureau organized, 1072 

Report of A. S. & I. R. A. committee, 

1 144 

Report from H. N. Staats, 1145 • 

Fire precautions for Fourth of July, 1 
Fire protection : 

Repair shop, Mobile, Ala., 81 

Repair shops of . Oneida Ry., 968 


Car house, New York, *404 

San Francisco, * 1 1 5 1 

Floats. (See Decorated cars) 
Flue gas analyzers, Report on, 738; Discus- 
sion, 722 

Forest fires, Prevention in Massachusetts, 337 

Forest fires in New York, 219 

Forgings for truck axles and armature shafts, 

Specifications for steel, 137 
Fort Smith, Ark., Advertising, * 1 j 5 
Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co.: 
Employees' benefit association, Report, 

161, 1205 
— - — Track inspection, Annual, *97i 
Fort Worth, Tex., Northern Texas Traction 

Co. Dividend, 302 
Framingham, Mass.: 

Consolidation of railway interests, 920 

Middlesex & Boston Ry., Liabilities on 

which proper returns should be al- 
lowed, 464 
Franchise appraisal (See Appraisal) 
Frederick (Md.) Ry., incorporated, 1246 
Freight and express: 

Central California Traction Co., 563 

Data sheet of A. S. & I. R. T. & T. A., 

126; Comment, 133 

Denver & Inter-Mountain R. R., 514 

Development of long-distance business 

[Norviel], 61; Discussion, 361 
Development of, on interurban railroads 

[CrallJ, 326; Comment, 309 
Discussion at Detroit meeting of C. E. 

R. A., 360 

Illinois Traction System, 1248 

Interchange with steam roads, Toledo, 425 

Interurban lines [Vaughan], 732 

Los Angeles & Rendondo Ry., *39o 

Los Aigeles Pacific Co., 930 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co., 


Ohio Electric Ry., '902 

Pacific Electric Ry., *s&9 

Pittsburgh Ry., 890 

Portland Railway, 548 

Puget Sound Electric Ry., Statistics, 544 

Report, Traffic Association, 749; Discus- 
sion, 728; Comment, 714 

Sea View R. R., 829 

Seattle Electric Co., 536 

Spokane & Inland Empire R. R., Revenue, 


Through routes and joint rates with steam 

ines, California, 342, 379 

Toledo & Western R. R., * 4 24 

Toronto & York Radial Ry., Metropolitan 

Division, *6 
Utica, N. Y., *3 4 6 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec- 
tric Ry., 336, 416 

Waterbury, Conn., express service, 170 

Freight stations: 

Los Angeles Pacific Co., *93i 

Los Aneeles, Pacific Electric Ry., *s6g 

Portland Ry., '548 

Toledo, Ohio, *go2 

Toronto, *7 

: 'l"oledo & Western R. R., '425 

Freight wagon service, Toronto, *7 
Fresh air cars on Erie R. R., 1045 
Friction drive on electric locomotive, Tests, 

East St. Louis, 372 
Front platform, Passengers on, 199 
Fuel (See Coal; Oil) • 

Fuel consumption of locomotives TGoss], 1106 
Furnace for recovering scrap metal, 816 


Gainesville Railway & Power Co., Organiza- 
tion, 301 

Gas engine as an auxiliary, 1046 

Gas engine, Double-acting, four-cycle (Cooper), 

Gasoline cars: 

Comparison of cost, with single-phase and 

steam locomotive [Harrington], 1260 

New York, 468; Correction, 608 

Pennsylvania R. R., *gii 

Virginia Ry., 608 

Gasoline-electric cars: 

Chicago, 289 

Southern Ry., 985 

Third Avenue R. R., New York, '988 

Gate, Duplex check, for counting passengers 

(Jones), *478 
Gear case, Sheet-steel (Lyon), 83 
Gear ratios: 

Increase in, Brooklyn, 278 

Standard, Report of committee, 805 


Cast-steel, Specifications, 137 

■ Lubrication, Detroit, 902, 105 1 

Report of committee, 805 

General Managers' Association meeting at 

Fort Wayne, Ind., 88 
Geneva, Waterloo, Seneca Falls & Cayuga 

Lake Traction Co. (See Seneca Falls, 

N. Y.) 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co. (See Atlanta, 


Parked street railways, '943 

Rail standards, 11 26 

Statistics, 11 53 

Gettysburg Transit Co., Sale, 482 
Glasgow Corporation Tramways, Annual re- 
port, 1 1 64 

Glens Falls, N. Y., Hudson Valley Ry., Pur- 
chase of securities by Delaware & 
Hudson Co., 1279 

Grade crossings, Separation of steam and elec- 
tric, Indiana, 634 

Authorized in Wisconsin, 1283 

Grades, Steep, Montreux-Bernois Ry., *ioi7 

Grand Junction & Grand River Valley Ry., 
Mortgage, 886, 953 

Grand Rapids, Mich.: 

Consolidation rumors, 333 

Prize float, *i5o 

Great Britain: 

Coin, Proposed new, 200 

Depreciation rules, 476 

North Eastern Ry., Car, '290 

Rail standards, 1126 

Statistics of street railway operation. Ad- 
dress by A. L. C. Fell, 905 
Great Northern Ry. : 

Contractors for electrical equipment, 1061 

Electric system at Cascade tunnel, 122; 

[Hutchinson], *i052; Comment, 

1045, 1173; Discussion, 1058 
Greenfield, Mass., Connecticut Valley Ry., 

Bond issue, 886 
Gulfport & Mississippi Traction Co., Storm 

damages, 860 
Gyroscope in transportation, 1089 


Halifax Tramway Co., Dividend, 1038 
Hamburg-Blankenese-Ohlsdorf single-phase rail- 
way, *899 

Hamburg, Germany, Combined underground 

and elevated railway, 936 
Hamilton, Ont., Damage suits against Ontario 

Railway & Municipal Board, 298 
Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Car house of reinforced concrete, "990 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co., An- 
nual meeting of, 235 

Hartford, Conn.: 

-Courtesy requirements, 194 

Hartford-Farmington Street Ry.: 

— — Change in management, 378 

Proposed sale, 1165, 1280 

Hartford & Springfield Street Ry. : 

Fare increase, 927, 954 

Map and folder issued by, *364 

Hartwick, N. Y., Otsego & Herkimer R. R., 
Organization, 1081 

Hat check (A. B. N. Co.), *9ii 

Heavy electric traction systems [Eichberg], 
C223; [Parshall], C369 

Heaters, Electric, Standardizing, in Brooklyn, 

Heaters, Hot-water, Grand Rapids, for Pay-as- 

You-Enter cars, '1029 
Heaters, Stove, Forced draft (Smith), *852 
Heating cars: 

Economies possible, 422 

New York City, Hearings, 955, 1018, 1082, 

1125, 1165, 1190, I24g 

Power consumption, 1018, 1228 

Heine Safety Boiler Co.'s works, I23g 
Herrick & Stebbins, 1029 

High-tension, direct-current, car equipment 
[Case], 742 

High-tension, direct-current railways: 

Installations in the United States, 6ig 

Shore Line, New Haven, 1133 

Stockton, Cal., '562 

Success of [Eveleth], 24 

1200-volt system, Success of [Eveleth], 24 

High-tension feeders, Report Engineering As- 
sociation, 815 

High-tension lines, Protection for low-tension 
lines, 788 

Hired power. (See Power, Hired) 

Historical : 

Baltimore, 184 

■ Interurban roads, *57i, 5g3 

1884 and igog compared, sgi 

igo4 to igog, 583 

Hoboken, N. L, Terminal or Public Service 
Ry. [Schreiber], *204 


— —Car. *6oi 

40-ton triplex chain hoist (Yale & Towne), 


Holland. Decorated cars, *947 
Holland, Mich., Grand Rapids, Holland & Chi- 
cago Ry., Receiver asked for, 378 
Hornellsville (N. Y.) Traction Co., Officers, 886 
Hot Springs, Ark., Rail joint (Hardin), *2ig 
Houghton County Traction Co., Dividend, 446 
Hudson, N. Y.: 

Albany & Hudson R. R., Reorganization, 

191. 333> 414. 446, 482, 886 
Rail grinder, "178 

Hudson, N. Y., to Chicago. (See New York 

to Chicago) 
Hudson-Fulton celebration, 453 

Traffic, Handling of, Statistics, 887, I03g 

Transit facilities in New York, 483, 485 
Hudson & Manhattan Railroad (See New 

York City) 
Hudson Valley Ry. (See Glens Falls) 
Huntington R. R., Long Island, Construction 

details, *ioio 


Illinois Central R. R., Electrification of Chi- 
cago terminals, 608, 917; Adverse re- 
port by President J. T. Harahan, 940; 
Comment, 92g 

Illinois Traction Co. (See Champaign, 111.) 

Illuminated cars. (See Decorated cars) 

Indiana : 

Accident conference, 1083, 1282 

— — Accidents, 237, 1083 

Excursion rates, Commission recommenda- 
tion, 52 

Grade crossings, Commission cannot sepa- 
rate, 634 

High-tension lines and trolley guards, i03g 

Labor law violations, g22 

Operating rules, Revision of, ig2 

Poor children cannot be carried free, 381 

Red Cross rules, 53 

Right-of-way, 486 

-Statistics of railways, 114 

Indiana Union Traction Company (See Ander- 
son, Ind.) 
Indianapolis, Ind.: 

Interurban lines, Influence of, on busi- 
ness, 859 
Tracks, Additional, 381 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., Reor- 
ganization, 159, 482, 1000 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction 
Co., Electric locomotive, *367 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western 
Traction Co.: 

Receivership, 124, 1165 

Report, 857 

Inspection, Report, Engineering Association, 

Inspection of rolling stock: 

Cincinnati rules, 159 

Foreign cars, 278 

[Leonhauser], ii3g 

Inspection of track, Fort Wayne & Wabash 

Valley Traction Co., *g7i 
Insulating flooring, "Electrose," 611 

Beebe lines, Central New York, *46i 

Cause of breakage of high-tension glass 

[Richey and Bonnet], 111 

Discussion at Denver, 804 

High-tension porcelain (Ohio), *6i5 

High-tension strain (Westinghouse), '438 

Suspended, Report Engineering Associa- 
tion, 815 

Test for, high transmission lines, 804 

Tests by committee of Engineering Asso- 
ciation, *832 

Insurance (See Fire insurance) 

Insurance company investments in electric rail- 
way bonds, 300 

Interborough Rapid Traction Co. (See New 
York City) 

Interchange of freight. (See Through routes) 
International Traction Co. (See Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Interstate Commerce Commission: 
Accounting system, Answers to questions 

submitted by railways, 601 
Accounting system, Report by H. C. 

Adams, 218 

Additions and betterments, Protest of 

Pennsylvania R. R., go8 
Balance sheet statement for interstate 

steam roads, g39 

Crowding, Ruling on, 920 

Depreciation, Position on [Sturgis], 1224 

Omaha fare case, 1281 

■ Reporting accounts, Ruling on, 217 

Special school rates, Ruling against, 194 

Valuating, Remarks by H. C. Adams, 219 

Interurban railways: 

Historical, 571, 593 

Relation to State highways, 1195 

Rules. (See Rules) 

Sources of patronage, 963 

Speed of cars in city terminals, 134 

Violations of rules, 101 

Investment, Reasonable return on, Action nec- 
essary to assure [Kemmann], 13; 
Comment, 3 

Investments in electric railway bonds by in- 
surance companies, 300 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XXXIV 

Iron Age, Sale of, 443 

Irwin-Herminie Traction Co., Increase of capi- 
tal stock, 1203 
Italy, Trackless trolley, *37o 


Jackson, Miss., Edwards Hotel & City R. R., 

Sale of stock, 1081 
Jacksonville Electric Ry. : 

Increase in capital stock, 270 

Pay-as- You-Enter cars, 1249 

Jamaica, N. Y., Long Island Electric Ry., 

Reduction of capital stock, 90, 378 
Jamestown, N. Y., Central-station property 

sold, 1246 

Japan-British Exposition in London, 1015 
Johnstown (Pa.) Passenger Ry. : 
Bond sale, 1 1 65 

Option on stock, to American Rys. Co., 

1246, 1280 

Journal boxes, Standardization, Brooklyn, '65 
Journals, Specifications, Brooklyn, 139 


Kansas City, Mo.: 

Franchise ordinance, 120, 189, 233, 885 

Introduction into City Council, 897 
President Corrigan's attitude, 310, 

330, 412 
Rejected, 1278 
Submitted to voters, 1199 

Franchise placard in cars, 856 

Kansas City, Missouri & Kansas Interurban 
Ry., Rehabilitation, 1000 

Service, Recommendations of Commission, 


Wages, Changes in, 335 

Kingston Consolidated R. R. : 

Dividend postponed, 191 

Mortgage, 415, 1280 


Laboratory, Centralized testing for street rail- 
ways [Callan], 1065 

La Crosse, Idaho, Accident on Spokane & In- 
land Empire System, 447 

Lamps. (See Lighting cars) 

Lansing, Mich., employees, Payment of, 792 

Leechburg, Pa., Pittsburgh & Allegheny Valley 
Ry., Mortgage foreclosure, 1247 

Legal advice in the promotion of railways, 309 

Legal : 

Accident claim from pass-holder [Lake!. 

.1*9 . . 

Accident liability to passenger momentarily 

leaving car, Boston, 1008 

Assignment of wages, Mass., 792 

Assistance to passengers in alighting 

[Lake], 1237 

Boarding cars with platform gates, 278 

Coney Island & Brooklyn fare case, 63, 


Employer's liability in New York State, 


Legal tender for fare [Lake], 256 

Municipal power to regulate stops, 1257 

Patents, Tool steel, declared invalid, 226 

Routing cars, Michigan decision, 342 

Seats, No legal obligation to provide, 201 

Through routes and joint rates with steam 

lines, California, 342, 379, 1165, 1247 

Transfers, Penalty in Chicago, 807 

Trespasser on street car, New York City, 


Legal notes: 

Charters, franchises and ordinances, 86, 

230, 297, 628, 1034, 1241 

Ejectments, assaults, etc., 295 

Negligence, 84, 229, 295, 408, 627, 913, 

1032, mi, 1242 
Legislation affecting railways, 49, 122, 156, 

189, 268 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (See Allentown, 

Lewiston, Me., Auburn & Turner R. R., Sale, 

Lighting cars: 

Chicago Rys., 1095 

— ■ — Economies possible, 422 

Inspection of lamps, 11 39 

Maintenance, Denver, 498 

■ New York subway, Hearing, 11 52, 1233 

Tantalum lamp (Buckeye), *62o 

Lightning arresters: 

Electrolytic, Huntington, L. I., *ioi3 

Multi-vapo-Gap (Lord), *44 

[Titus], 801 

Lima, Ohio, Western Ohio Ry. : 

Issue of notes, 415 

Passenger rates, 272 

Line car. (See Work car) 
Little Rock, Ark.: 

Merit system, 176 

T-rail construction, 1061 

■ Transfer and ticket box, '845 

Load factors, Working out of, 836 
Locomotives, Electric: 

British Columbia Electric Railway, *407 

Calculation of capacity, C1191 

Geared freight, N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., 

^462; Comment, 453 

Glion, Switzerland, 3ij4-in. gage, 1177 

Indianapolis, *367 

Mine, gathering type (Westinghouse), 


Oranienburg line, Prussia, '1258 

Locomotives, Electric: (Continued) 
Pennsylvania R. R., for New York termi- 
nal service, *982 
Switzerland, 292, 1177 

Tests, with friction drive, East St. Louis, 


Three-phase, for Cascade tunnel [Hutchin- 
son], *i052; Comment, 1045 

Toledo & Western R. R., '424 

Turbo-electric, Reid-Ramsay, Glasgow, 


Vancouver, B. C, 530 

Wiesental Ry., Germany, 1177 

Locomotives, Steam, Fuel consumption [Goss], 
1 106 

London, England: 

Advertising for traffic, *ii34 

Cable railway to be electrified 399 

Conduit construction, 10 

Fiber brake shoe on underground rail- 
ways, *944 

Publicity campaign, Underground Rys., 


Rapid transit facilities. Study by G. 

Kemmann, 11 28 
Steam vs. electric transportation methods, 


Through service to Croydon, '396 

Traffic conditions, Kemmann pamphlet, 


Tramway guide, 327 

Underground Electric Rys., Employees' 

bulletins, 11 10 

Unit proposed, New, 1090 

London letters, 46, 232, 373, 629, 993, 1158 
London, Ontario: 

Southwestern Traction Co., Sale, 379, 858, 

920, 1038, 1281 

Sunday cars, 1083, 1249 

Long Island R. R, : 

Bond issue and improvements, 333 

Electrification work, 1161 

Long Island Electric Railway Co. (See Jamaica, 
N. Y.) 

Lorain & Cleveland Ry., Historical, 579 

Los Angeles, Cal., Funeral car, *uo 

Los Angeles Ry., Operating features, *s6g 

Los Angeles & Mt. Washington cable railway, 


Los Angeles-Pacific Co.: 
Bond issue, 1165 

Reconstruction and improvements [Al- 
bright], *930 
Los Angeles, Pacific Electric Ry.: 
Improvements, 1101 

Through routes and joint rates, 342, 379, 

. 1247 
-^-Transportation features, *s66 
Los Angeles & Redondo Ry., Traffic features, 


Lost articles, Berlin scheme for returning, 407 
Louisville, Ky.: 

Cars, Prepayment [Funk], C911 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co., 

Mortgage, 1246 
Lowell, Acton & Maynard Street Railway (See 

Maynard, Mass.) 
Lubrication : 

Gears and pinions, Detroit, 902, 1051 

Graphite sheet for journals, 83 

— — -Motors on mileage basis, Baltimore, *nos 

Report, Engineering Association, *76o 

(See also Oil) 

Lynn & Nahant Ry., Fares, 485 
Lyons, France, Single-phase extensions of city 
lines, *35i 


McAlester, Okla., Bond sale, Choctaw Ry., 51 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Organization of, 43 
McKeesport, Pa., Pittsburgh, McKeesport & 
Westmoreland Ry. : 

Bond sale, 633, 920 

— —Purchase, 270, 1038 

McKee's Rocks, Pa., Effects of strike on rail- 
way service, 336 

Mail transportation: 

Brooklyn, 88 

Remuneration [Choate], 1197 

Discussion by New York Street Rail- 
way Association, 1212, 1229, 1272 
Discussion by Central Electric Rail- 
way Association, 1096 

Maintenance of rolling stock: 

[Leonhauser], "39 

Philadelphia, Statistics, 16 

Piecework system, 344 

Maintenance of way, Report, Engineering As- 
sociation, *6g8; Comment, 670; Dis- 
cussion, 683, 734; [Filkins], *702 
Maiden, Mass., Speed regulations, 855 
Manchester, England, 6000-kw turbo-alternator, 

Manufacture and home production, 1255 
Manufacture of supplies, Rolling stock stand- 
ardization in Brooklyn, 209 


Beebe syndicate lines, 456 

Berlin, Germany, Proposed subways, *363 

— — Boston Elevated Ry. extensions, 1214 

British Columbia Electric Ry., 529 

Brooklyn & Coney Island R. R. power 

improvements, 248 

Denver City Tramway, 492 

Denver & Interurban R. R., 509 

Evansville, Ind., Railway, 112 

Huntington R. R., 1010 

Lexington & Boston Street Ry., 875 

Maps: (Continued) 

London County, 1 1 

Los Angeles, 567, 930 

New England trolley lines, 364 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co., 


New York City, Hudson & Manhattan R. 

R. tunnels, 102 

New York City, Subway, 1178 

Ohio Electric Ry., 874 

Paris subway, *ii78 

. Portland interurban lines, 546 

Rhode Island, Sea View R. R., 828 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry., 522 

Seattle Electric Co., 534 

Spokane & Inland Empire system, 527 

Tacoma, Puget Sound Electric Ry., 541 

Maryland public utilities commission proposed, 

268, 1245 

Appraisal of railway property, Testimony 

of Ballantine, 464 

Fare case of Middlesex & Boston Ry., 464 

Fare increase, Remarks by M. C. Brush, 


Legislation, 49 

-Operating expenses of electric railways, 


Securities for working capital, Railway 

companies may issue, 167 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (See Bos- 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, In- 
struction in electrical engineering, 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission: 

Boston & Eastern R. R., Hearings, 948, 


Boston, Lowell & Lawrence R. R., Hear- 
ing. 915. 949, 997. 1077 
Fare increase hearings, 54, 160, 447, 464, 


Salem Willows fares, Hearing on, 236 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association: 

Annual meeting, 441 

December meeting, 1270 

November meeting, 1072 

Pacific Coast party, 881, 912, 945, 964, 

"985, 1072, 1198 
■ Special train, 655 

Maynard, Mass., Lowell, Acton & Maynard 
Street Ry., Reduction of capital stock, 

I0 3 8 

Meadville & Cambridge Springs Ry., Sale, 192 
Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Co., Annual 

report, 11 64 
Memphis, Tenn. : 

Concrete mixer, *392 

Rewards for employees, 93 

Meters, Steam, Report on, 738; Discussion, 


Methuen, Mass., Hearing on fares, 54, 160 
Metropolitan Securities Co. (See New York 

Metropolitan Street Railway (See New York 

Michigan : 

— — Routing cars, Legal decision, 342 

Through routes and joint rates, 1165 

Milwaukee, Wis.: 

— - — -Air brakes compulsory on new cars, 416 
Paving and track, '700 

Traffic improvement, Report of Wisconsin 

Commission, 126 
Wages increased, 380 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 

Bonds listed, 1165 
Mobile, Ala.: 

Fare zones [Wilson], 1106 

Shop fire protection, 81 

Trolley-bases, Truss-supported, 17 

Moffat road excursion at Denver, 834 
Monthey-Champery Ry., *466 
Montreal Benefit Association, Report, 128 
Montreal Street Ry., Annual report, 998 
Montreux-Bernois Ry., Notes on, *ioi7 
Motor bearings, Best practice, 962 
Motor brushes (See Carbon brushes) 
Motor control (See Controllers) 
Motor testing board, Wheaton, 111., '429 
Motormen, Seats for, in Connecticut, 416 

(See also Employees) 

Motormen's vestibule, Riding in, 199 
Motors, Electric: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 399 

Inspection of [Leonhauser], 1140 

Interpole, Advantages [Davis], 25 

Locomotive of Pennsylvania R. R., "983 

Oiling, on a mileage basis, Baltimore, *np5 

Single-phase repulsion (Brown-Boveri), 


Solid-frame motors [Davis], 26 

Three-phase, Advantages and disadvan- 
tages, for heavy traction [Hutchin- 
son], 1057; Comment, 1045; Discus- 
sion, 1058 

1200-volt, Curves, California, 563 

Mountain railways: 

Europe and America, 246 

Mont Blanc railway opened, 355 

Mt. Lowe, *568 

. Mt .Morrison cars, *766 

Mt. Holly, N. J., Burlington County Ry., Re- 
ceivership, 378, 446 
Mt. Lowe incline railway, *s68 
Mt. Morrison cable railway, Cars for, '766 
Moving platforms in New York City, 1007, 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, 1909.] 



Multiple-unit control for 1200-volt equipment 
[Case], 742 

Multiple-unit train, Los Angeles & Redondo 
Ry-, *39i 

Musical instruments carried on cars, Report 
on, 40 


Narragansett Pier, R. I., Sea View R. R., 
Operating features, *828 

Narrow-gage, 3154-in. electric line at Glion, 
Switzerland, 1177 

National Association of Railway Commis- 
sioners, Convention, 1148, 1193 

Near-crossing stops: 

Buffalo, 447 

Chicago, 1040 

Rochester, N. Y., 1248 

New Bedford, Mass., Fare case, 447, 858 

New England: 

Map of trolley routes, 364 

Trolley lines and fares, 364 

New England Street Railway Club, December 

meeting, 1198 
New Haven, Conn.: 

Connecticut Co., Operating results, 962, 


Shore Line Electric Ry., Equipment, 11 33 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co. (See 
Trenton, N. J.) 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co., Bond is- 
sue, 51, 90, 301 

New South Wales tramways, Report, 1016 

New York Central R. R.: 

Acquires stock of New Haven road, 1165 

— ■ — Electric zone extension to North White 

Plains, 1024 

Electrification plans and costs, 268, 1277 

Stock issue, 1038 

New York City: 

Accidents, 193, 635, 11 18 

American Light & Traction Co., Dividend, 


Car weights of prepayment and other 

cars, 946 

Fenders and wheel guards, Hearing on, 

1 193 

Forty-Second Street, Manhattanville & St. 

Nicholas Avenue Ry., Sale, 1203 

Heating cars, Hearings, 955, 1018, 1082, 

1125, 1165, 1190, 1249 

Hudson Companies, Note issue, 1081 

Hudson-Fulton traffic. (See Hudson- 
Fulton celebration) 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. : 

Annual report, 89 
Cars, Steel, *6o4 
Cars for women withdrawn, 93 
Employees' committee work, 11 73 
Employment methods, 11 85; Com- 
ment, 1175 
Opening of downtown tunnels, 145 
Terminal station, Cortlandt Street, 

*I02; Comment, 100 
Traffic interchange with Penn. R. R., 

Interborough Rapid Transit: 

Annual report, 414, 444; Comment, 


Bond sale, 90, 124 

Elevated, Use of coasting registers, 
938; Comment, 928; [Smith], 

Extension plans, 87 

Income statistics, 158 

Notes mature, 236 

Relief Association, Operations of, 

Subway : 

Comparison with Paris subway 
systems [Whitten], "1178 

Lighting, 1152, 1233 

Separate cars for women, Com- 
mission denies request for, 


Turbines, 5000-kw, exhaust-steam, 
*2S7, 1146 

Metropolitan Crosstown Ry., Deposit time 

of bonds extended, 270 
Metropolitan Securities Co.: 

Decision against, 157 

Receiver for, 414 
Metropolitan Street Ry. : 

Apprenticeship course, Applications, 

Chairman, bondholders committee 

elected, and claims, 1203 
Complaint of Twenty-Third Street 

Ry., 379 

Foreclosure, 51 

Forty-second and Grand Street Ferry 

R. R. matters, 857, 886 
Fourth Avenue line lease, 1280 
Guaranty Trust Co., Plea for fore- 
closure, 920, 1081, 1 1 1 7, 1280 
Purchase of Bridge Operating Co. 

stock, 332, 413, 444 
Receivership matters, 192 
Relief and pension work, Report, 11 18 
Stone & Webster report, 333 

Moving platforms in subway, Proposed, 

1007, 1035 

New York City Ry.: 

Barber Asphalt Paving Co.'s suit, 235 
Decision against Metropolitan Securi- 
ties Co., 157, 1000 
North American Co., Election of Presi- 
dent James Campbell, 1206 

New York City: (Continued) 
Public Service Commission: 

Exhibit at State Fair, 860 

Form of annual report, Suggestions 
invited, 910 

Powers denned, 1201 

Review of work, 121 

Railways Company General, Dividend, 415 

— — Rapid transit conditions, Notes, 47, 

12I > 155, 267, 299, 374, 410, 442, 

479, 855, 884, 917, 950, 995, 1036, 

1078, 114, 1160, 1200, 1244, 1276 
Rapid transit discussion in Evening Post, 

1113, 1162 

Rapid transit policy for Greater New 

York [Maltbie], 1150 

Second Avenue R. R.: 

Borrowing money, 483 

Foreclosure proceedings, 159, 415, 

446, 858 
Reorganization plans, 192 

Subways, New, 630 

Offer from Edison Co. to supply 

power, 951 
Reply of Public Service Commission 

to President Shonts, 11 27, 1160 
Seventh Avenue subway, Letter of 
Penn. R. R. to Public Service 
Commission, 121, 133 

Surface line service, 303 

Third Avenue R. R. : 

Cars rebuilt for prepayment service, 

Coal specifications, for anthracite, 172 
Correspondence of Receiver and Pub- 
lic Service Commission, 216 
Foreclosure sale, 236 
Gasoline-electric car, "988 
New investigation, 1081 
Reorganization plans, 2, 50, 89, 99, 

123, 633, 927, 1 1 1 7, 1203, 1281 
Sale postponed, 1000 
Stockholders' committee, 379 
Valuation of property, Hearing on, 

Transfers good after acceptance, 1090 

Transfers, Penalty for illegal use of, 1020 

Union Railway, Gas & Electric Co.: 

Bond issue, 415 

Car house fire, *404 

Vestibules, Hearing on, 889, 1083, 1138 

Wheelguard disapproved by Commission, 


New York to Chicago by electric railway 

[Moulton], 321; Comment, 341, 426 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. : 

Bond issue for C. N. E. Ry. denied, 302 

Capital stock increased, 633, 1000 

Comparison of operating results of Con- 
necticut Co. and Rhode Island Co., 
962, 999 

Disposal of electric railway holdings, 192 

Electrification, Alternating vs. direct cur- 
rent [Eichberg], C223; [Parshall], 


Locomotive, Electric-geared freight, *462; 

Comment, 453 

Report for three months, 333 

New York & Portchester R. R., Report to 
Commission, 334 

New York & Queens County Ry., Speed re- 
duction device, 922 

New York State: 

Employer's liability decision, 865 

— Public Service Commission: 

Cost of electrification of Adirondack 

railroads, 219 
Depreciation accounts, Treatment of, 

Depreciation, Position on [Meyers], 

Extension of powers under considera- 
tion, 300 

Powers defined, 1201, 1279 

Review of work, 94 

Rights-of-way, Method of granting, 1195 

Stage lines must submit schedules, 381 

New York State Railways (See Rochester, 

N. Y.) 

New York State Street Railway Association: 

Convention proceedings, 34 

Convention social notes, 41 

Officers, 41 

Quarterly meeting, 1195, 1229 

New York State Tax Commission, Work of 
[Rumery], 33 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry. : 

Consolidation with New York & Port Ches- 
ter R. R., 1281 

Hearing, 1246 

Report to Commission, 334 

New Zealand, Christchurch Tramway Board, 
Annual report, 1164 

Newark, N. J.: 

Block signal system (Kinsman), "1239 

Bond sale of Public Service Corporation, 

_ 270 

Overhead construction, Remarks of E. J. 

Dunne, 787 
Dividend, 483 

Gas properties and new securities, 858 

Transfer of all gas companies, 415 

(See also Hoboken, N. J.) 

Newark & Granville Ry., Historical, 572 
Newark (N. Y.) & Marion Ry. must stop at 

highway crossing, 336 
Newspaper advertising. (See Advertising) 
Newton, Mass.: 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies, 482 

Transfer matters, 271 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Norfolk, Va., Elizabeth River R. R., Gasoline 

motor car, 608 
Norristown, Pa., Montgomery County Rapid 

Transit Co., Receivership, 415 
Northampton Street Ry.: 

Dividends, 91 

No sale of stock, 633 

Officers, 920 

Northern Electric Railway (See Chico, Cal.) 

Northwestern Electrical Association, Conven- 
tion proceedings, 70 

Northeastern Railway of England (See Eng- 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 

Akron, Ohio) 
Northern Texas Traction Co. (See Fort Worth, 


Norwich & Westerly Ry., Reorganization plan, 
446, 482 

Norwood, Ohip, Cincinnati & Columbus Trac- 
tion Co., Through routes and joint 
rates with steam roads, 1248 

Nut lock washer (U. L. W. Co.), '615 

Nutt, J. R., Experiences of, 582 


Oakland, Cal.: 

Operating and car-building methods, *5s8 

Service card records, 851 

Ocean Shore Railway (See San Francisco) 
Office equipment: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 399 

Appraisal by Wisconsin Commission, 393 

Officials, Method of payment, 813 

Ogden Rapid Transit Co., 523 

Ohio Electric Railway (See Cincinnati, Ohio) 

Ohio, Rules for interurban railways: 

Changing standard code, 1125; [Shanna- 

han], C1154, C1238 

Conference, 634, 910, 1029, 1152 

Reasons for changes by Railroad Com- 
mission, 1 1 74, 1 1 92 

Oil as fuel, Shreveport, La., 477 

Oil burning at Georgetown station of Seattle 
Electric Co., *842 

Oil handling, Brooklyn, Economy, * 1 1 02 ; Com- 
ment, 1090 

Oil storage tanks, *no3 

Oiling motors on a mileage basis, Baltimore, 
1 105 

Oiling on mileage basis [Leonhauser], 1 142 

(See also Lubrication) 

Oklahoma City, Okla., Concrete, poles, '356 

Omaha, Neb., Strike over, 850 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & Bridge 

Co., Bond sale, 1081 
Fare case, 1281 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry., Employees 
rewarded for difficult service, 1001 

Oneida Railway (See Syracuse, N. Y.) 

Oneonta & Mohawk Valley R. R., Receiver- 
ship, 302 

Oneonta, N. Y., Otsego & Herkimer R. R., 
Stock and bond issue, 953 

Oranienburg experimental line, Prussian Gov- 
ernment Rys., *I258 

Oregon Electric Railway (See Portland, Ore.) 

Organization of railways: 

Chart of mechanical department, Brook- 
lyn, *28o 

Denver City Tramway Co., *496 

Legal advice, 309 

Preliminaries in [Billingsley], 1187 

Right of way (See Right-of-way) 

Small companies [Gonzenbach], 695; 

Comment, 670; Discussion, 676 
Ossining, N. Y., Westchester 'fraction Co., 

Sale of, 446 
Otsego & Herkimer Railroad (See Oneonta, 

N. Y.) 

Ottumwa Railway & Light Co., Dividend, 886 
Overhead construction: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 398 

Appraisal by Wisconsin Commission, 393 

Discussion at Denver, 787 

■ — - — Great Northern Ry. at Cascade tunnel 
[Hutchinson], 1055 

Huntington R. R., *ioio 

Question box of Engineering Association, 

„ 837 

■ Repair cost [Ayres], 746 

■ Report on material, 816 

Salt Lake City, "517 

Scheveningen single-phase railway, Hol- 
land, *594 

Tension variations in trolley wire, Auto- 
matic device for taking up, *597 

Tests of line material, ^832 

(See also Catenary construction) 

Overhead line department: 
Denver, 496 

Timekeepers and payrolls of, 814 


Pacific Coast trip. (See Massachusetts Street 

Railway Association) 
Pacific Electric Railway (See Los Angeles, 


Paint specifications, 134 
Painters and paint-making, 6i 
Painting cars: 

Color scheme for new types of cars, 421 

— — Cost of, Committee report, 759 



[Vol. XXXIV 

Pantograph, Lyons, France, '352 

(See also Single-phase railways) 


Fares in subways, 1180 

Subway system compared with New 

York [Whitten], *i 178 
Parked street railways in German cities, '943 
Parkesburg, Pa., Susquehanna Railway, Light 

& Power Co., Annual report, 1081 
Park resorts: 

Amusements, Tight-rope, suggestion, 831 

Attractions discussed at Milwaukee, 72 

Beebe syndicate lines, central New York 

State, *87i 

Lexington, Mass., features of park, '875 

Profitable operation of, 866 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry., 522 

Spokane, Natatorium Park, ^525 

Parma (Italy) Provincial Ry., 1061 
Pass-holder, Accident claim from [Lake], 149 
Pavement : 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 398 

Brick, Beebe lines, central New York, 


Creosote block. Cost and life, 837 

Testing for defective bonds, 837 

T-rails in paved streets, Report on, *6g8; 

Discussion, 683 

Pay-check system, Discussion at Denver, 790 

Payroll department, 814 

Payroll, Discussion at Denver, 791 

Pennsylvania, Accidents, 53 

Pennsylvania R. R. : 

Gasoline motor car, *9ii 

■ Locomotives, Electric, for New York ter- 
minal service, '982 

Protest against classification of additions 

and betterments, 908 

■ Traffic interchange with Hudson and Man- 
hattan R. R., 127 

Tree planting, 117 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, An- 
nual meeting, 1222 
Pensacola Electric Co., Dividend, 1000 
Peoria, 111.: 

Bond sale, 91 

■ Electrolysis case, 43 

Philadelphia : 

Accident bulletin, 1001 

Advertising campaign, 155, 188, 334, 855 

American Rys., Annual report, 481 

Bond issue, 1280 

Annual meeting of Rapid Transit Co., 415 

Annual report of Rapid Transit Co., 632 

Awards to employees for suggestions, 161 

Car maintenance, Statistics, 16 

■ Contract of city and company upheld, 630 

Fare question: 

Effect of change, 805 

Statement by Rapid Transit Co., 153 

Front platform rule conference, 11 18 

Interstate Rys.: 

Action of American Rys. Co., 237 

Reorganization, 90, 191, 270, 482, 
953. IZ 8o 

Newspaper advertising. Transit talks, 15s, 

188, 234, 299, 334, 411, 479. 9i8, 
1035, 1200, 1244 

Platform rule, 11 18 

Railways Company General, Dividend, 920 

— — Rapid Transit Co.: 
Earnings, 302 
Extension of bonds, 1281 
Officers, 482 

Report of joint special committee on rail- 
way systems of other cities, 1015 

— — South w«ctcrn Street Ry., Sale, 1247 

Suburban fMevated Railroad Co., Organ- 
ization, 4\i2 

Tickets, StripAsuit dismissal, 189 

Trail cars, 194V 416 

Transfer systerrt to be studied, 889 

— — Turbines, Low-pressure, *739 

Philadelphia, Bristol & Trenton Street Ry.: 

Foreclosure sale, 270, 858 

Organization. 886, 

Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Co., 
Reasons for fare increase, 888; Com- 
ment, 865 

Pile driver car, Los Angeles, '"392 


Lubrication, Detroit, 902, 1051 

Recutting, Denver, *766 

Report of committee, Engineering Associa- 
tion, 805. 

— —Standard taper for, 784, 805 

Steel, Specifications, 138 

Pipe connection, Reinforced screwed (Edge 
Moor), "625 

Pipe line identification colors, 559 

Piping, Air, for motor car, Denver & Inter- 
urban R. R., *5ii 


— —Employees' difficulties with company, 160 

Employees, Payment of, 791 

Freight and express service, 890 

Service, Hearings on, 1166, 1204 

Strike, 51 

• Traffic conditions, Report by Stone & 

Webster, 212 

Transportation department changes, 634 

Pittsburg & Allegheny Valley Railway (See 

Leeehburg, Pa.) 
Pittsburg, McKeesport & Westmoreland Rail- 
way (See McKeesport, Pa.) 
Pittsburgh, Philadelphia Co., Bond issue of, 192 
Pittsburgh & Westmoreland Ry., Sale, 1247 

Pittsfield, Mass.: 

Bond issue, 301 

Historical points marked, 362 

Platform rule in Philadelphia, 11 18 

Plymouth, Mass., Brockton & Plymouth Street 

Ry., Bond issue, 1203 
Pole pins for high transmission lines [Foster], 



Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 398 

Cast-iron base for tubular, *sig 

Cedar, Life of, 838 

Denver, *4g8 

Discussion at Denver, 786, 803, 816 

Huntington R. R., *ioi2 

Joint use of, 788, 817 

Preserving wooden, by means of hydro- 

bestos jacket at ground line, *H4 

Prizes for designs offered by Engineers' 

Society of Pennsylvania, 41 

Reinforced-concrete, Oklohoma City, *356 

Reinforcement, Report on, 786, 816 

Woodpeckers damage poles, 294 

Port Jervis Traction Co., Mortgage and bond 

issue, 1000 
Portland, Ore.: 

Employees, Training of, Remarks by C. 

J. Franklin, 781 
Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Dividend, 236 

System, *546 

Rules for employees, 736 

Trucks (Baldwin), * 2 66- 

United Rys.: 

Control, 886, 920 

Directors and officers, 1204 

System, 553 
Portland, Oregon, Electric Ry. : 

Bond sale, 857 

System, *55o 
Portsmouth, N. H., Excursions, 380 
Pottsville, Pa.: 

Bond sale, Eastern Pennsylvania Ry., 159 

Excursion cars, '907 

Power consumption: 
Chicago, 1022 

Consumption in electric heating of cars, 


Consumption of cars and bearing fric- 
tion [Ayres], 286 

Tests, Hamburg, 902 

Tests, in Cleveland, 1020 

Power consumption records (See Coasting reg- 
isters; Current clocks; Wattmeters) 

Power distribution, Report of Engineering As- 
sociation, 815, 832; Comment, 774; 
[Titus], 801; [Foster], 803 

Power generation, Report on, Engineering 
Association, *738; Discussion, 722 

Power hired, Chicago Railways contract, 266 

Power station practice: 

Economy in small plants, 826 

Fixed charges amount [Ayres], 746 

Modernizing the system of the medium- 
size railway, 11 26 

Night operation, 311 

Oil burning, Georgetown station of Seat- 
tle Electric Co., *842 
Question box of Engineering Association, 


Shreveport, La., Economies, 477 

Timekeepers and payrolls, 814 

-Water backs at Anderson, Ind., 1187 

Power station records: 

Colorado Springs & Interurban Ry., 514 

Hyde Park Co., 851 

Turbines, Low-pressure, in Phila., 741 

Power stations: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 399 

■ Appraisal by Wisconsin Commission, 394 

Boston proposed, 1261 

Boston, Lincoln station, *i2i6 

Brooklyn & Coney Island R. R., "248 

Denver City Tramway, *499 

Los Angeles Pacific Co., *935 

Lyons. N. Y., Beebe syndicate lines, *868 

j Manchester, Eng., 6000-kw turbo-alterna- 
tor, *ii56 

Portland Ry., *549 

San Francisco, Cal., 554 

Sea View R. R., 830 

Winnipeg accident, 1275 

Yardley, Pa., New Jersey & Pennsylvania 

Traction Co., *ii3o 

Preliminary engineering of electric road [Bil- 
lingsley], 1187 

Press, Reversed cylinder (Watson-Stillman) , 

Prizes for track inspection, Fort Wayne & 

Wabash Valley Traction Co., 971 
Providence, R. I.: 

Rhode Island Co. operating results, com- 
pared with Connecticut Co., 962, 999 

United Traction & Electric Co., Stock 

transfers, 124 


Supervision of street railways, 100 

Oranienburg experimental line, "1258 

Public service commissions: 

Connecticut, Failure to establish, 415 

Maryland, Proposed, 268 

Supervision of street railways in England 

and Prussia, 100 
Public service corporations, State regulation 

of [Roemer], 1099 
Public Service Railway (See Hoboken and 

Newark, N. J.) 


Birmingham, Ala., campaign, 112 

Electric railway publicity [Van Zandt], 


Newspaper advertising of operating diffi- 
culties, 422 

Relations between newspapers and the pub- 
licity department, 455 

Transportation & Traffic Association; Dis- 
cussion, 649 

(See also Advertising) 

Puget Sound Electric Railway (S<;e Tacoma, 


Pumps : 

Motor-driven turbo (Willans & Robinson), 


Rotary high-vacuum air (Wheeler), *6n 

Purchasing agents, 840 

Pyrenees, Electric railway across, 912 



National Transcontinental Ry. Electrifica- 
tion, 1278 
Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Annual report, 953 

Incorporation, 1081 

■ Merger, 1280 

Officers, 91 

— — Power plant on St. Lawrence, 461 


Rack rail construction, Monthey-Champery Ry., 


Rail bender (Watson-Stillman), *226 
Rail bond compressor, Hydraulic ('Watson- 
Stillman), *94<5 
Rail bond holes, Drilling, 837 
Rail bonds, Brazed or soldered, 837 
Rail corrugation: 

Apparatus for measuring waves, *3i7 

Berlin, Germany, *365 

Reduction by welding, Europe, 172 

Report by Mr. Peterson of Dortmund, 

Germany, *3i7; [Fowler], C369; 

[Nichols], C438; [Angerer], C477 
Rail-grinders : 

Albany & Hudson R. R., *I78 

(Ayton & Crosta), *2g2 

Rail grooves and track gage for curved tracks 

[Filkins], *702 
Rail joint grinder, Detroit, *98o 
Rail joints: 

Cast-welded joint practice and grinding, 

Detroit, *979 

Cast welded, Life of, 837 

Clark improved, *433 

Electric welded. Life of, 837 

(Hardin), Hot Springs, Ark., *2ig 

London, 12 

Rail welding, Electric, Berlin, *I226 

Manganese and open hearth steel, Use of, 


Standards in Great Britain and Germany, 

1 126 

T-rail construction: 

Beebe syndicate lines, *46o 
Little Rock, Ark., 1061 
Paved streets, Report on, *6g8; Dis- 
cussion, 683, 684 

Trilby 102 lb 7 in, Coney Island & Brook- 
lyn R. R., *n 7 6 

Wear of, 836 

Railways Company General (See New York 


Railway Signal Association, Committee and 
its proposed work on signals for elec- 
tric railways, 1073 

Rapid transit systems, Berlin and other cities 
compared [Kemman]' 13 

Real estate: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 3gg 

Appraisal by Wisconsin Commission, 3gs 

Redondo, Cal., Beach attractions, *390 

Refrigerator service on Inland Empire Sys- 
tem, 238 

Register (See Fare registers) 

Relay, Overload inverse time-limit (Westing- 
house), *isi 

Repair shop men, Apprentice course suggested 
by W. H. Evans, 896 

Repair shop practice: 

Call bells for use of skilled mechanic, 387 

Motors, Assignment of types to different 

car houses, 4 

Photographs of disabled equipment, 896 

Piece-work system, 344 

Time keepers and payrolls, 814 

Transfer tables, Advantages of, g67; Com- 
ment, loog 

Repair shop records, Methods of keeping, 

Brooklyn, *28o 
Repair shops: 

— —Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 399 

Appraisal by Wisconsin Commission, 39s 

Beautifying grounds, Indiana Union Trac- 
tion Co., *43o; Comment, 421 

Blue Hill Street Ry., *is7i 

Denver, Plans for new, 853 

Denver City Tramway, *496, 503, '505 

Denver & Interurban R. R., 512 

Fire prevention, Oneida Ry., 968 

Fire protection, 81 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, 1909.] 



Repair shops: (Continued) 

Los Angeles, Cal., *sgi 

Los Angeles Pacific Co., *934 

Los Angeles Ry., *57o 

Pit construction, Oneida Ry., *o68 

Roof construction, Oneida Ry., "969 

Seattle Electric Co., 536 

Spokane, Wash., 526 

Syracuse, N. Y., Beebe syndicate lines, 

*8 7 i 

Syracuse, N. Y., Oneida Ry., *g66; Com- 
ment, 1008 

Resistances for cars, Inspection of, 1140 

Return circuit, Denver, 500 

Rhode Island Co. (See Providence, R. I.) 

Rhode Island Railroad Commission, Annual 
report, 74 

Richmond, Va., Virginia Railway & Power 
- Co.: 

Distribution of securities, 1 59 

Organization of, 91 

— - — Reorganization plans, 192 

Transfer system, New, 334 

Right-of-way : 

Indiana law, 486 

New York State, Method of granting, 1195 

■ Purchase of [Billingsley ], 1187 

Securing, 247 

Valuation, in Wisconsin, 395 

Rochester, N. . Y.: 

New stop and new transfers, 1248 

New York State Rys. : 

Financial matters, 236 
Payment of employees, 791 

Trespassers warned, 93 

Rockford & Interurban Ry., Consolidation 
with Union Railway, Gas & Electric 
Co., 51 

Rolling stock appraisals: 

Coney Island & Brooklyn case, 399 

Wisconsin Commission, 394 

Rotterdam-Haag-Scheveningen Ry., *594 

Routing cars, Michigan decision, 342 

Rowdyism in cars, 454, 484 

Rules, Riding in motorman's vestibule, 199 

Rules for city railways: 

Assistance to passengers in alighting 

[Lake], 1237 
[Fuller], 736 

— —Report, Transportation & Traffic Associa- 
tion, 753, 779 

■ — ■ — Revised, Text of, Transportation & Traffic 
Association code, 357, 847 

Rules for interurban railways: 

Discussion by Transportation & Traffic As- 
sociation, 690 

Ohio, Changing standard code, 1125; 

[Shannahan], c 1154, c 1238 

Ohio conferences, 634, 910, 1029, 1152 

-Ohio, Reasons for changes by Railroad 

Commission, 1174, 1192 

Revised rules, Text of, 259; Comment, 

24S> 279 

Revision, in Indiana, 192 

St. Louis: 

Employees : 

Advice to, by President McCulloch, 

Circular to, 1206 
United Rys. : 

Redemption of certificates, 1117 

Voting trust, 1038 
Salina, Kan., Transfer of railway securities, 


Salt Lake City: 

Emigration Canyon R. R., 523 

Utah Lake & Ry. system, *5i7 

Salt Lake & Ogden Ry. system, ^522 

San Diego Electric Ry. Purchase of South 

Park & East Side Ry., 91 
San Francisco, Cal.: 

Decorated cars, * 1 1 5 1 

Fenders, 380, 1278 

Merger of subsidiary companies, 413 

Ocean Shore Ry. : 

Bond issue, 633 

Receivership, 1247 

Reorganization, 269, 1204 
Park Side Transit Co. taken over by San 

Francisco Electric Rys., 236 

Traffic during celebration, 1083 

— — United Rys., Operating features, *554, 


San Jose, Cal., Consolidation of railway in- 
terests, 124 
Sand-blast compressor car, Detroit, *g8o 
Sand box (Western Electric), 617 
Sand-drying plant, Cincinnati Traction Co., 

Sandusky, Milan & Norwalk Ry., Historical, 
573 ^ 

Santa Cruz, Cal., Observation car, 1051 

Sao Paulo (Brazil) Tramway, Light & Power 

Co., Annual report, 192 
Saw for cutting grooved rail, Detroit, *98i 
Schedules, Plotting method, Pittsburgh, 213 
Schenectady, N. Y., Reinforced-concrete cul- 
verts, * 7 4 

Scheveningen Railway (See Rotterdam) 
School rates, Special, Interstate Commission 

rules against, 194 
Seats for motormen, Connecticut, 416 

Seattle, Wash.: 

■ Exposition traffic, Handling, '846 

Fenders and wheel guards, 193 

— —Oil burning at Georgetown station, *842 

Regrading, 533 

Sale of railway stock, 334 

"Seeing Seattle" trolley trips, '795 

Seattle Electric Co.: 

Dividend, 51, 302 

— —System, *533 

Seattle, Ronton & Southern Ry. : 

Bond sale, 920 

Steel cars, '658 

Track design, '844 

Second Avenue Railroad (See New York City) 
Securities for working capital, Railway com- 
panies may issue, in Massachusetts, 

Seneca Falls, N. Y., Geneva, Waterloo, Seneca 
Falls & Cayuga Lake Traction Co., 
Mortgage and bonds, 415 

Shaw, J. F., Re-election, 825 

Sheboygan publication of Mr. Gonzenbach, 73 

Shore Line Electric Railway (See New Haven, 

Shreveport, La., Power plant economies, 477 
Side bearings, Use of, 839 

Signals : 

Block signal system (Kinsman), Newark, 

N. J., M239 

Cab signal (Simmen), Record for, 624 

Crossing signal (National), *iiS5 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. tunnels, *io8 

Interlocking plants, Pacific Electric Ry., 


Interurban cars at way stations, 40 

Railway Signal Association to investigate, 


Youngstown & Sharon Ry., *6io 


Berlin cars, 1227 

Standard car sign arrangement, Brooklyn, 

*6 9 

Through-service, Croydon and London, 


Train announcer, Hudson & Manhattan 

R. R. terminal, *ios, 106 

Single-phase railways: 

— ■ — Cost of operation [Davis], 27 

Denver & Interurban R. R., *5og 

Hamburg-Blankenese-Ohlsdorf high-tension 

line, "898 
Lyons, France, *35i 

Oranienburg experimental line, Prussian 

Government Rys., *I258 

Scheveningen, Holland, *594 

— ■ — Seebach-Wettingen Ry., Experiences, 980 

Wiesental Ry., Baden, Germany, 11 77 

Sinking fund, Ruling in Wisconsin, 367 

(See also Accounting) 

Skylight on repair shops, Oneida Ry., *97o 

Smoking cars: 

Chicago Elevated, Abandoned on, 921 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated, Discontin- 
uance, 1039 

Snohomish Valley Ry., Stolen bonds, 633 

Snow, Preparation for, 961 

Snow plow, Sea View R. R., '830 

Snow removal, Vienna, *I262 

South Africa, Cape Electric Tramways, An- 
nual report, 1203 

South Bend, Ind. : 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry., 

Change in management, 378 

Southern Michigan Ry., Clean accident 

record, 1166 

Southwestern Traction Co. (See London, Ont.) 

Special work. (See Track construction) 

Specifications : 
Axles, 806 

Car and truck parts, Brooklyn, 136 

Coal, Third Avenue R. R., 172 

Manganese steel rails, 700 

Trolley wire, Hard-drawn copper, A. S. 

for T. M., 181: Comment, 341; 

[Woods], c 368; [Lake], 432 
Speed reduction, Device to compel, New York 

& Queens County Ry. , 922 
Speed time curves. Criticism of Farmer's 

method of plotting, C82 
Spiez-Frutigen Ry., Electrification, 1051 
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. : 

Annual report, 11 16 

Freight revenue, 1089 

New control, 1038, 1281 

Refrigerator service, 238 

System, *527 

Spokane, Wash., Washington Water Power 
Co. System, '524 

Springfield, 111.: . 

Employees' conduct, Superintendent's let- 
ter on, 160 

-Employees, Payment of, 791 

Springfield, Mass.: 

Consolidation of railways, 446 

Increase in stock, 1204 

Steam-electric freight service, 1083 

Springs, Car, specifications, 138 

Sprinkler and work car combined, San Fran- 
cisco, * 56 1 

Sprinklers, 837 

— ■ — Care of [Leonhauser], 1139 
Sprinkling tracks, Cost in, Detroit, 42 
Stables, Utica, N. Y., *349 

Standardization : 

Brooklyn rolling stock, '64, "136, 209, 

*28o, 942 

Failure to adopt standards of A S & 

I. R. E. A., 343 

Report on, Engineering Association, 805 

Standardizing details of electric railway ap- 
paratus, Desirability of, 895 

Staten Island Midland Ry., Transfer of stock 
to Bait. & Ohio R. R., 334 

Statistics : 

Austria, Railway conditions, 10 

Bombay, India, 119 

Boston Elevated Ry., 1076 

Capitalization, cars and mileage in U. S., 

^ . 356 

Chicago railways, 1021 

Cleveland 3-cent fare, 187 

Copenhagen, Denmark, 158 

Cost of express terminal, Utica, N. Y., 


■ Cost of operation, Coney Island & Brook- 
lyn fare decision, 75 

Cost of generating energy, Hyde Park, 


Early interurban construction and daily 

receipts, 580, 581 
Earnings per capita of different cities 

cited in hearing at Boston, 915, 949 

Freight and express traffic, 749 

Freight handled by Toledo & Western R. 

R., 426 
Germany, 11 53 

Great Britain, Tramway operation, 905 

Gross receipts for 1908, 18 

Hudson-Fulton traffic in New York City, 

Indiana, 114 

Interurban, Methods of compiling [Rog- 
ers], 809 

London underground, 1136 

Montreal Street Ry., 998 

— —New South Wales, 1016 

New York surface traffic, 303 

Philadelphia, Passenger traffic, 895 

-Rhode Island, 74 

Street railway industry for five years, 589, 

c , c 1154 

■ Subway traffic in Paris and New York 

compared, 1180 

Tie consumption in U. S., 45 

Trackage of Beebe syndicate, New York 

State, 456 

Traffic on London underground railways, 

1 136 

Transfers on Newton, Mass., system, 271 

Steam railways: 

Accounting, Form of general balance 

sheet, 939 

Changes in mountain divisions possible 

through electricity, 11 73 
— —Through routes and joint rates. (See 

Through routes) 
Steam shovel and locomotive crane (Vulcan), 
- *6i8 

Steels, Tool, Patents, declared invalid, 226 
Stockton, Cal.: 

Central California Traction Co., 1200-volt 

interurban division, *56i 
Southern Pacific not to withdraw motor 

cars, 41 1 

Stoking discussed at Milwaukee, 71 
Store keeper: 

Brooklyn practice, 209 

Responsibility of, 840 

Work of [Stockwell], 322 

Storekeeping, Denver City Tramway, 505 
Store rooms: 

Columbus, Ohio, 397 

Oneida Ry., 970 

Stores, accounting and inventory [Pattee], 

834; Discussion, 792 
Strike, Pittsburgh, si 
Student courses (See Education) 

Beebe syndicate lines, *868 

Brooklyn & Coney Island R. R.. '252, 

*253. 256 
— ■ — Denver City Tramway, "499 

Design of, 11 27 

■ Los Angeles Pacific Co., *934 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co., 


Portable, British Columbia Electric Ry., 

530. *53i 

Portland Ry., *S49 

1200-volt, Stockton, Cal., *s62 

Subways : 

-Berlin, Proposed, *363 

Berlin and other cities compared [Kem- 

man], 13 

Paris [Whitten], * 1 t 78 

(See also New York City) 

Sunday operation: 

Eau Claire, Wis., 416 

London, Ont., 1083, 1249 

Seattle Electric Co., 535 

Surprise and efficiency tests, Necessity for, 


Sweepers, Care of [Leonhauser], 1139 
Swimming pool, Spokane, Wash., *525 
Switchboards, Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R., 


Switches, Signal (E. S. S. Co.), '946 
Switches, Track: 

Automatic (American), '291 

Electric (Squires), "614 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 


Syracuse, N. Y.: 

Accidents, Work for prevention of, 319 

Beebe syndicate lines, '456, *868 

Dog transportation prohibited, 335 

Fare increase on Oneida Ry., 1248 

Repair shops of Oneida Ry., *966; Com- 
ment, 1008 

Ticket accounting forms, Oneida Ry., 400 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. R., Os- 
wego division, 236 

Telephone dispatching systems [Wharff], 


Tacoma, Wash.: 

■ Fare increase, 1000 

Puget Sound Electric Ry. system, '540 

Freight traffic, 728 

Sale of Pacific Traction Co., 236 

Tacony, Pa., Holmesburg, Tacony & Frank- 
ford Electric Ry. : 

Bondholders' committee, 11 65 

— Receivership, 1081 

Tantalum lamps (Buckeye), *62o 

Tarrytown, White Plains & Mamaroneck Rail- 
way (See White Plains, N. Y.) 

Taunton, Mass. & Pawtucket St. Ry. Receiver- 
ship, 51 

Tax Commission. (See New York State Tax 

Taxes, Corporation: 

Action of Public Accountants' Associa- 
tion, 937 

Amendment of tax law urged, 961 

Denver discussion, 825 

[Duffy], c 289; c 609 

Letter presented by A. L. Linn, Jr., 798 

Rules for collection of, 1236 

Taxes, New York and Paris subways, 1183 
Telephones. (See Dispatching systems) 
Telephones on Akron, Ohio, road, 371 
Terminal stations: 

Freight and express, Utica, N. Y., *346 

Hoboken, N. J., Public Service Ry. 

[Schreiber], *204 
Hudson & Manhattan R. R., Cortlandt 

Street, *io2 

Ohio Electric Ry., '902 

Toledo, Ohio, *i75 

Terminals, Railroad: 

Electrification a necessity. Boston condi- 
tions, 389 

Street railway facilities at, 133 

Test board at Wheaton shops of Aurora, El- 
gin & Chicago Ry., *429 

Testing organization, A centralized [Callan], 

Testing underground cables, Methods, 838 

Faulty insulators, 817 

Line material, 816 

Overhead material, *832 

Surprise and efficiency, 454 

Theater, Lexington Park, Mass., *878 
Thermit welding process, Salt Lake City, 517 
Third Avenue Railroad (See New York City) 
Third rail: 

Central California Traction Co., *s6i 

Report, 817 

Through routes and joint rates: 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Co., 1248 

Michigan, 1165 

Pacific Electric Ry., 342, 379, 1247 

— ; — Toledo & Western R. R., 425 

Ticket accounting forms of Utica & Mohawk 

Valley and Oneida Railways, 400 
Ticket box. Little Rock, Ark., '845 
Ticket gates and boxes, Hoboken, *2o8 
Ticket sales, Paris and New York subways, 

1 1 81, 1182 

Ticket-selling booth and duplex check gates 
(Jones), *478 


Central Electric Traffic Association, 146 

• Croydon and London through service, 


Strip tickets suit in Philadelphia dismissed, 


Traffic stimulation and cash tickets, 167 


Consumption in U. S., 45 

Preservation, 686, 786, 816 

— — Steel, 836 

Steel, Denver, *49S 

— ■ — Wooden, 836 

Timber preservation, Discussion at Denver, 

686, 786, 816 
Time clock, Dey, 814 

Time tables, Discussion by Transportation & 

Traffic Association, 689 
Tires, Steel, Specifications, Brooklyn, 136 
Toledo, Ohio: 

Protective committee, Work of, 236 

Terminal of Ohio Electric Ry., *I75 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction 

Co. (See Findlay, Ohio) 
Toledo & Findlay Ry, Incorporation, 858 
Toledo & Indiana Ry., Sale, 1081, 1204, 1247 
Toledo Railways & Light Co., Default on in- 
terest payments, 91 
Toledo, LIrban & Interurban Ry., Sale of, 379, 

Toledo & Western R. R., Freight service, *424 
Ton-mile method of reporting, 725 
Toronto, Can.: 

Accounts, Freight, 8 

Employees, Payment of, 791 

- — —Height of car steps, 145, "183 

Report on proposed municipal lines, 1162 


Toronto & York Radial Ry.: 

Entrance to Toronto, 884 

Freight handling on Metropolitan Division, 


Simmen cab signal record, 624 

Tower wagons: 

Bombay, India, *977 

(General Vehicle Co.), '1074 

Towers, Steel, 815 

Track construction: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 398 

Beebe lines, Central New York, '459 

-Bombay, India, '974 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R., 398, 

* 1 1 76 

Cost, Discussion by C. II. Clark and 

George Weston, 683 

Denver, ^493 

Drainage, Seattle, '844 

Gage line, Wear of, 836 

— —Hudson & Manhattan R. R. tunnels, *io7 

Huntington R. R., *ioi2 

Life of track, Testimony of C. H. Clark, 


— — Los Angeles Pacific Co., *934 

Paved streets, Best type of construction 

in. Discussion, New York Street 

Railway Association, 1232 
Permanent construction, Chicago, Report 

of, Board of Engineers, 1213 
— — Question box of Engineering Association, 

Rail grooves and track gage for curved 

tracks [Filkins], *702 

— ■ — Reinforced concrete foundation, Eisig sys- 
tem, Germany, *no4 

Repair cost [Ayres], 746 

Report on, Engineering Association, 683, 

*698, *702 

• — ■ — Salt Lake City, * 5 1 8 

San Francisco, Market Street, 555, 1017 

— — Seattle, Wash., *844 

Special work: 

Bombay, India, ""975 

North Eastern Ry. England, *372 

Track department timekeepers, 813 
Track inspection, Fort Wayne & Wabash Val- 
ley Traction Co., *972 
Track repairs, Detroit, '977 
Track spacing and car widths in cities, 42, 79 
Trackless trolley in Europe, 285, *370 
Trackless trolley operating .expenses, Italy, 371 
Traffic, Schematic method of charting, Ber- 
lin, *3°3 

Traffic circulars: 
Cleveland, 228 

Discussion by Transportation & Traffic As- 
sociation, 649 

Traffic conditions in Pittsburgh, Report by 
Stone & Webster, 212 

Traffic control by "Superintendent of the 
Day," Boston, 2 

Traffic promotion: 

-Advertising for traffic, 963 

Development of long-distance business 

[Norviel], 361 . 
— — Interurban railways, 963 
London underground railways, *ii34 

Train orders. Discussion by Transportation & 

Traffic Association, 690 
(See also Rules) 

Transfer tables vs. entrance tracks for shops, 
Training men. (See Employees) 
967, 1009 

Transfer issuing machine (T. I. M. Co.), *6i6 
Train resistance [Ayres], *286, 744 

— ■ — Chicago crusade [Sullivan], 807 

Illegal use of, New York City, 1020 

New York City, Legal decision, 1090 

Newton, Mass., system, 271 

Report, Traffic Association, 779 

Richmond, Va., 334 

Rochester, N. Y., 1248 

— —Vancouver, B. C, *530 

Winnipeg, *882 


Self-cooling (Westinghouse) , "1073 

Small three-phase (Westinghouse), * 1 1 55 

Transmission lines: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 399 

^California high-tension [Foster], 803 

High-tension feeders, 815 

Protection for low-tension lines, 788 

Transportation & Traffic Association (See 
American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Transportation & Traffic Asso- 

Tree planting, Penn. R. R., 117 
Trenton, N. J., Ticket controversy, 484 
Trenton & New Brunswick R. R., Reorganiza- 
tion, 1 1 1 7 

Trenton, N. J., New Jersey & Pennsylvania 
Traction Co. : 

Passenger and freight business, '1048 

Power improvements, *ii30 

Trespassers warned at Rochester, 93 
Trolley bases, Truss-supported, Mobile, 17 
Trolley ear. Improved type (Westinghouse), 

Trolley harp (Smith), *i8s 

[Vol. XXXIV 

Trolley poles: 

Discussion by Engineering Association, 719 

Requirements of [Leonhauser], 1139 

(See also Pantograph) 

Trolley wheels: 

Mileage records, 840 

Self-lubricating (Smith), * 185 

Trolley wire: 

Report of Committee, 816 

Specifications for hard-drawn copper, A. 

S. for T. M., 181; Comment, 341; 

[Woods], c 368; [Lake], 432 

Standards discussed at Denver, 786 

Trolley wire pick-up (E. S. S. Co.), *6i 4 
Trolley wire supports in Cascade tunnel, '1056 

(Baldwin), *266 

Denver City Tramway, 511 

Hamburg - Blankenese - Ohlsdorf railway. 


Hudson & Manhattan R. R., *6o7 

M. C. B. type (Brill), '1075 

Plate frame M. C. B. type (American), 


Radial-axle. Warner type, Birmingham, 

Ala., *8 4 i 

Radial pendulum (Peckham), *io3o 

-Requirements of [Leonhauser], 1 143 

Specifications, Brooklyn, 139, *i4i, 142 

Standardization, Brooklyn, *64 


Cascade. (See Great Northern Ry.) 

— — Hudson & Manhattan Ry., Equipment, 

Los Angeles Pacific Co., "932 

Turbines, Steam: 

(British Thomson-Houston), '225 

Exhaust-steam, 5000-kw, Interborough 

power house, '257, 1146 

Impulse type (Bliss), '227 

Low-pressure, Report on, '739; Discus- 
sion, 723; Comment, 773 

— ■ — Manchester, England, 6000-kw turbo-alter- 
nator, *ii5o 

— ■ — Manchester records, 367 

Marine use of, 1091 

Thermo-dynamic features of A. E. G. tur-, *328 


Underground cable, Scraping of, 816 
Underground conduits: 

Appraisal in Coney Island & Brooklyn 

case, 399 
Chicago data, 1022 

Question box of Engineering Association, 

Report, 818 

Testing method, 838 

(See also Feeders) 

Union Railway, Gas & Electric Co. (See New 
York City) 

Union Railroad Co. (See New York City) 
Unit, New, Figure of merit proposed, 1090 
United Railroads of San Francisco (See San 

Francisco, Cal.) 
United Railways of St. Louis (See St. I ouis) 
United Railways & Electric Co. of Baltimore 

(See Baltimore) 
United Traction & Electric Co. (See Provi- 
dence, R. I.) 
Utah Light & Railway Co. (See Salt Lake 

Utica, N. Y., Freight and express terminal, 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry., Ticket account- 
ing forms, 400 

Valuation. (See Appraisal) 

Hydraulic, for turbine lubricating sys- 
tem (Watson-Stillman), '991 

Quick-service, for emergency straight air 

brake equipment (G. E.), '992 

Vancouver, B. C, British Columbia Electric 
Ry., '529 

Electric locomotives, ^407 

Stock issue, 482 

Vaults for records: 

— — Necessity of, 342 

Utica, N. Y., 348, *35o 

Velocipede, Three-passenger motor (Buda), 

# 227 

Ventilation of cars: 
Chicago Rys., *I095 

— — Connection between ventilation and heat- 
ing [McKeen], C1239 

Cooke vacuum system, Chicago, *62i 

Fresh air cars on Erie R. R., 1045 

Ventilators, 838 

Vermont, Accounting, Standard classification 

ordered by Commission, 53 

Cincinnati conditions, 1082 

New York City, Hearing, 889, 1083, 1138 

- — — Riding in motormen's, Akron, Ohio, 193 

■ Annual report, 158 

— —Decorative illumination, *I5I 
Snow removal, *I262 

Virginia Railway & Power Co. (See Richmond, 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

July — December, 1909.J 




Wages. (See Employees, Wages) 
Wagon shed, Utica, N. Y., "349 
Waiting stations: 

Beebe lines, Central New York, *46o 

Combined steam and electric, Huntington, 

L. I., *ioi4 

Concrete block, Evansville, Ind., *iso 

-Denver City Tramway, 505 

Los Angeles Pacific Co., *932 

Pacific Electric Ry., 568 

Toledo & Western R. R., '425 

Transfer stations, Improving conditions 

at, 387 
Washing cars, 838 
Washington, D. C: 

Accident claim from pass-holder [Lake], 


Cars, Pay-within, 237, *434 

Fenders and wheel guards, Hearings, 1205 

Rules and regulations of Commission, 91 

Stopping of cars, New order, 336 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 

Contract with express company, 336 

Freight and express service, 416 

Receivership, 998 

Washington Capital Traction Co.: 

Bond subscription, 886 

-Bonuses for employees, 127 

Cars, Pay-as-you- enter, 440 

Washington Railway & Electric Co., Dividend, 
1 1 1 7 

Employees, Payment of, 790 

Water meters discussed at Milwaukee, 72 
Water power stations: 

Portland, Oregon, *549 

San Francisco, Cal., 554 

Seattle, Wash., *539 

Spokane, Wash., 525 


Albright, P. H. Reconstruction and improve- 
ments of Los Angeles Pacific Co., 


Allen, C. L. Address of, 653 

Angerer, V. Rail corrugation, C477 

Ayres, M. V. Bearing friction and power 

consumption, 286 
Car weights as affecting operating cost, 



Beeler, J. A. Denver as a convention city, 17 
Bolen, N. W. Schooling of trainmen, 27 
Brockway, W. B. The electric railway audi- 
tor, 819 


Callan, J. G. A centralized testing organiza- 
tion, 1065 

Carpenter, E. C. Review of Denver meeting 
of the Claim Agents' Association, 1062 
Case, F. E. 1200-volt d. c. car equipment, 742 
Choate, J. K. Remuneration for handling 

United States mail, 1197 
Cooper, H. S. Advantages of open cars, C222 
Crail, J. H. Development of express business 

on interurban railroads, 326 
Crawford, J. B. Review of Denver meeting 
of Transportation & Traffic Associa- 
tion, 1064 


Davis, J. L. Latest improvements in electric 

railway apparatus, 25 
Doyle, J. S. Heat-treated carbon steel axles, 


Duffy, C. N. New corporation tax, C289 


Eichberg, Friedrich. Alternating vs. direct 

current, C223 
Eveleth, C. D. Latest developments in electric 

railway apparatus, 24 


Fassett, E. S. Address by, 35 

Filkins, C. W. L. Rail grooves and track 
gage for curved track, *702 

Ford, A. H. A central rating fire insurance 
bureau, c 406 

Foster, S. L. California high-tension trans- 
mission lines, 803 

Fowler, G. L. Distorted rails and corruga- 
tions, c 369 

Funk, J. S. Prepayment cars in Louisville, 
Ky., eg 1 1 


Gonzenbach, Ernest. Organizalion from the 
standpoint of the smaller companies, 

Waterbury, Conn., Extensions of the Connec- 
ticut Co., *i7o 

Watertown, N. Y., Sale of Black River Trac- 
tion Co. proposed, 123 

Wattmeters on cars [Henkle], 325; Discus- 
sion, 360 

(See also Coasting registers; Current 


Waverly, N. Y., Fare case ruling, 843 

Waynesboro & Monongahela Street Ry., Mort- 
gage, 858; Extensions, 1280 

Westchester Street Railroad (See White 
Plains, N. Y.) 

Westchester Traction Co. (See Ossimng, 
N. Y.) 

Western Ohio Railway (See Lima, Ohio) 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., Annual 
report, 190 

West Jersey & Seashore Railroad (See Cam- 
den, N. J.) 
Wheaton, 111., Motor testing board, *429 
Wheel guards, Seattle, Wash., 193 
(See also Fenders)' 

Wheel records: 
— ■ — Detroit, '405 

Rolled and forged steel, 613 

Wheels : 

Gage for mounting wheels, Report, 765; 

Discussion, 721 

Magnetic car wheels (Heinze), '1240 

Report, Engineering Association, 761, 764 

Sharp flanges, Remedy for [Price], 705 

Standardization, Brooklyn, *64 

Steel tired vs. rolled steel, Report, 763; 

Discussion, 720; Comment, 773 
White Plains, N. Y.: 

Foreclosure sale, 192, 483 

Tarrytown, White Plains & Mamaroneck 


Bond exchange, 415 
Sale, 1038, 1117 



White Plains, N. Y, : (Continued) 

Westchester Street R. R., Incorporation, 


Wilkes-Barre (Pa.) Ry. incorporated, 1247 
Wilmington, N. C, Tidewater Power Co., 

Bond sale, 334 
Wilson, H. M., and technical journalism, 99 
Winchester & Washington Ry., Officers, 159 
Winnipeg, Transfers, *882 
- — — Accident at power plant, 1275 
Winona Interurban Ry., Officers, 483 
Wire, Asbestos, for motor coils, 839 

(See also Feeders: Trolley wire) 

Wire gauges, Abolishing numbered, 818 
Wisconsin : 

— —Accounting system, 366, 388 
Extension work of University of Wiscon- 
sin, 73 

Grade crossings authorized, 1283 

Legislation, Report 0.1 [Fairchild], 70 

— — Valuation of public utilities by Railroad 

Commission, 393, 1047 
Wisconsin Electric & Interurban Railway As- 
sociation, Convention proceedings, 70 
Wisconsin Railroad Commission [Roemer], 

Worcester & Blackstone Valley Street Ry., 

Consolidated with Uxbridge, 1204 
Worcester & Holden Street Ry., Bond issue, 

270, 886 
Work cars: 

Combined car and sprinkler, San Fran- 
cisco, *56i 

Denver City Tramway, 503 

Sea View R. R., *830 


Yonkers R. R.. Receiver's certificates 415 
York (Pa.) Railways, Listing securities, 302 
Youngstown & Sharon Ry., Signals, *6io 


Harrington, W. E. Comparison of gasoline 
car, single-phase and steam locomotive 
costs, *i26o 

Hinkle, T. W. Application of integrating 
wattmeters to electric cars, 325 

Hutchinson, C. T. Electric system of the 
Great Northern Railway at Cascade 
tunnel, *io52; Comment, 1045 

Roemer, J. H. Some features of state regula- 
tion of public utilities, 1099 
Rogers, S. C. Interurban statistics, 809 
Rogers, S. C, W. H. Forse, Jr., and H. E. 

Vordermark. Uniform practice in the 
treatment of car-miles and car-hours, 

Rumery, R. R. Work of the state tax com- 
mission, 33 


Kemmann, G. Action necessary to assure a 
reasonable return on the investment, 

Lake, E. N. The new specification for hard- 
drawn copper wire, 432 

Lake, H. C. Accident claim from pass-holder, 

Assistance to passenger in alighting, 1237 

What constitutes a legal tender for a fare, 


Leonhauser, H. A. Hints on inspection and 

maintenance of car equipment, 1139 
Linn, A. L., Jr. Electric railway accounting, 



Maltbie, M. R. A rapid transit policy for 
Greater New York, 11 50 

McKeen, W. R., Jr. Connection between ven- 
tilation and heating, C1239 

Meyers, W. J. Railway depreciation accounts, 
1 146 

Moore, E. W. Reminiscences, 579 
Moulton, J. S. New York to Chicago by 
electric railway, 321 


Nichols, H. B. Rail corrugation, C438 
Norviel, F. D. Development of long-distance 
freight and passenger business, 361 

Schreiber, Martin. New terminal of the Pub- 
lic Service Railway at Hoboken, N. J., 


Shannahan, T. W. Proposed interurban rules 
in Ohio, C1154, C1238 

Shaw, J. F. Address of, 678 

Simms, W. H. Concerning courtesy, C405 

Sloat, F. J. J. Reminiscences of the Akron, 
Bedford & Cleveland R. R., 577 

Smith, H. G. H. Coasting registers on Man- 
hattan Elevated, C1029 

Smith, R. H. Co-operation between the oper- 
atino- and the claim departments, 143 

Squier, C. W. Bru=h tension. 428 

Stockwell, G. E. Work of the electric rail- 
way storekeeper, 322 

Stubbs, N. E. Pavrolls and timekeeping, 813 

Sturgis, C. I. Railway depreciation accounts, 

Sullivan, T. V. Chicago's transfer crusade, 

Thompson, C. E. Conductor's fare collections, 

Titus, J. V. E. Lightning protection, 801 

Van Zandt, A. D. B. Publicity for electric 

railways, 1067 
Vaughan, S. L. Express and freight traffic 

on interurban lines, 732 


Parshall, H. F. Alternating vs. direct cur- 
rent, c 369 

Pattec, E. S. Stores, accounting and inven- 
tory, 834 
Price, W. G. Sharp flanges, C705 

Renshaw, Clarence. Recent developments in 

railway motor control, *754 
Richcy, A. S., and Frederick Bonnet, Jr. 

Causes of breakage of high-tension 

glass insulators, 11 1 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Wallis, R. N. Address of, 729 

Wells, C. B. Selection, training and discipline 
of conductors and motormen, 796 

Wharff, E. M. Telephone equipment of Syra- 
cuse, Lake Shore & Northern Ry., 

Whitten, R. H. Comparison of operation ot 
the New York and Paris subway sys- 
tems, *ii78 

Wilson, J. H. Restricting the limits of the 

5-cent fare zone, 1106 
Winsor, Paul. Address of, 688 
Woods, C. F. Trolley wire specifications, 




[Vol. XXXIV 

Ainsworth, A. A., 1084 
Anderson, H. C, 448 
Argabrite, N. M., 94 
Armstrong, Thomas, 1084 
Arnold, Bion J., 381, 923 

Bangert, J. J., 486 

Barlow, W. E., 55 

Bassett, E. M., 128 

Baukat, J. G., 1284 

Beames, Clare F., 486 

Beardsley, H. M., 1250 

Beatty, Harold C, 195 

Berry, Charles F., 486 

Beyer, J. F., 448 

Bliss, E. R., 1084 

Boissevain, G. Louis, 1284 

Bowers, R. A., 1 1 19 

Boyl, Robert H., 486 

Brauer, George H., 381 

Brennan, T. J., *86o 

Brown, D. H., 636 

Brunner, R. I., 11 19 

Brush, Matthew C, 304, *4i7, 486 

Bushnell, Frederic N., 304 

Butts. Charles S., 11 19 

Calvert, Harry S., 1002 
Campbell, James, 1206 
Carpender, M. C, 890 
Carr, C. E. A., 1040 
Carroll, Raymond G., 486 
Castle, A. L., 890 
Castle, J. B., 890 
Chapman, G. P., 1206 
Churchill, A. A., 54 
Clark, J. P., 1084 
Cleveland, John A., 381, 417 
Coleman, J. C, 486 
Collins, D. J., 54 
Connette, E. G., *239, 417 
Crabbs, C. L., 11 19 
Cram, W. C, 890 
Crane, C. F., 1284 
Crawford, A. A., 54 
Crawford, John B., 55, 448 
Cummins, T. R., 1084 

Dailey, S. H., 1250 
Darlington, F. W., 956 
Dewey, F. H., 448 
Dickey, H. S., 1284 
Dickey, S. C, 484 
Dickson, E. J., 381 
Dies, A. J., 636 
Dill, S. J., 1250 
Dimmock, W. S., 304 
Dolan, Patrick H., 55 
Du Bois, F. M., 1084 
Dunlap, Elton G., 336 
Dutton, Arthur N., 448 
Dyren, J. A., 1084 

Earle, W. Z., 1084 
Edwards, R. W., 923 
Ellis, T. M., 1084 
Emerson, William Forbes, 129 
Espenshied, F. F., 1284 
Evans, W. H., 1040 

Fairchild, Jr., C. B., 923 
Farrington, H. E., 448 
Fitch, E. C, 860 
Flanders, H. M., 486 
Floy, Henry, 239, 1040 
Foote, F. J., 1 1 19 
Fordyce, Thomas N., 486 

Foss, H. C, 1 1 1 9 
Fraser, Harry, 636 
Freeman, P. A., 11 67 
Fritch, Louis C, 1002 

Gall, George H., 1167 
Gallagher, T. P., 890 
Gault, Emmet D., 336 
Gay, T. B., 304 
Gibbs, W. A., 128, 162 
Gibson, Harry J., 336 
Gilpin, H. Gordon, 195 
Glendenning, J. W., 273 
Glover, John A., 890 
Glover, M. W., 956 
Gonzenbach, Ernest, 417 
Goodwin, J. F., 1167 
Graham, W. M., 890 
Grant, George R., 11 19 
Gray, W. C, 1250 
Greatsinger, J. L., 1002 
Greenough, W. H., 1084 
Guthrie, F. E., 890, 1040 

Hammond, J. C, 923 
Handshy, C. F., 1250 
Hanlon, Jr., T. J., 1084 
Harrington, John, 54 
Harrison, J. O., 128 
Hartford, J. H., 336 
Haynes, C. L., 956 
Heaton, Walter S., 162 
Herd, Edward, 636 
Holland, S. K., 336 
Hosbury, George F., 94 
Hovey, M. H., 1250 
Howard, E. G., 1084 
Howard, R. M., 956 
Hudgen, H. W., 381 
Huntington, John T., 956, 1084 

Ingersoll, J. B., 1040, 1119 

Jenssen, A. G. H., 923 
Jilson, A. G., 304 
Johnson, C. H., 128 
Johnson, C. O., 448 
Joline, Adrian H., 273, 956 
Jones, B. J., 195, 239 

Kasemeier, E. L., 956 
Kennedy, A. C, 1284 
Kilgour, John, 336 
Kirchmer, George M., 1250 
Kretz, C. H., 1167 
Kruger, Charles O., *449 
Kuemmerlein, Jr., George, 128 

Lane, John J., 923 
Laney, Charles J., 1084 
Leland, E., 1119 
Lenhart, C. E., 1167 
Leonard, W. R., 448 
Lester, Justin W., 336 
Libbey, W. Scott, 304 
Lightfoot, A. A., 448 
Lincoln, Fred H., 1284 
Loftis, J. M., 860 
Loomis, Bruce E., 1084 
Lott, F. M., 55 
Lowry, John De, 860 
Lyon, Lloyd, 1206, 1250 

McCaffery, Thomas, ^448 
McCance, James B., 55 
MacCarthy, A. K., 54 
Macloskie, Charles, 273 

McCormick, Frank J., 195 
McCoy, William F., 956 
McDermot, George R., 11 19 
McDermott, William F., 94 
McGee, D. S., 54 
McGowan, Hugh J., 448 
McKay, C. R., 195 
McMillan, C. H., 336 
McPherson, H. J., 486 
McRoberts, Samuel, 636 
Maloney, W. A., 484 
Martin, J. P., 1 1 19 
Matthews, Robert Valentine, 486 
Meyer, J. H., 486 
Miller, A. D., 1040, 1120 
Miller, John H., 94 
Miller, R. D., 304 
Moore, Arthur C, 381 
Moore (Mrs.), G. Bedell, 448 
Morrison, W. R., 956 
Mower, S. W., 1284 
Munger, D. A., 1284 
Murdock, Charles M., 1206 
Murphy, P. J., 1207 

Newman, F. R., 1167 
Nichols, L. C, 1284 
Noyes, James B., 54 

O'Connor, George D., 1206 
Ogsbury, George W., 636 
Oppenheimer, I. L., 54, *94 
Oswold, L. C, 448 

Page, Henry C, *382, 448 
Paine, Waldo G., 923 
Palfray, 1040 
Palmer, Clinton E., 1284 
Pantel, Frederick L., 890 
Parsons, John B., 448 
Patten, William N., 304 
Patterson, H. C, 94, *i62 
Peek, Edward Folger, 94 
Pequegnat, Joseph, 54 
Pettengill, C. R., 11 19 
Phillips, Frank R., 1250 
Pierce, H. L., 1 119 
Polleys, William V., 956 
Preble, Raymond E., 54 
Prenter, S. L., 336 
Pritchard, F. E., 1167, 1207 
Putnam, W. R., 54 

Ralph John, Jr., 1284 
Rasmussen, E. D., 336 
Reed, E. D., 1120 
Renick, Alexander, 448 
Reynolds, Charles C, 55 
Richards, F. L., 162 
Richards, N. C, 54 
Richardson, C. F., 239 
Richardson, G. A., 1284 
Riley, J. J., 956, 1002 
Rivers, John A., 54 
Roach, J. F., 923 
Robinson, Douglas, 1206 
Robinson, Robert, 1284 
Rock, Jr., John, 54 
Rogers, S. C, 336 
Rolston, A. F., 1084 
Roseman, H. H., 94, 128 
Ryan, Edward B., 11 19 
Rykert, H. S., 1084 

St. John, John, 1084 
Sampson, A. J., 239 
Sargent, Wesley W., 956 

Satterlee, Wm. A., 486 
Sehmitz, G. A., 1084 
Scott, C. R., 1084 
Scott, H. P., 1084 
Scullin, T., 1284 
Seaman, Henry B., 1002 
See, P. V., 1250 
Sheldon, W. J., 1 167 
Shonts, Theodore P., 956 
Silvus, Walter, 636 
Slattery, P. J., 1167 
Smith, A. C, 1040 
Smith, J. Brodie, 162 
Smith, J. W., j 1 19 
Smith, L. L., 486, 636 
Smith, P. H., 128, 1084 
Sperry, Harlan, 54 
Stephens, B. R., 55, 239 
Stephenson, H. H., 1084 
Stevens, Albert, 1084 
Stewart, Wm., 1206 
Storrs, L. S., 448 
Stratton, Francis A., 162 
Swenson, Emil, 1250 
Sylvester, Carl A., '417 

Thompson, Jr., W. H., 195 
Tilley, H. E., 923 
Tilton, F. A., 890 
Tingle, J. P., 1206 
Todd, Robert I., 487, *636 
Tompkins, J. W., 417 
Tompkins, S., 1206 
Towne, W. T., 1284 
Trayers, D. G., 54 
Trimble, Byron, 54 
Twyford, H. B., 1284 

Van Leuven, J. P., 195 
Van Zandt, A. D. B., 1084 
Vollick, E. S., 636 
Von Schrenk, A., 890 

Wallace, D. G., 1084 
Wallace, Harold Ulmer, 381 
Watson, James Otis, 486 
Wayne, J. E., 1284 
Wegman, George M., 11 20 
Welfare, H. G., 1040 
Wells, George F., 487 
Westermeyer, August, 417 
Wetmore, C. W., 1206 
White, A. L., 923 
Whitlock, Charles F., 54 
Whiton, Herbert S., 304 
Whitridge, F. W., 337 
Whittemore, Arthur G., 273 
Whysall, George W., 890, 1040 
Wickenden, W. E., 636 
Wilcox, William R., 128, 381 
Wilcoxon, C. N., *382, 956 
Willis, Henry A., 956 
Wilson, Chester P., 1084 
Wilson. Hugh M., *i29 
Winsor, Paul, 11 19 
Witherby, Edwin E., 1206 
Wolf, C, 1284 
Wolfe, J. W., 94, 239 
Woodbridge, J. E., 381 
Wysor, W. W., 636 

Young, C. G., 336 
Young, J. A., 1 1 20 
Young, Oscar L., 273 


Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 


Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, President. J. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-president. 

A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-president. C. E. Whittlesey, Sec. and Treas, 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
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Frederic Nicholas, Associate Editor. 

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Entered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. V*t. ^ 
Copyright, 1909, by the McGraw Publishing Company. 


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BACK COPIES. — For back copies of the Electric Railway Journal, 
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DATE ON WRAPPER shows the month at the end of which the 
subscription expires. The sending of remittances for renewal prior to 
that date will be much appreciated by the publishers. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9500 
copies are printed. 

Seasonable Fire Precautions 

The Fourth of July this year falls on Sunday, so that 
there will be two consecutive holidays following the usual 
half-day on Saturday of this week. This means a large 
amount of excursion traffic. In providing the equipment 
and men to care for this service, railroad managers should 
not omit to remember the extra fire hazard which is al- 
ways present on the Fourth of July. Exploding firecrack- 
ers are apt to be thrown and rockets and bombs to fall in 
most unexpected places, and it is well to be prepared to 

extinguish incipient fires. A little care in looking over the 
condition of the hose and in seeing that it can be unreeled 
quickly, an examination of the water and sand pails and 
of the fire extinguishers to ascertain whether they are 
filled and ready for service, and the stationing of a few 
men at strategic points to look out for fire, may prevent 
serious damage to car houses and their equipment. At this 
time such precautions are especially desirable, because the 
height of the summer season is just beginning, and the de- 
struction of any considerable number of cars will mean a 
far greater loss than could be covered by the insurance. 

The Convention in Denver 

Interest in the coming convention at Denver continues 
to grow. The trip to the Far West offers so many oppor- 
tunities for pleasurable sightseeing and acquirement of in- 
formation from the electric roads in that territory relating 
to their many unique methods of construction and operation 
that railway officers in the East should not fail to take ad- 
vantage of them. The promise of new and unusual things 
to be seen, which is contained in the article by Mr. Beeler, 
printed elsewhere in this issue, is indeed inviting. Those 
who go to Denver may expect a royal reception, and those 
who stay away because the distance seems great will make 
the mistake of a lifetime. The convention program of all 
of the associations, judged by preliminary announcements 
of the various committees, will be better this year than 
ever before. With a large attendance promised from the 
Western States, manufacturers will have an excellent 
chance to interest new customers in a new field. 

Discontinuing Obsolete Reports 

In a paper describing the operating organization of the 
Harriman lines, read last month before the New York 
Railroad Club, Julius Kruttschnitt, director of maintenance 
and operation, described the purposes of a few of the many 
reports which are sent to his office, there to be condensed, 
combined and finally forwarded to Mr. Harriman and the 
boards of directors for their information in deciding on 
the policies to be followed in the management of the vast 
network of railroad lines bearing the name of the Harri- 
man system. Mr. Kruttschnitt emphasized the importance 
of having fresh, simple and accurate reports and statistics. 
He also pointed out the necessity of lightening the labor 
of those charged with the collection of statistics and the 
preparation of reports by promptly discontinuing any re- 
port when it has served its useful purpose. His test was, 
Does the report make money or does it save money for 
the company? If it does neither it is discontinued, to be 
revived at some future time if necessary, or permanently 
laid on the shelf. A large part of the work of the office 
force of every department head consists in the collection 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

and preparation of operating statistics and reports. Every 
change of administration introduces new requirements in 
this direction, and it frequently happens that much labor 
is added and none cut off. A certain amount of statistical 
information is essential for the intelligent conduct of any 
business, but, like many other things, it can be overdone. 
We would suggest that every department head of an elec- 
tric railway system apply Mr. Kruttschnitt's test to this 
detail of the work of the organization under him. 

The Third Avenue Reorganization 

A clear statement of the arduous conditions which in- 
vestors in street railway properties have had to face dur- 
ing the past 15 years is given in the petition of the re- 
ceiver of the Third Avenue Railroad Company to the 
Public Service Commission, outlining the company's plan 
of reorganization. The petition says : 

Twice within a generation the progress of science has 
necessitated the entire reconstruction of the Third Avenue 
Railroad — first by installation of the cable system, and, 
second, by electrification, and that process may possibly be 
repeated. Property of this class is also specially sensitive 
to the exercise of taxing powers, and it may at any time be 
imperiled by State regulation, and, in addition, we have to 
face the popular delusion that while in all other depart- 
ments of life the purchasing power of a nickel has during 
the last generation nearly been cut in two, and the price 
of everything proportionately raised, the people still have 
transportation at prices which prevailed in 1870. 

The condition here outlined could have been truthfully 
shown to be even worse than that stated, because while 
the. length of ride given for a single fare has vastly in- 
creased since 1870, the average fare paid is very much less 
than that received by the companies 40 years ago. It is true 
that the changes from horse to cable and from cable to 
electricity were justified at the time by sound economic 
reasons. If horses had been retained on the north and 
south lines, as they have been on many of the crosstown 
lines in New York, conditions would be much worse than 
they are now. The plan of reorganization outlined for the 
Third Avenue Railroad Company recognizes this obsoles- 
cence as a legitimate charge. The assessment of $25 per 
share on the capital stock, to paid in in cash, is to be charged 
to capital account as a liability through the issue of new 
stock to shareholders. The $4,000,000 of additional cash 
capital to be raised in this manner will be used largely in 
making immediate improvements and paying for those al- 
ready carried out under the receivership. 

During the past few years the increased cost of provid- 
ing the added service given and the reduced purchasing 
power of the average fare have more than offset the 
benefits gained by the changes in motive power. Most 
legislators and many social economists have ignored this 
fact. The increase in the gross business of the street rail- 
way companies has made more impression than the condi- 
tions under which it was being secured, and the railway 
companies have seemed fit subjects for added taxation, 
until now there is little incentive left for the investment of 
new capital. Any diminution of the progressive develop- 
ment of city transportation systems with the reasonable de- 
mands of the public and the increase of population would 
be unfortunate, but it is certain that but little further in- 
vestment can be expected in city railway enterprises while 
present conditions continue. 

The Accounting Association and Conference 

President Wallis and the executive committee of the 
American Street & Interurban Railway Accountants' As- 
sociation have given official expression to their desire to 
promote the work of the Central Electric Accounting Con- 
ference for the extensive interurban interests in the Cen- 
tral States. There can be no doubt that the smaller con- 
ference will supplement in an advantageous manner the 
efforts of the national association. 

By reason of its wider scope, the national association is 
obliged to extend its activities generally for the benefit 
of all of the electric railway properties of the country; it 
cannot well subordinate the properties of one class to the 
interests of another group of lines, nor can it fail, if it is 
to continue to be successful, to act so far as possible for 
all the roads. At the same time it should be recognized that 
the managements of the Western interurban properties feel 
that their accounting problems, leaving out of consideration 
the questions of executive interpretation of the accounts or 
matters of operation, differ in various respects from those 
of the urban roads. Outside of the cities and towns, some 
of the large interurban companies of the Central West, by 
reason partly of their extensive mileage and comprehen- 
sive plans for the future, have many of the physical and 
operating characteristics of the older steam lines. Local 
conditions will determine largely the measure of the rela- 
tive increase in their freight and passenger traffic, but if 
the interurban passenger business is regarded as in its 
infancy, the interurban freight business may fairly be 
considered as having just passed through the dangers at- 
tendant upon birth. 

Whatever points of difference in practice, if any, de- 
velop in the futuie, it is clearly to the advantage of al! the 
electric railways to unite harmoniously on all matters of 
national importance. The Central Electric Accounting 
Conference, as an organization covering a limited territory, 
has been able to meet frequently for the purpose of discus- 
sion by its members of various subjects relating to the 
work of the auditor, and if its influence will be extended 
by the proposed direct affiliation with the Central Electric 
Railway Association the amalgamation will be in the in- 
terest of the properties affected. 

Specializing in the Control of Traffic 

As an electric railway system grows, the importance of 
watching the movement of traffic in close detail increases 
by leaps and bounds. On a small road it is, of course, de- 
sirable to keep in close touch with the travel, but the sched- 
ule is generally less flexible where only a few cars are 
run, and the opportunity to save money through the re- 
duction of platform labor and other expenses of the car 
mileage is very limited. On the small system it is not diffi- 
cult for the superintendent to follow the traffic require- 
ments, in addition to numerous other duties associated 
with the office, but as the number of cars on the lines in- 
creases a point is reached where some one skilled subordi- 
nate official needs to spend most of his time in the personal 
control of the service. In some cities this is done by the 
appointment of an assistant superintendent; in others a 
special office is established in the heart of the congested 
district, where a close watch can be kept on the regularity 

July 3, 1909.] 



of the service and untoward conditions are overcome by 
telephonic instructions to the division headquarters. 

A recent development in Boston in connection with the 
specialized study of traffic conditions suggests what may 
be done with little additional cost to improve the service 
conditions on a large system. A few weeks ago an office 
filled by a so-called "Superintendent of the Day" was 
established for the purpose of concentrating at a single 
central point the authoritative handling of the entire ele- 
vated, subway, tunnel and surface system of the Boston 
Elevated Railway Company, upon which are operated 
nearly 52,000,000 revenue car-miles per year. The general 
operation of the car service in Boston is under the imme- 
date jurisdiction of a superintendent of transportation, 
and the car schedules are prepared by a branch of his de- 
partment; but, aside from the hour-to-hour handling of 
the service through the different divisions of the system, 
many questions of administration and discipline, service 
economy and public relations fall within the jurisdiction 
of the head of the transportation department. The estab- 
lishment of the office of superintendent of the day imme- 
diately relieved the head of the department of many mi- 
nute details which, while they are of the greatest combined 
importance, interfere with the broadest administration of 
other matters if handled by a general operating officer. 

In the Boston arrangement each division superintendent 
fills the office of superintendent of the day approximately 
once in 11 days, the work being taken up in rotation. In 
this way the detailed operation of the system is placed in 
charge each 24 hours of an experienced official, who re- 
mains on duty from the morning of one day to the morn- 
ing of the next. During this time he is in constant and 
immediate touch by telephone with every part of the com- 
pany's property and service, and keeps special watch of 
the weather conditions, traffic movements, condition of the 
rail, occurrence of all delays of over three minutes caused 
by defective cars. He also has charge of the operation 
of sand cars in winter weather, relief of traffic congestion, 
promptness of special car movements and previous ar- 
rangement of pilotage through foreign divisions, accidents, 
fires and other emergencies. The occurrences reported are 
kept on a log sheet, and in general the duties of this official 
correspond somewhat to those of the superintendent of 
power distribution in the same comp^iy, or to the post of 
officer of the day in the army. The work is entirely dis- 
tinct from that of a train dispatcher, since it very largely 
consists of remedying conditions which are out of the ordi- 
nary, and does not concern itself particularly with normal 
or routine matters which would be handled in natural 
course by division superintendents. 

A primary advantage of this arrangement is the location 
at a fixed point of an official to whom any division head 
or inspector can report anything unusual, but who is not 
obliged to give any time to consider the question of car or 
train movements which are on schedule. The existence 
of such an officer enables the widest variety of help to be 
given in times of emergency and tends to stimulate the 
efficiency of the service as a whole. The filling of the 
position in rotation tends to increase the efficiency of the 
incumbents through the broader knowledge of the system 
and closer mutual acquaintance which they gain, and, as 

well, relieves the company from the cost and annoyance 
of manipulation by men of less practical experience. Al- 
though it is almost impossible to express the value of such 
organization in terms of money, there is no doubt that the 
taking up of many loose ends, which is continually being 
done, tends to save the company money which would 
otherwise be lost, and, in addition, produces a better serv- 
ice for the same expenditure. 

Rapid Transit Conditions in Berlin 

Those who have had to confront obstacles in the de- 
velopment of rapid transit lines in this country will read 
with interest the account of how similar projects are con- 
ducted and controlled in Germany. Mr. Kemmann, the 
author of the article in this issue on the Berlin rapid tran- 
sit situation, has long been associated with the transporta- 
tion development in that city, and his article indicates that 
in many respects the conditions in Berlin resemble those 
which are found in practically every American city. As 
here, there is a tremendous demand on the part of resi- 
dents in the suburban districts for the most expensive form 
of high-speed transportation, and little regard for the cost 
of providing it. Every section of the city wants the maxi- 
mum which can be furnished in the way of speed, com- 
fort and frequency of trains, but is unwilling to contribute 
more to secure improved transit facilities than a mini- 
mum in the way of fares. The existing rapid transit com- 
pany in Berlin is earning but little more than the legal rate 
of interest, but is expected to build extensions which would 
be enormously expensive and would be of problematical 
financial merit. 

In some respects the situation in Berlin is worse than 
that in this country. The metropolitan district of that 
city is composed of an aggregation of communities which 
are politically separate from each other. The craze for 
municipal consolidation, which is so common in American 
cities, perhaps because of the American pride in bigness, 
does not seem to have had its counterpart in Germany. 
Consequently, there is no central political authority in 
Berlin to which broad and comprehensive schemes of rapid 
transit development can be referred. On the other hand, 
progress in the direction of subsidizing extensions of rapid 
transit lines has gone further in Germany than here. 

It is true that occasionally in this country, more often, 
however, in the past than recently, short sections of track 
have been built as extensions to some surface railways by 
people interested in the real estate which would be served, 
and these extensions have then been leased at a nominal 
charge to the local railway company. But elevated or 
subway extensions to such roads vary greatly from those 
which can be included in this category. The first sugges- 
tion that a district in New York which would be benefited 
by a rapid transit extension should be assessed for part or 
all of the cost of its construction was made by the City 
Club, and the principle has since received the partial in- 
dorsement of the New York Chamber of Commerce, al- 
though the legal status of the plan yet remains to be de- 
termined. The plan of subsidizing extensions of this kind 
has been carried much further in Berlin. One such line has 
been built. Others arc being favorably considered, and 
some of them will probably be constructed, if the antag- 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

onistic interests of the various sections of the city can be 

We are somewhat skeptical of the practicability of the 
zone system for American rapid transit lines, as suggested 
by Mr. Kemmann, unless it is very much simpler than 
that used abroad. We believe, for instance, that a satis- 
factory system of double or triple fares might be worked 
out with 5 cents as a basis, but see no advantage under 
most conditions in any subdividing of the nickel. Amer- 
ican custom is so used to the nickel fare and the currency 
in this country is so well adapted to that rate of fare as 
a minimum that the conditions differ greatly from those 
in Germany, where a fare with many gradations is un- 
doubtedly the most desirable to use. 

Another interesting point made in the article is that all 
transfers issued in Germany, even by the surface lines, 
are in no sense "free transfers," as that term is understood 
in this country. They simply form part of a system of 
through fares for which a charge is made according to 
the distance traveled. In other words, the company sells 
a through ticket at a price based on the length of ride, 
and where one car will not carry the passenger to his 
destination it gives him the privilege of transferring to 

Mr. Linn's Paper 

The paper by Mr. Linn read before the meeting of the 
Street Railway Association of the State of New York, 
this week, under the broad title, "Electric Railway Ac- 
counting," is presented as a study based on usage of 
"a practical application of the uniform system of ac- 
counts for street railroad corporations prescribed by the 
Public Service Commission of the Second District." As the 
information and discussion by the author concerning feat- 
ures of the classification are based on actual experience 
with the three schedules during the first six months of 1909, 
the point of view possible is different from that of com- 
panies which introduce the accounts only as required by 
the orders of the commission. These orders directed the 
installation of the capital accounts as of Jan. 1, 1909, and 
of the income and expense accounts and traffic statistics 
as of July 1, 1909. The advantage of a preliminary ex- 
perience for six months of the accounts other than those 
which pertain to capital is obvious. 

In the discussion of the capital accounts, reference is 
made to the requirement of the New York Commission 
that discount on securities issued shall not be charged to 
property account, and to the provision of the Wisonsin 
classification permitting discount on bonds and the ex- 
penses incurred in connection with their issue to be cap- 
italized. This, in fact, is in accordance with the law of 
Wisconsin, which recognizes discount on bonds as part of 
the cost of raising the capital. 

While the opposition mentioned concerning the deter- 
mination of the probable liability on account of casualties 
has some justification in the necessary inaccuracy of the 
result, it is plain that accrued liability of some extent is 
inevitable in the average property. It is good accounting 
practice to make some provision for this liability from the 
current revenues, and while it may develop that the allow- 
ance is inadequate or excessive, the outcome will be a 

nearer approach to the exact requirements than if no effort 
had been made to estimate this expense. 

On the subject of depreciation it is maintained by the 
author that inspection of the dividends paid by electric 
railways, if such corporations have not charged the proper 
amounts to depreciation in the past, indicates not that 
profits have been distributed too generously, but that rates 
of fare have been too low. Recent events have demon- 
strated that rates of fare have been too low in many in- 
stances; where the density of population, and therefore the 
traffic, is light, low fares will not stimulate travel materi- 
ally, and the fare may have to be high if a desired service 
is to be maintained and a reasonable profit assured. 

Mr. Linn apparently assumes that the corporations will 
receive fair and impartial treatment from the State com- 
mission on these questions of public relations, and discusses 
the tendency toward avoidance, under commission regula- 
tion, of hasty legislation. 

The paper merits the attention of all who are interested 
in the accounting and financial problems of electric rail- 

Assigning Motors to Car Houses 

The proper distribution of equipment in relation to traffic 
is always a problem on a large system. Closely associated 
with it is the assignment of railway motors to different car 
houses. When a number of new cars are purchased fully 
equipped for service, the traffic conditions generally dictate 
where the motors shall be placed, or, rather, where the 
cars in complete condition shall be assigned. The initial 
selection of motors, when properly made, takes into con- 
sideration the character of routes, grades, car weights re- 
quired, stops per mile, and other points which need not be 
repeated here. These conditions are to some degree per- 
manent on any given division of a large system for any 
fixed set of routes ; but as traffic requirements change, the 
runs have to be altered, and it often happens that a motor 
which is the best for the purpose on a given division having 
one set of runs becomes either seriously overloaded or else 
has more or less excess capacity with another set of runs. 

Large systems frequently use upward of a dozen different 
types of railway motors in all stages of condition, varying 
from the outfit just in from the factory to the old-time 
forms of equipments with one foot in the scrap heap. The 
plan of confining motors of one or two types to independ- 
ent service, or keeping down the variety of motors housed 
at any given car station, therefore, has much to commend 
it. Where it is possible to use but one or two types of 
motors at a single car house, the number of spare parts, and 
notably armatures, that have to be kept on hand is greatly 
reduced, and the crew of the house tends to become expert 
in the handling of minor repairs and adjustments of this 
small number of varieties. At the central storehouse a 
smaller number of spare units will meet the situation, where 
the motors are well centralized in service. The supply of 
spare armatures and brushes, field coils, and other parts 
proceeds in such cases from the central stores department, 
resulting in a closer check on the number of replacements 
required than in cases where armatures and other fittings 
are transferred indiscriminately from one car house to 
another. There is less chance of a shortage of important 

July 3, 1909.] 



parts where the car houses are dependent upon the central 
store department rather than each other. This does not 
mean that it is inadvisable for adjacent car houses to co- 
operate with each other in the interchange of equipment but 
when such things are done, a full and complete record 
should be transmitted to the officer responsible for the 
rolling stock's detailed service. 

Closer study of the behavior of motors in actual service 
is desirable, with particular reference to the ability of 
given equipments to meet the traffic requirements without 
excessive temperature rise and with the minimum number 
of breakdowns or partial failures in service. There is also 
much more opportunity to analyze motors and their per- 
formance through the installation of test recording watt- 
meters than is generally appreciated. In the search for 
economy which has been so prominent among progressive 
companies in the past two or three years the failures of 
equipment have received well-deserved attention from op- 
erating men, but less consideration appears to have been 
given to the relative value of motors for specific divisional 
service, after that service has departed somewhat from the 
requirements in force when the apparatus was purchased. 
Practical investigations with the thermometer and the re- 
cording wattmeter are inexpensive ; capacity costs money 
if it is not utilized; and the fitness of given motors for 
specific service is well worth ascertaining. Obviously, with 
all the severe conditions which surround railway motor 
operation in the city street, one cannot expect to fit the 
motor to the changing schedule with perfect accuracy, but 
at least one can find out whether it is more desirable to 
retain a given type on a given division, to substitute an- 
other type or to increase the number of varieties in a given 
car house. With the simple and effective means of analysis 
now at hand there is no reason why motor distribution 
should not receive scientific study in a wider field than has 
previously been cultivated. 

A Correspondence Coarse in Electric Railway Engineering 

Attention has been directed from time to time in these 
columns to the work of the committee on education of 
the American Street & Interurban Railway Association. 
When this committee was appointed last year there was no 
distinct idea in the minds of its members as to its exact 
functions. The first duty was to determine the lines of 
work which were feasible and which would be of greatest 
service to the member companies of the association. As 
the individual members of the association had previously 
shown great interest in a study of methods for recruiting 
•the executive and engineering forces of their companies, 
this subject was considered first. The time between the 
appointment of the committee and the date of the con- 
vention of 1908 was so short that it was only possible to 
obtain incomplete information from a few companies which 
were known to have successfully inaugurated definite plans 
for educational work. No recommendations were made in 
the 1908 report, as the data were not complete enough to 
enable the committee to draw conclusions. 

During the past year the committee has been accumu- 
lating a large amount of information, which probably will 
result in the formulation of several important recommenda- 
tions to be presented to the association. The graduate ap- 

prentice plan has had a gratifying development and the 
member companies are regarding with increasing favor 
the systematic recruiting and training of technical gradu- 
ates in electric railway work. It will be a number of years 
before the results of the application of this plan will be 
evident, but one confidently expected result is an increase 
in the number of technically trained men occupying posi- 
tions of executive responsibility. 

In addition to the work on the apprentice scheme, the 
committee has devoted attention to the problem of helping 
the large body of young men who can never hope to secure 
a college training. These young men must educate them- 
selves while holding their present positions. Many of them 
only need encouragement and guiding in this commendable 
educational process. It is the intention of the committee 
on education to formulate a plan to supply the incentive 
to study and to suggest lines of profitable application to 
student employees. The committee believed the establish- 
ment of a correspondence course under the auspices of the 
association would bring about the desired end, but had 
some doubt as to whether such a plan would meet with 
the approval of the member companies. Since the replies 
have been received to a circular letter sent out on April 
10, asking the member companies their opinion as to the 
value and need of such a correspondence course, all doubts 
have been removed. With practical unanimity the plan has 
been endorsed. One company writes : 

We feel that anything which can be done to increase the 
knowledge of employees must not only benefit them, but 
also the company, in making it possible for the company 
to secure a higher standard of efficiency of the work of 
the men. If there is any organized movement of this 
character it will raise the standard of efficiency of street 
railway employees in general. 

Replies from other companies have been equally en- 
couraging, and it now remains to ascertain the practicabil- 
ity of such a plan by putting it into effect. 

It is understood that the committee will recommend that 
a correspondence course be established by the association, 
with the stipulation, however, that a financial plan be de- 
vised by which no additional burden shall be placed upon 
the treasury of the association. It is probable that it would 
be necessary to appoint an assistant secretary, who would 
have charge of the educational work and devote his entire 
time to it. No doubt such a plan would cost a considerable 
sum of money annually to maintain, but if those in favor 
of the scheme can demonstrate that it will produce the de- 
sired results the money will be forthcoming. 

There is no agency which can do this work more effi- 
ciently than the association as at present organized. The 
general secretary is in a position to give to the suggested 
new department his advice and general oversight. If a 
man with the proper qualifications can be secured to man- 
age the details there is no question as to the ultimate suc- 
cess of the plan. He must be a practical railway man. 
who is in hearty sympathy with the desire of young men 
for advancement and education. He will need tact and 
patience, and will find it necessary to frequently visit his 
pupils and their employers in order to maintain a close 
personal interest in them. He must be one who has worked 
in the shops and car barns as a boy. and who can think and 
feel as boys do. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 


The Toronto & York Radial Railway owns the interurban 
lines which radiate from Toronto north, east and west. 
These roads are operated as separate divisions under the 
names Metropolitan, Scarboro and Mimico, but are con- 
trolled from the main office at Toronto. The passenger 

Fig. i. — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial Railway — Later 
Type of Motor Express Car with Bide Windows 

service of all three lines is substantially alike, but the 
Metropolitan division also does a heavy freight and deliv- 
ery business, the development of which has been so re- 
markable that it offers the opportunity for a special article 
on the several features which have contributed to it. The 
importance of this division's freight business may be gaged 
by the fact that in 1907 its gross earnings were $33,896, or 
over 23 per cent of the total gross earn- 
ings of the Metropolitan line. 


The Metropolitan division is an odd 
combination of the early and present 
types of electric interurban railway. It 
consists in all of 52 miles of single track, 
of which the first 25 miles out of North 
Toronto follow the highway to Newmar- 
ket over almost all the ups and downs 
of a rolling country, while the remaining 
section of later construction is built on 
graded right-of-way to Jackson's Point, 
on Lake Simcoe. The older portion of 
the line was taken over in 1904 by the 
present owners, who have since made 
many betterments in track, line and roll- 
ing stock. In general, the track, which is 
of 4-ft. 8j/2-in. gage, is of 60-lb. rails 
laid on cedar or tamarack ties spaced 2 
ft. centers in gravel or cinder ballast. The respective me- 
chanical and electrical connections are four or six-hole 
angle joints with electric brazed bonds. The turnouts on 
the highway section average about y$ mile, to accommo- 
date the hourly schedule, but on the Jackson's Point section 
they are about 2j/£ miles apart. 

The overhead line is of the bracket type, with 30-ft. to 
35-ft. cedar poles spaced 100 ft: The old line to New- 

market is No. 00 trolley, with 500,000 cir. mil feeders and 
No. 0000 in proportion to the load, arranged on the ladder 
system of feeding from different power plants. The new 
line from Newmarket to Jackson's Point is No. 0000 trol- 
ley, with feeder construction similar to the old line. Feeder 
taps are made every 1000 ft. The pole line carries tele- 
phone wires in connection with the Stromberg-Carlson sys- 
tem of dispatching. The high-tension line, which is also 
carried on the trolley poles, is a three- 
phase, 60-cycle, 16,000-volt system. One 
power house is at Bond Lake, 18 miles 
from Toronto, and contains one 300-kw, 
GE d.c. generator and two Westinghouse 
150-kw, combination a.c. and d.c. gen- 
erators, with the necessary step-up trans- 
formers. The substation is located at 
Newmarket, 27 miles from Toronto, and 
contains two 150-kw Westinghouse ro- 
taries with necessary transformers. The 
additional power for the new extension 
is obtained from a steam plant at Kes- 
wick, where two 150-kw GE generators 
are installed. The company is finding 
this power equipment inadequate for its 
growing needs, and in the near future 
will convert its steam plants into rotary 
substations, using Niagara power, which 
will be supplied from Toronto. 


The company operates 18 passenger 
cars in winter and 20 in summer on this division, with spe- 
cials on Saturdays, Mondays and holidays. Illustrations are 
presented of the combination passenger and baggage cars. 
The baggage compartment is used for carrying small 
freight, such as dogs, baby carriages and bicycles, for the 
flat rate of 25 cents any distance. During the winter the 
company operates passenger cars to Newmarket every hour 

Fig. 2. — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial Railway — Standard 

Passenger Car 

in the busy parts of the day, but the service to Jackson's 
Point and Sutton is less frequent. In the summer, however, 
there is a great deal of pleasure travel to the company's 
park at Bond Lake, and also to Morton Park and Jack- 
son's Point, which are popular fishing, boating and bathing 
resorts on Lake Simcoe. 

Bond Lake Park contains 200 acres, and, with its lake, 
forms an ideal place for excursionists who want the quiet 

July 3, 1909.] 



of a natural grove. The boats and merry-go-round are op- 
erated by the company, and the refreshment stands, etc., by 
a single concessionaire. Special attention has been given to 
developing traffic for this park from Sunday school organ- 
izations and other large societies. The regular rate to indi- 
viduals is 65 cents, but when picnic organizations guaran- 
tee 200 or more attendants the rate is only 30 cents for a 
total ride of 36 miles. 


The territory through which the Metropolitan division 
operates is principally a well-developed farming country, 
growing produce, which formerly reached Toronto and 
other towns through long wagon hauls. The company's 
freight solicitor in beginning his campaign made a house- 
to-house canvass, familiarized himself with the details of 
the farm shipments and pointed out to the farmers the 
great saving in time that would result in having their 
produce go by electric railway. The railway has located 
sidings at points other than stations, where sufficient traffic 
has been guaranteed to cover the cost of installation and at 
other points where annual switch or siding rental is paid. 

All express or freight is handled, using the standard 
Canadian steam railroad classification. The rates of the 
company compare favorably with steam road tariffs, of 
which it receives the regular pro rata on interchange ship- 
ments just like a steam railroad. Special schedules are 
arranged to take shipments at the time most convenient to 
the farmers and merchants. In four of the towns served 
it is customary to have weekly markets — in Sutton on Mon- 
day, in Newmarket on Saturdays, in Aurora on Thursdays, 
and in Schomberg on Wednesdays. At first the farmers 
had the habit of riding to market on the passenger cars, 
bringing with them a few baskets of eggs or small quan- 
tities of vegetables. This practice was not very profitable 
to the railway company, and by arranging to have freight 
cars take the shipments to market just before or imme- 
diately after the passenger cars this was eventually turned 
into a paying proposition. 

By keeping track of fairs and horse markets, the corn- 

Fig. 3. — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial 
Railway — Freight House at North Toronto 

pany secures a considerable number of live stock shipments, 
as it sends letters and rate cards to solicit this business 
from the merchants and farmers before they have decided 
how they will ship the animals. A spirited campaign has 
been conducted among the farmers to induce them to take 
up the grain elevator question. There are now two grain 
elevators at Schomberg Junction, and it is expected that at 
least three more will be erected by the farmers between 

Newmarket and Sutton. Hay shipments have been secured 
in a rather unusual way. The company raises its own 
hay for its delivery horses, and owns a baling press. This 
press is rented to other farmers, who then ship the baled 
hay via the electric railway. 

Besides the agricultural and live stock shipments, at- 
tention has been given to other kinds of freight business. 
Newmarket, for instance, is the Canadian manufacturing 
headquarters of the Office Specialty Manufacturing Corn- 

Fig. 4. — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial 
Railway — Early Type of Motor Express Car 
Without Side Windows 

pany, or American firm of Yawman & Erbe, office furni- 
ture. The electric railway now handles the goods of this 
factory, from the rough lumber to the finished product. 
Of course, this class of traffic calls for interchange with 
steam roads. At North Toronto connection is made with 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad, at Richmond Hill with the 
Canadian Northern Ontario Railway, and at Schomberg 
Junction with the Schomberg & Aurora Railway. The lat- 
ter is a 15-mile road owned by the electric interests, and 
it gives a connection with the Grand Trunk Railway. 


Aside from foreign cars, all of the freight traffic is car- 
ried by 18 freight cars and four motor express cars. These 
motor express cars have separate vestibuled cabs for the 

Fig. 5. — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial 
Railway Gasoline Motor Truck for City Freight Handling 

motorman, but the bodies have grilled or wired windows 
in addition to the center and end side doors. Quite an 
interesting feature of the express cars is the neat appear- 
ance of the ends, which tends to make them look more 
like the passenger cars. For convenience in handling milk 
cans, all of these motor cars are furnished with chain- 
hung shelves, which are folded against the sides at other 
times. All classes of rolling stock are stored either in a 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. I. 

sheet-iron shed at Newmarket or brick houses at Bond 
Lake and Deer Park. 

Careful check of the whereabouts of the freight cars is 
kept by the dispatcher, who controls their movements by 
telephone. As it is important that this control should be as 
direct as possible to prevent interference with the passen- 
ger schedule, some of the heavy freight is moved at night 
to avoid such difficulties. 

Freight stations are maintained at North Toronto, New- 
market and other important places on the line. The build- 
ing illustrated is one of the brick freight stations at North 
Toronto. The freight agents also act as canvassers and 
are paid fixed salaries. 


The Toronto & York Radial Railway maintains a wagon 
call and delivery service, because it has no trackage through 
the city of Toronto, and thus far has not been permitted to 
operate freight cars therein. The terminal of the Metro- 
politan division is at the Canadian Pacific Railway crossing" 
and Yonge Street, about 2 miles from the business center 
of Toronto. To make the collections and deliveries the 
company now requires three two-horse wagons, two one- 
horse wagons, besides one three-ton and one five-ton gaso- 
line motor truck. It may be said in passing that the 
company had to conduct a private educational campaign 
to make the chauffeurs of these motor trucks understand 
that their duties are precisely the same as those of the 
teamsters as regards freight handling. This point should 
be borne in mind by other railways which are considering 
the use of motor trucks in cities where automobiles and 
taxicabs may outnumber the chauffeurs. 

The charge for the regular wagon service was formerly 
\y 2 cents per 100 lbs., with a minimum of 15 cents. This 
charge has now been increased to 2 cents per 100 lb., with 
a minimum of 20 cents. As a matter of fact this company 
practically has been giving an express service at freight 
rates, and has come to the conclusion that those who want 
the quickest possible service ought to pay more than 2 
cents per 100 lb. To this end an express wagon will be 

when they expect to ship or receive goods, what complaints 
they have as to delays, etc. 

A dispatcher controls the movements of the teamsters 
and chauffeurs, as he receives all telephone messages from 
merchants and wagon men en route. He must record the 
names of the consignors, the quantity of material to be 
shipped, when the shipment is to be ready for the wagon 



Particulars of Sundry Freight Charges, o 

utsl.ndlng al 

- Station, mo 

nth ending 



Fig. 7. — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial 
Railway — Particulars of Outstanding Freight Charges 

and to whom the call was assigned. The wagon men also 
keep a form, on which they record the time they arrived 
and left certain places, and how much material was han- 
dled. When their assignments are completed, the teamsters 

Toronto and York Radial Railway 


A mounts collected or credited, for which no debt! exists in month oj 

Agents must take specially to debit all collection* and debits enumerated below. 

I. Over collections and over remittances. 
£. Sked Storage. 

3. Car Storage or Demurrage. 

4. Cartage (daily total) 

Overcharges and undercharges must be pn 
Each distinctive heading to be entered on c, 

5. Switching- 

6 Drafts for Interchange. 

7. Foreign Roads Prepaid, Reed not paid out 
S. Advance charges way-billed, not paid out. 

nptly adjusted by correction in current month. 

separate sheet. 

Fig. 8. — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial 
Railway — Special Debits 

must call up the dispatcher for further orders. These 
forms, therefore, act as a check on the time of the truck- 
men, and also show whether shippers are holding up the 
wagons unnecessarily. 



Agent at Station, in account with Toronto & York Radial Ry. 

for month ending 190. .. . 

Outstanding from last Month. 

Inward to Collect 

Outward Prepaid 

Other Roads Prepaid. 
Special Debits 

Cash from Treasurer 
Drafts for Interchange 



For Audit 


Advance Charges 

Other Roads Prepaid, Received . 

Overcharge Vouchers 

Audit Vouchers 

( Sundry Outstandings. 
Balances^ Ledger 

( Cash on hand 


I hereby certify the above 

statement to be correct. 


For Audit 



Summary of Cash 




Fig. 6. Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial Railway — Balance Sheet from Station Agent 

added to the service to handle all such business at express 


The principal wholesale houses in Toronto are supplied 
with rate cards and shipping cards, showing all agent and 
non-agent stations on this railway's line. In addition, the 
company's representative has a system of calling on both 
receivers and shippers to learn what goods are moving, 


Knowing how easy it is to make freight accounting com- 
plex, the company has endeavored to get along with the 
least number of forms consistent with accurate accounting. 
In the first place, ledger accounts with shippers are not 
kept at the stations, but only with a few large customers 
in Toronto, others receiving the standard form of expense 

July 3. 1909.] 



bills. These expense bills are made out in duplicate, one 
serving as a receipt for payment. The few special forms, 
not reproduced, relate mainly to those required by the 
custom regulations between the United States and Canada 
and to live stock shipments which are in the form of non- 
liability contracts. A special milk record form is used for 
the shipments to the City Dairy Company, the principal 
milk dealer in Toronto. This form simply gives a list 
naming all dairymen and the number of cans forwarded by 
them to the dairy company. This list is checked by the 
dairy agent at North Toronto and is the basis for the ledger 
account between the railway and dairy. Other milk ship- 
pers use the regular shipping form. The rate for trans- 
porting an 8-gal. can 20 or 30 miles is 15 cents per can, 
which includes the return of the empty. 

Conductors are furnished with pick-up waybills, which 
are used for shipments received at way points and are made 
out in triplicate, for the shipper, office and next station 
agent. The latter transfers the data from the pick-up way- 
bill on to a regularly numbered waybill, which he makes 
out in triplicate, one copy to go with the shipment, a second 
to the head office and the third to his file. If goods for 
shipment are delivered directly to the station agent the 
latter gives the shipper a regular bill of lading which 
specifies the number and kind of packages, marks, estimated 
weight or quantity and charges, whether prepaid or not. 

An explanation of the debit and credit items shown on 
the reproduced balance sheet, Fig. 6, will give a fairly 
accurate idea of the accounting activity of the ordinary 
freight agent, and will show how all money handled by 
him is checked up at headquarters. "Outstanding from last 
month" refers to particulars of sundry freight debit charges 
outstanding or not cleared at the reporting station at the 
end of the previous month ; these particulars are listed on 
the form shown in Fig. 7. "Inward to collect," "Outward 
prepaid" and "Other roads prepaid" all relate to the ordi- 
nary debits owed by the station agents for charges on ship- 

that is, there is no through billing, although through rates 
are in effect. "Remittances," the first credit item, covers 
all money turned over during the month and detailed at the 
right of the balance sheet. "Advance charges" and "Other 
roads prepaid, received" are for advances paid out for 
business with other lines. "Overcharge vouchers" are for 
overcharge remittances made by the agent; in such cases 
the agent secures a duplicate receipt from the customer 
and sends one receipt to the auditor with the proper iden- 


To A nditor ; — 

Please allmo this station credit jor the fallowing amounts. 

Credit mill be lalen , Kalancc Sheet. 

Fig. 9 — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial 
Railway — Agent's Credit Voucher 

tification data as to the expense bill involved. The "audit 
vouchers" item is accompanied by the agent's credit 

Fig. 9 explains why credit is required on the waybills 
listed. This credit voucher, Fig. 9, must have attached 
thereto for checking a copy of agent's correction. "Sun- 
dry outstandings" is explained by Fig. 7, already de- 
scribed, which lists both debits and credits in suspension. 
"Ledger" covers .the interchange balance that is due the 
station agent for the last week of the month, and "Cash 
on hand" is reported only if the agent has been supplied 
with money by the treasurer. The station agents are sup- 
plied with a cash record and the usual books for listing de- 
tails of outgoing and incoming freight, monthly abstracts 
of which are forwarded to the auditor. 

Fig. 10 shows the form used for the correction of errors 






Pho. No. 













Original Way-Bill TotaI« 


Fig. io — Metropolitan Division, Toronto & York Radial Railway — Form for Correcting Errors in Waybilling 

ments to or from other local points. "Special debits" 
cover amounts collected or credited for which no debit 
exists in the reporting month ; these special debits are 
shown in Fig. 8, together with the waybill and shipping 
data. "Cash from treasurer" is self-explanatory. "Drafts 
for interchange" are based on drafts issued by the agents 
at the junctions; a statement of this interchange traffic is 
sent to the auditor four times a month. It should be un- 
derstood that agents bill only as far as the junction point; 

in waybilling. This is made out in triplicate by the send- 
ing agent, who retains one copy and forwards two copies 
to the agent who received the original waybill. The latter 
certifies the correction and forwards one of his copies to 
the auditor. Errors in shipments to other roads are taken 
up by correspondence between the agents concerned. 


The Toronto & York Radial Railway Company was 
formed in 1904, with William Mackenzie as president. Mr. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

Mackenzie is the well-known Canadian financier, who is 
associated with D. D. Mann under the popular title of the 
Mackenzie-Mann Syndicate. These two gentlemen prob- 
ably have done more for the construction of steam and 
electric railroads in Canada than any other two men. The 
general manager of the Toronto & York Radial Railway 
Company is W. H. Moore, and the assistant manager 
Charles L. Wilson. Owing to the attention given to the 
development of the traffic department, the office of traffic 
manager was created a few years ago and has been held 
ever since by F. S. Livingston. Mr. Livingston gives par- 
ticular attention to the development of the freight and 
express business. The operating and maintenance depart- 
ments are each subdivided under separate officials who have 
had considerable experience in electric railway work. The 
rolling stock of the Metropolitan division was built in the 
car shops of the Toronto Railway Company, which is also 
controlled by the Mackenzie-Mann interests. 



Great interest is being taken in Austria in the electrical 
equipment of steam railroads. This is especially the case 
in the Alpine province of Tyrol, which, like Switzerland, 
is rapidly becoming a land of electric railways. The first 
single-phase railway in the world, the Stubaitalbahn, was 
built in the Tyrol, and the absence of coal and the large 
amount of water-power have given added impetus to the 
construction of electric roads. Recent statistics indicate 
that there are about 5,500,000 hp available in the water- 
powers of Austria, or 187 hp for each 1000 inhabitants. 
This amount is surpassed only in Switzerland, where there 
are 454 hp for each 1000 inhabitants. The figures showing 
the percentage of utilized to available power are in Swit- 
zerland, 25 per cent; Germany, 20 per cent; France, 18 
per cent; Italy, 14 per cent, and Austria, only 9 per cent. 
A commission appointed by the Government is now sys- 
tematically studying the subject of utilizing all of the avail- 
able water-power for electric traction. As the majority 
of the railroads are owned by the State, there is a tendency 
to keep the water-power reserved for governmental use 
until after the report of the commission shall determine 
how much will be required by the government railways. 
While the general electrical industry is being seriously 
handicapped in the meantime, this plan will insure efficient 
utilization of the water-powers and a uniform voltage. 

The first step in the conversion of steam railways to 
electric traction will probably take place in the Tyrol, where 
several large water-power stations are to be built with ca- 
pacities for furnishing 2000 hp to 12,000 hp. The longest 
existing electric line in the Tyrol is that between Trient 
and Male, 38 miles in length. This line will be opened on 
July 1, and is operated by direct current at 800 volts. 

A more interesting line for the railway engineer is the 
Maria Zell road, now nearing completion in lower Austria. 
This is the longest single-phase railway on the Continent 
(57 miles). It is a single-phase line, with 6000 volts on 
the trolley wire. Water-power is used. The overhead line 
is equipped with a catenary similar to that of the Ham- 
burg-Blankenese Railway, with strain adjustments every 
mile or mile and a half. For the present service 14 locomo- 
tives, each equipped with two single-phase, 250-hp motors 
will be used. Owing to the narrow gage, the motors are lo- 
cated above the trucks, and are connected to the wheels 
with connecting rods. 


As is well known, the greater part of the tramways in the 
County of London are owned and operated by the London 
County Council. The Council commenced the work of 
electrifying the tramways under its control in the year 
1902. Since that date several undertakings in the county 
have been acquired by the Council and only about 10 miles 
of tramways belonging to other interests are now in opera- 
tion in the London County Council area. The following 
table indicates the progress which has been made with the 
work of electrification. In some years it will be observed 
that while the amount of electrified line has increased the 
length of horse line has also increased. This apparent 
anomaly is accounted for by the acquisition in those years 
of horse lines by the Council : 


Electric including 
traction in lines being 

operation. equipped. Total. 
Date. Street miles. Street miles. Street miles. 

March 31, 1904 iq'A 69% 88^ 

1905 26^ 6834 95n 

'906 30H 73% 104 

1907 58% 57% "6}4 

1908 68§i 5134 T20U 

1909 84^ 4S J A 129V2 

Generally speaking, the electrification of the horse tram- 
ways mentioned above has been and is being carried out 
under the general powers conferred on the London County 
Tramways by the Electrical Power Act of 1900, but in 
some instances special authority to reconstruct the lines has 
been obtained. All new tramways, however, are author- 
ized by act of Parliament. 

For operating its electric lines the Council has 1150 cars. 
This number will be considerably increased within the next 
few months. 

With the exception of about 10 route miles which are 
equipped with overhead wires, all of the electric lines are 
worked on the conduit system. This is the only tramway 
in Great Britain where this system of traction is used, ex- 
cept in Bournemouth, where a short section of conduit 
system has been installed in the center of the town. Some 
of the improvements introduced in London since the orig- 
inal construction were described on page 172 of the Street 
Railway Journal for Feb. 1, 1908, and it is proposed in 
the accompanying article to describe a few other features 
of particular interest. 


Two methods of cleaning the conduits are at present in 
use. One is the dry method, the other is the wet method. 
The former has not proved entirely satisfactory, as it is 
impossible to remove all the mud by this means. Hand 
scrapers are used of a shape approximating as nearly as 
possible the cross-section of the conduit and the mud and 
dirt is pushed forward by hand until it reaches the catch 
pits which are placed about every 40 yd. along the track. 
The catch pits are in communication with the sewers and 
the difficulty experienced with dry cleaning is more in get- 
ting the dirt into the sewer than removing it from the con- 
duit, as the pipes continually choke up with dry refuse 
which cannot very well be got out except by the use of 
water. In wet cleaning a hose fed from the public mains 
is used for washing out the conduit into the catch pits and 
so into the sewers. With this method the hand scrapers 
can get over the work much more easily. 

Experiments are now being carried out with a mechanical 
conduit cleaner. This apparatus consists of a small steel 

July 3, 1909.] 


carriage running in the slot on two wheels with a center 
flange. Supported by this carriage is a frame carrying 
two scraper blades capable of being turned through an 
angle of 90 deg. by means of a handle and crank arms, the 
blades being moved first into line so that the frame and 
blades can be dropped through the slot. When in position 
the blades are turned round at right angles to the conduit. 
The machine is attached to the rear of a car by a towing 
rod, swivelled to the rear end of the truck. It has been 
found that this device will clean the conduit efficiently at a 
speed of about 10 m.p.h. to 12 m.p.h. 

The catch pits are provided with sumps and these are 
emptied at frequent intervals into cars which carry away 
the deposit. 

One of the greatest troubles with the conduit system is 

and negative conductor bars. Men are then sent out with 
special tools for feeling behind and below the conductor 
bars so as to find the foreign substances which must have 
got into the conduit, assuming, of course, that the fault is 
not in the plough of any car. Usually the fault can be 
quickly found, but sometimes when pieces of wire, etc., get 
into the conduit it takes a considerable time to locate them. 
The insulator box covers are also lifted to help in the 


There are no very special features in the distribution of 
electrical energy except that motor-generator? are used en- 
tirely in the substations with the full line pressure of 6600 
volts directly on the stators instead of using rotaries and 

Map of County of London, Showing Tramway Lines in Operation and Extensions Sanctioned 

experienced after a long spell of dry weather if a heavy 
rainstorm follows. Trouble also occasionally happens in 
low-lying districts due to flooding. 


The first indication of a fault on the conductor bars is 
shown in the substation by the opening of the circuit- 
breaker. Before the breaker is closed the positive con- 
ductor in the section in question is connected to a testing 
resistance of about 5 ohms. If the fault is caused by a 
dead short-circuit between the bars or a dead earth on the 
positive conductor a current of 100 amp would pass through 
the resistance. It should be stated that the negative is 
connected to earth in the substation. The testing switch is 
then reversed so as to bring the positive side on to the 
negative. Then if the fault is merely a positive earth the 
switch can be closed in the reverse position. If there is 
still a short-circuit, then the fault is between the positive 

Separate positive and negative low-pressure conductors 
are used for every half mile of track and are separately 
controlled by switch panels in the substation. The panels 
contain the reversing switches and testing appliances. 

Special feeder pillars are fixed on the footpaths where 
the low-pressure feeders connect to the track. These con- 
nections are so arranged that either the up or down tracks 
or both may be fed. Switches are provided for cutting out 
either section at will. The pillars also contain telephones 
which are in direct communication with the substations 
feeding that section. 


The main features of the generating plant at the Green- 
wich power station may be summarized as follows: 

(a) Vertical-horizontal engines of 14,000 kw are used in 
the first portion and turbines of 20,000 kw will be used in 
the second portion. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

(b) Each generator has its own independent exciter 
either coupled direct or driven by ropes. 

(c) Centrifugal pumps for the condensing water are in- 
stalled in a separate pump house. They are electrically 
driven and the water is passed through special strainers 
which are self-cleaning. 

(d) The coal is unloaded at a pier on the bank of the 
Thames by apparatus which is a part of the power-station 
equipment and gravity bucket conveyors carry it into the 
bunkers over the boilers. The same conveyors bring the 
ashes from the basement under the boilers to a large hopper 
under the pier, from which it is delivered to barges to be 
taken away. 

(e) Each pair of boilers has its own fuel economizer on 
the floor above and the electrically driven feed pumps are 

• in the basement below the boilers. 

(f) Chain grate stokers are fixed to each boiler and the 
whole of the auxiliary gear is electrically driven throughout 
the station. 


The track rails are of the British standard section No. 4, 
weighing 105 lb. per yard. The rails at curves sharper 
than 66 ft. radius are 11 1 lb. per yard. The length of track 
rails adopted is 45 ft. for about 90 per cent of the whole. 
The remaining 10 per cent are of shorter lengths in mul- 
tiples of 7 ft. 6 in., which is the distance apart of the tie 
bars which are fixed at every alternate yoke. 

A heavy and constant source of maintenance and renewal 
expense is caused by the rapid wearing away of the guard 
rails on curves from 45 ft. to 400 ft. radius, especially 
where the car interval is from one-half minute to three 
minutes. In many instances it has been found necessary 
for this reason to renew rails within one to two years after 
being laid. To reduce this expenditure renewable guards, 
bolted to the rail after the original flange has been cut off, 
have been used. These guards are of manganese steel and 
may if required be reversed when one end is worn. This 
doubles their life and permits the full life of the rail being 


All rail joints are supported by a sole or base plate 
formed by a piece of track rail 2 ft. long with its bottom 
flange bolted to the bottom flange of the rails. 

The tread surfaces of the rails at the joints are hand- 
filed perfectly smooth until the running surfaces at the 
adjacent rail ends are in the same plane. This method of 
ensuring equal wear on the joint has proved of great serv- 
ice in minimizing the number of defective joints. It has 
also been found that if the whole length of a track is ground 
on the rail tread before the line is opened for traffic the 
appearance of corrugations is very considerably delayed, 
and even if they do appear they are not of so serious a 
character as on rail surfaces not so treated. 

The method of attaching the track rails and the slot 
rails to the yokes was described in the Street Railway 
Journal for Feb. 1, 1908. 

slot width 

Originally, the slot was ^ in. in width, but it was found 
by experience that this allowed too little margin for any 
irregularity in the movement of the slot tongues or other 
slight diminution of the slot width. A slot 1 in. wide has 
been adopted on routes more recently constructed, and it 
has not been found detrimental or dangerous to any kind 
of street traffic. 

Part of the tracks are paved with wood, and the expan- 
sion of this paving has frequently diminished the slot 
width by Y% to l /> in. It is found that creosoted deal 
wood paving has the least effect upon the slot. The tracks 
are generally, however, paved with Aberdeen granite, with 
a toothing course of harder Guernsey granite to take the 

excessive wear alongside the running rails. Opposite places 
of worship, hospitals, etc., where a less noisy paving is 
necessary, the tracks are paved with creosoted wood. 
road boxes 

Access to the insulators is provided at every 15 lin. ft., 
and to the drainage pits every 120 ft. At special work 
there is ample access through road boxes to all switch 
mechanism, connecting cables and conductors. 

The road box or hand hole covers are a source of con- 
siderable trouble and expense, owing to the rapid wear of 
the paving in the covers and the rocking action of the 
covers set up by wear on the bearing edges. These openings 
are also responsible to a certain extent for the accumu- 
lation of mud and dirt in the conduits. To obviate these 
drawbacks, cast-iron cover plates with the paving carried 
over them have been substituted for the covers over the 
insulator chambers, so far with very excellent results. It 
has not, however, been found advisable to use these cover 
plates at special work, cross-overs, etc., where constant 
and rapid access to the conduit and its equipment is fre- 
quently necessary. 


The layout and design for all parts of junctions, cross- 
overs, etc., have as far as possible been standardized, with 
a view to reducing the delay and expense of renewals. The 
standard junctions have switches curved on one side to 
100 ft. radius. This radius is continued about 10 ft. past 
the heel of the tongues, and then merged into a 70-ft. ra- 
dius for the remainder of the curve. The companion track 
switches have each a movable tongue, thus insuring se- 
curity and positive action. The mechanism operating the 
slot tongue is connected with the same shaft as that which 
operates the tongue of the track switches. 


All running rails and grooves are drained at water hold- 
ing depressions by drilling a slot in the bottom of the rail 
groove and connecting this slot by earthenware pipes to 
the conduit. 


As the slot and track switches are operated simultane- 
ously, it is necessary to make sure of the perfect action 
of the movable parts and that the mechanism should be 
certain and rigid in its action. Automatic switches have 
been tried, but have not been found so satisfactory as 
manual manipulation in obtaining certainty of movement 
exactly at the time required and maintaining the changes in 
the required position until the cars pass. At busy junc- 
tions the connecting rod of the switch mechanism is carried 
in a pipe conduit to the footway, so that the switchman 
may operate the switches without fear of personal danger. 

Generally speaking, repairs and renewals to rails and 
special work are undertaken during the night and repairs 
to paving, road boxes, etc., during the daytime. 

All-night car service is run on several important routes 
and during the week the only total cessation of car traffic 
is from about 2 a. m. to 7 a. m. on Sunday morning. 

There are seven depots distributed over the tramway 
area for the storage and handling of material for the track. 
Two of these depots are situated alongside the River 
Thames and two on the Regent's Canal, thus giving con- 
venient and easy handling of materials conveyed by water. 

All cars of the Liverpool (Eng.) Tramways are disin- 
fected twice daily during the summer with a solution of 
chloride of mercury sprayed on the seats and floor. This 
dries out quickly and leaves no odor. 

July 3, 1909.] 





I have read with great interest the series of articles by 
Charles V. Weston on the subject of the proper return on 
the investment in city railway enterprises.** The topic 
treated by Mr. Weston is a very important one and I take 
pleasure in complying with the suggestion of the editors 
of the Electric Railway Journal to discuss the subject 
from a German standpoint in its columns. 

Up to the beginning of the present century the only rapid 
transit service in Berlin was that supplied by the steam 
lines which form a part of the large railroad system of the 
State. Although the design and management of the system 
are excellent, an unfortunate policy was adopted by the 
Government in the matter of fares. When the well-known 
"Stadtbahn" was put in operation in 1882 the idea was 
prevalent in Governmental circles that a Greater Berlin 
could be developed by inaugurating a plan of low fares 
similar to that in London and that thereby the construc- 
tion of homes in the suburbs of the city would be encour- 
aged. Hence the introduction of a system of extremely 
cheap commutation tickets, workmen's tickets, school tickets, 
etc., as well as cheap single tickets. 

Low as are the single fares charged in the Stadtbahn 
the commutation fares are simply ruinous. A private com- 
pany which should undertake to operate under them would 
soon become bankrupt and the Government has to earn the 
interest on the capital which it has invested in the Berlin 
Stadtbahn from the profits on long-distance riders else- 
where. This situation is clearly described in a statement 
made by the Minister of Public Works recently to a com- 
mittee of Chamber of Deputies when he said: "Many of 
the holders of commutation tickets pay only 2^ to 3 pf. 
for a 10-pf. cents) ride. This is below cost price and 

leads to the abnormal condition that outside tax-payers 
have to make good the deficiency from this cheap trans- 
portation to the extent of 5 pf. (i}4 cents) per ride." 

While gratitude can be expected from persons individu- 
ally a mass of people has no such sentiment whatever toward 
the benefits bestowed upon them. The granting of such ab- 
normally low fares instead of being thankfully acknowledged 
has always been accompanied by complaints and criticisms 
on the part of the public in regard to every detail of the 
operation of the lines. Nor has the object for which the 
plan was established been attained, viz. : Low rents in 
the suburbs. Emigration to them has been stimulated, it 
is true, but the rents have increased everywhere. Nor have 
the conditions in London been duplicated, because the lease- 
holding system of property prevailing in that city is quite 
different from the freehold property in Berlin with its 
accompanying exaggerated speculation in land values. The 
tenant is always expected to pay in the form of rent all 
profits which may come to the speculator from an other- 
wise stenle soil. In recognition of these facts the Govern- 
ment has changed its policy so far as further rapid transit 
is concerned and has declined to develop any additional 
rapid transit lines in Berlin except to build necessary ex- 
tensions to its existing system. 

Under these conditions private capital was invited to 

* Mr. Kemmann is a government councillor, now retired, and has made 
a study of rapid transit conditions at home and abroad. He has been 
actively identified with the development of the underground and elevated 
railroads of Jlcrlin and is now connected with these enterprises, both 
financially and in an engineering capacity. lie has visited this country 
on several occasion?. — [EDITORS.] 

** See Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 26, 1908, and Jan. 2, 1909. 

enter the transportation field about the time that the elec- 
trical equipment of light suburban railways became feasible, 
or even before that time, when the light railway law 
(Kleinbahngesetz) was enacted by the Prussian House in 
1892. This bill had been passed to encourage the invest- 
ment of private capital in the construction of light railways 
which would develop a suburban and interurban business 
and act as feeders to the main lines. All light railways in 
Prussia, therefore, are incorporated under the law which 
applies as well to rapid transit lines in cities. One of the 
features of this law is the provision contained in the famous 
paragraph No. 7, which gives a right of appeal to the na- 
tional authorities in case any city declines to grant a fran- 
chise or right of way to a light railway company or re- 
fuses to do so except under very unfavorable conditions. 
All who have had experience in building under the light 
railway act know its weak points, but realize that these 
defects are largely counterbalanced by the right of appeal 
just described. 

The franchise requirements in Prussia are by no means 
light. The street railway companies are obliged to pave 
and maintain the pavement for a certain width of the 
streets over which their tracks run ; sometimes the entire 
width of the street. At other times they are required to 
illuminate the streets. They are compelled to turn over 
to the municipalities 8 per cent of their gross receipts as 
well as one-half of the net receipts exceeding 8 per cent, or 
even 6 per cent in many cases. Hence it would seem that 
an average of 8 per cent was considered by many munic- 
ipalities as the return compatible with public interest to be 
allowed to the street railway company. Such, for instance, 
is the case in Berlin where the local street railway com- 
pany has paid a dividend of 8 per cent for years and has 
been obliged to pay into the city treasury one-half of the 
surplus earnings over 8 per cent. The opinion of the Gov- 
ernment on this subject can also be assumed from state- 
ments made by some of its leading officials to the effect that 
8 per cent is a fair return on street railway investments 
from the public point of view. 

In spite of these conditions it is a notable fact that the 
managers of railway companies in constructing new lines 
have very rarely taken advantage of the right of appeal 
contained in the seventh clause of the Light Railway Act. 
The reason for this is obvious upon a little consideration. 
The companies prefer to undergo what they consider un- 
just taxation rather than to get on adverse terms with a 
community which never lacks the power of showing its 

The Light Railway Act, as already stated, applies to 
rapid transit railways in cities, although in both construc- 
tion and operation they could properly be grouped under 
the general railway law of 1838. They have, therefore, the 
privilege of condemning a right of way in the streets; but 
while this right has been described as being more theo- 
retical than practical with the street railways, this is still 
more the case with underground and elevated lines. The 
act applies only to the surface of the streets and does not 
specify what shall be done if there has to be any interfer- 
ence with the subsoil with its complicated system of sewer, 
gas and water mains and other subterranean pipes. When 
the law was passed no consideration seems to have been 
given to this point, although many rapid transit railways — 
even one using electricity — were then in operation in Lon- 
don and plans for such lines had been made public in 
Berlin. Besides condemning the surface, then, it seems to 
be necessary under the law to condemn the subsoil, for 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

which recourse to the general law of condemnation (En- 
teignungagesetz) is necessary. But in this law still less 
consideration is given to the needs of rapid transit lines, 
and it is doubtful whether the courts would hold that this 
law authorizes a company to change the location of the 
city sewers, as any such change might have far-reaching 
effects. From this it will be seen that many legal questions 
must be settled before the right of way for an underground 
railway can be condemned. The trouble is still further 
aggravated by the fact that the question of the use of the 
surface of the street comes under the jurisdiction of the 
municipalities, whereas the control of the subsoil is eventu- 
ally lodged in the courts. 

I have dwelt at some length upon these details in order 
to show that a rapid transit company cannot accomplish very 
much if it has not an amicable understanding with the 
municipalities. Friendship on the part of the National 
Government is largely platonic, even in this country where 
the Government is often believed to run everything. In fact, 
the situation may be made worse if the National Govern- 
ment attempts to make suggestions regarding the course of 
events. This has been shown recently on several occasions 
where the cities, which are jealous of their power of self- 
government, have opposed what they considered an attempt 
of the National Government to interfere with municipal 
affairs. Another factor detrimental to a better rapid transit 
policy is the fact that irresponsible promoters often request 
franchises for new lines regardless of the economical re- 
sults which would follow their construction and operation. 
Last, but not least, among the obstacles to rapid transit 
improvements is the ever-present disposition of the public 
to find fault and obstruct every attempt made to secure 
cheap and quick transit facilities. 

With so many adverse parties, namely, cities, public, out- 
side promoters and the law, none of which pays much con- 
sideration to the economical side of the question, how can 
a rapid transit enterprise turn out successfully? Every 
step forward means that almost insurmountable obstacles 
must be overcome. There is yet another, to which refer- 
ence has not been made. Berlin is not a homogeneous body 
politically as, for instance, is New York. The so-called 
Greater Berlin is an aggregate of some twenty entirely 
distinct municipalities, each of which promulgates its own 
policy. When one considers the different opinions which 
exist among these organizations and their lack of intelli- 
gence in questions relating to rapid transit, it is somewhat 
surprising that there are still some people who will engage 
in a rapid transit project. 


Many engineers are inclined to believe engineering diffi- 
culties are the worst obstacles to be faced in rapid transit 
construction. Few pay full attention to the economic 
side of the question, although it goes without saying that 
this is the fundamental consideration. It is a well-known 
fact that very few rapid transit railways in the large cities 
of the entire world are in a prosperous condition. The 
majority are struggling very hard to get a "reasonble return 
on the investment," as Mr. Weston puts it. Those who ex- 
pect to find gold mines in the field of rapid transit may be 
invited to study the reports of the English Royal Com- 
mission and Sir Herbert Jekyll's new report to the Board 
of Trade on London traffic. They would do well also to 
read carefully Mr. Weston's articles and look through the 
reports on New York rapid transit which have been sub- 
mitted by Mr. Arnold, by the New York Chamber of Com- 
merce, etc. 

Mr. Weston propounded the question: "What is to be 
considered a fair return on the capital expended by a com- 
pany in rapid transit railroads?" The chance of a 4 per 
cent return will certainly not incite many people to invest 
money in rapid transit schemes, though few of the existing 
lines earn much more than a 4 per cent dividend. The Ber- 
lin Elevated & Underground Railway is among the favor- 
ites. It pays 5 per cent on its common stock. This railway 
extends over the lines of heaviest travel in the entire city, 
and therefore will probably be able to maintain this percent- 
age. The Paris subway system is also doing well, for rea- 
sons easily understood by those who know the conditions. 
The Parisians have declined absolutely to extend their lines 
into the suburbs and the system consequently enjoys a very 
profitable traffic. Another reason is the unfortunate con- 
dition of the surface railway lines in Paris, due to the early 
expiration of franchises. In consequence the subway sup- 
plies, as it were, the place of both rapid transit and surface 
transportation. With the exception of these two examples 
there is but one electric rapid transit line which pays more 
than 4 per cent on its capital, i.e., that in New York City. 
It is a peculiar fact that in Berlin a 5 per cent dividend is 
considered very satisfactory for a rapid transit line, even 
by those who are willing to allow a street railway company 
to earn 8 or more per cent. It is difficult to understand, 
however, why a larger return should be permitted on the 
investment in a cheaply constructed surface line than on a 
heavily capitalized underground railway, which is 10 to 20 
times as expensive per mile, and, moreover, carries with it 
a greater chance of financial risk. 

The principal factors affecting the return yielded by a 
rapid transit railway are the gross earnings on the one 
side and the expenses of every nature on the other. With 
a given class of service the expenses are not liable to con- 
siderable variations within prescribed limits except that 
there is a tendency in all countries toward an increase in 
wages and cost of materials. To this condition there must 
be added in Germany a large outlay for benevolent purposes, 
such as pensions, contributions to funds for sick and dis- 
abled employees, etc. The other factor of the return, i.e., 
income account, varies according to the traffic and rates of 
fares. The shareholder who at a general meeting of the 
Berlin Elevated & Underground Railway advocated lower 
fares in order to get a better return, proved very short- 
sighted. Traffic necessarily increases as fares are lowered 
and vice versa, but experience has shown that there is a 
certain system of fares in every city coincident with the 
needs of the traveling community that will give a maximum 
of receipts. 

To secure this maximum the tariff must first of all be 
fair. It is only a matter of justice that a passenger who is 
carried 10 miles should pay more than one who is carried 
only 5 miles. I do not consider therefore that a uniform 
fare such as exists in the United States is in accord with 
the postulate of equal treatment of the public. I recognize 
its simplicity to be a great advantage, but simplicity can be 
attained in other ways. The uniform fare on the Central 
London Underground Railway was abandoned some years 
ago. The Bakerloo tube gave it up very soon and now all 
the London tubes and railways have a scale of fares in- 
creasing with the distance. A uniform fare for each of 
the two classes has been introduced by the Paris Metropoli- 
tan, but the reason for this is easily explained by the cir- 
cumstances already mentioned, that none of the Paris lines 
oversteps the so-called "Ceinture." In other words, rapid 
transit stops at the very doors to the outskirts, avoiding 

July 3, 1909.] 



touch with the suburbs which are served by tramways and 
suburban steam lines. I agree entirely with what Mr. 
Weston states with regard to the uniform fare, and I do 
not hesitate to recommend its entire abolition. The Amer- 
ican fare of 5 cents is below what it should be for dis- 
tances beyond a certain limit, and could be less for short 

It may not be out of place here to refer to the system 
of zone fares introduced by the Berlin Elevated & Under- 
ground Railway Company. The management of this com- 
pany followed the State railways in introducing two classes 
of fares, second and third, in city rapid transit, each class 
having separate compartments for smokers and non-smok- 
ers. This, seemingly, is too many classes for city transit, 
but it was difficult to see how to do without this two-class 
system, to which Berlin had grown familiar through de- 
cades. From 15 to 20 per cent of the passengers ride in 
the second class in spite of the ij4 cents higher fare. The 
third-class fare on the Elevated & Underground Railway is 
2j4 cents for four stations, 2% cents up to seven stations, 5 
cents up to 10 stations and so on. For every three stations 
an additional 1% cents is charged, the average distance 
between stations being about half a mile. This works out 
to an average per passenger of 3.3 cents with a line ioj4 
miles in length and with 23 stations. The average ride is 
2y 2 miles, so that the average fare per passenger is 1.36 
cents per mile, a figure which is fair and well adapted to 
Berlin conditions. 

Single tickets only are sold. There are no season, com- 
mutation or through tickets, nor passenger tickets of any 
other kind, except so-called early-hour tickets and a certain 
rebate granted to children. Single tickets used before 8 
o'clock in the morning — "early tickets"— cost 1% cents 
less than the ordinary ones, the minimum, however, being 
2y 2 cents. Children less than six years of age, under 
charge, are carried free. If there be added to this the 
statement that dogs are carried for 2^ cents up to the tenth 
station and 3% cents beyond, the entire tariff in force on 
the Elevated & Underground Railway has been stated. The 
absolute absence of "transfers" entitling a passenger to 
change from one means of transportation to another 
without paying an additional or higher fare is noticeable, 
as, indeed, it is on the German surface lines. The system 
of "interchange tickets" that has been adopted on surface 
lines in many cities (Dusseldorf, Frankfort, and others) 
is quite different from the American transfer. The prin- 
ciple underlying the interchange ticket is nothing more 
than a tariff varying according to distance, but spread 
over two, or even more, sections in a broken journey. 
Tickets of this class are "through tickets." Whether the 
passenger has to change or not after paying his fare de- 
pends solely on the direction he wishes to travel and on the 
service provided. According to the principle of least re- 
sistance, the companies try to reduce the number of trans- 
ferring passengers by providing through routes in the 
channels of densest traffic. In Berlin the only surface 
line issuing such through tickets or transfers on its own 
system is the Charlottenburg Tramways Company, which 
is controlled by the Crosse Berliner Strassenbahn. The 
Grosse Berliner Company itself has been compelled by the 
city of Berlin to adopt a uniform fare of 2^ cents, regard- 
less of the distance, which I consider absolutely wrong 
and unjust even for a tramway. A passenger may ride 
on a surface car in Berlin 10 miles for 2^ cents. The 
evil is mitigated to a certain degree only by the fact that 
on the surface lines shorter rides generally prevail. But 

the company has declined at all times to issue transfers, 
and passengers have to pay another 2 l / 2 cents fare when- 
ever they change to another car. 

Berlin traffic conditions are such that on the Elevated, 
too, a considerable short-haul traffic prevails, for which 
the low or short-distance fares are partly responsible. 
Nevertheless, the surface lines .are not greatly affected by 
the short-haul traffic of the elevated, because the tramways 
consist of a network of outspreading arteries, whereas the 
elevated and underground only form a few trunk lines. 
The effect is still further lessened by the fact that the ele- 
vated has a station, say, only every y 2 mile, whereas one 
can board a surface car wherever he likes. 

The average distance traveled on the Berlin rapid 
transit lines does not grow in the same ratio as the rail- 
ways into the outskirts of the city. This is accounted for 
by the falling off of traffic in the outer zones, whereas the 
inner zones become more congested — just the reverse of 
the state of things in New York, where the long-haul traffic 
increases as the lines are extended further into the subur- 
ban area. Habits of life, land policy, fares and other cir- 
cumstances account for this variation. 

Whatever differences, however, may exist in rapid 
transit here and abroad, the economical value of suburban 
lines, considered as self-supporting concerns, is not such 
as to yield a reasonable return on the capital invested. 
The uniform fare in the United States, the decreasing 
density of traffic on the confines of Berlin and London — 
the Paris system can be ignored in this connection — result 
in conditions under which the return on the capital invested 
in long-distance lines is entirely inadequate. Hence the 
policy of the Berlin Elevated & Underground Railway, 
inaugurated years ago, either to leave the construction of 
the suburban sections of the rapid transit system to the 
city authorities or to large real estate owners wishing to 
develop their properties, or else to build such lines only on 
the condition that they be supported by subsidies large 
enough to cover every deficit of operation, including 
charges to depreciation, reserve, sinking funds, etc., and 
say, 4 per cent interest on the capital. 

The first step in this direction was the "conception of 
the Neu-Westend line, a spur to connect with one of the 
main arteries of the present rapid transit system and ex- 
tending west to an entirely new field recently opened up 
for building purposes. About 2 miles of this line, which 
when finished will be 3 miles in length, was opened for 
traffic on March 29, 1908. The subsidy to defray the de- 
ficit train operation was provided jointly by the Neu- 
Westend Land Company, the city of Charlottenburg and 
the Government — the latter owning the large area of the 
Grunewald, which abuts upon the Neu-Westend property. 
This solution of the problem has proved successful, and 
the effect of one year's operation of the line has con- 
firmed the preliminary estimates of the receipts. It is 
expected that the new line will be self-supporting in about 
20 years. 

Other spurs are now under consideration in a south- 
westerly direction, but the method of financing them is 
somewhat different. Large land companies have combined 
with the local outlying municipalities to build these ex- 
tensions, but the Elevated Company will operate them. The 
cities and landowners, among whom is the Government, 
with a large area suitable for dwellings, will own the lines 
and will meet all the expenses, including cost of operation. 
So far as the public is concerned, the operation will be no 
different than if the line was owned directly by the Ele- 



vated Company. This policy was inaugurated first by the 
city of Wilmersdorf, which worked in harmony with the 
Royal Commission in charge of the Government estate 
mentioned, called Dahlen Colony, but the negotiations have 
not been brought to a final conclusion, on account of oppo- 
sition on the part of the city of Charlottenburg, which lies 
next to Wilmersdorf. 

Unfortunately, a short section of the Wilmersdorf line 
has to be built across Charlottenburg territory. This fact 
was adopted as a pretext by Charlottenburg to defeat the 
scheme in favor of one of its own. The line desired by 
Charlottenburg, if built, would largely parallel the Neu- 
Westend line, the Stadtbahn and the existing rapid tran- 
sit system, and would serve little new territory. I men- 
tion this simply to show that Germans are no better 
than Americans as regards destructive competition. The 
Government is seeking means to settle this conflict in a 
disinterested and fair way, but through lack of power may 
fail in its efforts to reconcile the interests of the cities. 

The authorities of other suburban municipalities, as well 
as those of Berlin itself, are now engaged in projecting 
railways of their own, entirely regardless of any har- 
monious project of rapid transit development or of the fa- 
cilities offered by the existing rapid transit system. One 
example is the line of the city of Schoenberg, about 2 miles 
in length, now in course of construction. Berlin, also, is 
planning to build two lines across the city, one of them to 
be constructed jointly with the city of Rixdorf. Progress 
in this direction, however, is extremely slow, as the local 
authorities of the several cities concerned have adopted 
different lines of policy and are extremely jealous of their 
interests and privileges, while the existing company and 
the Government are hampered and opposed in any effort 
they may make toward progressive action. 

Unfortunately, there are many of these municipal bodies 
and the policy of each is dictated so largely by local in- 
terests that they seem unable to adopt a broad co-operative 
and constructive policy. Instead, each indicates a desire to 
act alone and to leave questions of economy to the future. 
There is a general cry for subways. Even in the most 
remote suburbs of Berlin subways are demanded by the 
local authorities, and in these demands they have the back- 
ing of a population that does not care whether the tax- 
payer of subsequent years will have to pay the cost of non- 
paying underground railways. Up to the present, German 
cities have enjoyed good credit, but if they should embark 
on visionary and expensive schemes of rapid transit such 
as have recently been advocated, the policy undoubtedly 
will prove disastrous in many cases. The only local munic- 
ipal body which professes it will be content with an open 
suburban line-cut and embankment is that of Dahlem. 
The Berlin public, as represented by the city authorities, 
daily papers and city engineers, wants nothing but the 
most expensive subway construction. They are opposed to 
elevated railways, and still more to suspended railways, not- 
withstanding the fact that the finest example of elevated 
railway construction in existence is in operation in the 
western part of Berlin. Of this road the city of Berlin 
may be justly proud, as it certainly disproves the necessity 
of constructing subways where elevated lines can be built. 


I should like to recommend the following: 
(1) Where the law prescribing the conditions under 
which railways are to be built does not provide adequately 
for the construction of rapid transit lines in cities, it ought 
to be amended, in view of the importance of this subject. 

[Vol. XXXIV. No. 1. 

(2) There should be a central competent commission, 
with power to prevent undue and reckless competition, as 
well as the requirement of extravagant construction, and 
to insist that the railways be laid out according to sound 
and economic principles in accord with public demand, 
rather than to satisfy local interests. This authority should 
have power to settle all questions in a broad way and for 
the welfare of the community as a whole. 

(3) All the interests concerned should join in furthering 
and supporting a sound transit policy ; metropolitan rapid 
transit railways should be exempt from unnecessary finan- 
cial charges and burdens regarding cost, fare, taxes, etc. 
To keep the cost of construction as low as possible, less 
expensive forms of structures, such as elevated or sus- 
pended lines, lines in cuts or on embankments, should be 
considered and allowed when feasible. Private enterprise 
should be encouraged. 

(4) The economical aspects of a rapid transit railway 
ought to be examined and careful estimates of the probable 
cost, traffic receipts, expenses and other salient features of 
the undertaking should be made by competent persons be- 
fore any financial steps are taken. The method which con- 
sists of beginning at the tail end by fixing a certain per- 
centage of interest on capital and then working backward 
and deriving the items of traffic and cost, is objectionable. 
Sufficient allowance should be made for depreciation and 
reserve, and the estimates should be extended over a long 
enough term so that the increasing effect of depreciation 
shall be shown correctly. 

(5) The fare ought to be reasonable and in accordance 
with the service rendered; that is, it ought to vary with the 
distance traveled, but should also be fixed with a view to 
simplicity. The Berlin zone tariff, with only 22 different 
kinds of passenger tickets, would seem a practicable solu- 
tion in many cases. Low rate commutation tickets ought 
to be avoided entirely, and round-trip and through tickets 
as far as possible. 

(6) A safe return of interest at the rate of, say, at least 
5 per cent on the capital expended should be allowed, even 
with city lines. 


The mechanical department of the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company has prepared a summary of the work done 
by it in the past six months, Since Jan. 1, 1909, 986 closed 
cars and 946 open cars have been repaired. These, with 
146 cars classified as miscellaneous, make a total of 2078 
cars put through the company's shops in the first half of the 
year. In the same period 59 closed cars and 849 open cars 
were repainted, as well as 52 cars of miscellaneous types. 
There have been changed to the pay-within type 303 cars. 
These cars have now been in service eight months, and 
carefully kept accident records show that their introduc- 
tion has practically eliminated boarding and alighting acci- 
dents, which form by far the larger proportion of all in- 
juries on street cars. 

In the shops 1,086 men have been employed. On the 
rolls of the Sixth Street shop alone are 420. The cost of 
carbody maintenance was $314,492, and motor and electrical 
equipment maintenance $147,945, making a total of $462,437 
for six months. Twenty new steel cars have been ordered 
for the elevated road at a cost of $12,500 each, or a total 
of $250,000. Delivery of these cars is expected to begin in 


July 3, 1909.] 





I have been asked to summarize briefly what those who 
are planning to attend the Denver convention of the Amer- 
ican Street & Interurban Railway Association and its affili- 
ated organizations may expect to see in that city and its 
surroundings. Denver is the social, political and mercantile 
center of a State unequaled in scenery, climate and natural 
resources of every kind. It is young as cities count their 
age, having emerged from the sage brush barely 50 years 
ago, while Colorado was still a part of the Territory of 
Kansas. From a frontier settlement it has grown in half a 
century to a prosperous, beautiful city of 225,000 inhab- 
itants. Situated on a high, flat tableland at the base of the 
foothills of the Rocky Mountains, it has developed in every 
direction, until it well deserves the name of a city of "mag- 
nificent distances." It covers an area of 54 square miles, 
has 1222 miles of streets laid out on the map, of which 38 
miles are paved with hard paving and 75 miles macada- 
mized, 282 miles of sanitary sewers, 82 miles of storm 
sewers and 229 miles of stone and cement sidewalks. These 
are rather dry figures, but they prove that Denver is by 
no means a village of the "Wild and Woolly West.' 

I shall not make more than passing mention of our street 
car system, which serves the large and comfortably housed 
population. The system includes 200 miles of track within 
the city limits and 75 miles of high-speed interurban lines. 
We believe the service given is as good as will be found 
in any city of the same size in the country. There are no 
subways or elevated lines as yet, as the congestion in the 
business district, which covers an area i 1 /^ miles long by 
mile wide, is not severe enough to warrant these ex- 
pensive luxuries. 

Denver is pre-eminently a city of homes, beautiful trees, 
fine lawns and spacious parks. In the days of the early 
settlers the only trees were a thin fringe of cottonwoods 
along the banks of the River Platte. The lawns and trees 
which add so much to the appearance of the streets have 
been brought up by hand ; they represent a labor of love, 
and it is little wonder that they are appreciated by all of 
our citizens. Brick and stone buildings are the universal 
rule in Denver, as no frame buildings are allowed to be 
erected inside of the city limits. The skyscraper, however, 
has not come into vogue, as we have plenty of room in 
which to spread horizontally. Many of the best stores 
occupy one-story buildings downtown. Among the show 
buildings are the State Capitol, the new fireproof Audi- 
torium, where the exhibits of the convention are to be dis- 
played, and the buildings and grounds of Denver Uni- 

Perhaps the greatest attractions of Denver are the cli- 
mate and the scenery of the surrounding country. Con- 
trary to the prevalent idea in many sections of the East, 
Denver is not in the mountains, but is 12 miles east of the 
lower range, on a plain approximately one mile above sea 
level. The mountains west of the city protect it from the 
severe storms and blizzards which come out of the west 
and northwest. This, combined with the high altitude, 
gives Denver a delightful and healthy climate, free from 
sudden changes and severe extremes of heat and cold. 
Nothing is more surely to be depended upon than the 
weather in Denver during the first half of October. It is 
neither too warm nor too cold then, and no rain is to be 
expected. It is, in fact, an ideal time of the year. 

The scenery surrounding Denver is the most magnificent 
to be found anywhere in the world. In a day's ride on the 
Western Pacific Railroad one can reach an altitude of 
n, 000 ft. and throw snowballs in August. To the south is 
the beautiful Manitou country and the Garden of the Gods. 
Majestic Pike's Peak and many other imposing mountains 
can be seen from the streets of Denver. Few people who 
visit Colorado from the East stay long enough to fully 
appreciate all of its attractions. Those who come to the 
convention for the first time we know will want to come 
again, and we promise to do all that we can to make them 
enjoy their visit with us. 

All of the electric railway interests in the far West are 
enthsiastic about Denver as a meeting place. We have 
been assured that practically all of the Pacific Coast com- 
panies will be represented. Few Eastern people realize 
how much nearer Denver is to the coast than are the cities 
of the Atlantic seaboard. Denver is the geographical cen- 
ter of the vast region extending from Galveston, Tex., on 
the south, to Portland, Ore., and Spokane, Wash., on the 
north, and from St. Louis and Chicago on the east to San 
Francisco on the west. This territory, embracing many 
large cities, will send a full quota of members and prospec- 
tive members. 

In closing I wish to say a few words to manufacturers 
regarding exhibits. The Denver meeting will open to many 
manufacturers of railway equipment and supplies quite a 
new field, which is rapidly developing; therefore the ques- 
tion of sending a comprehensive exhibit to the convention 
is worthy of very serious consideration, and we believe it 
will be well worth the trouble and cost to be fully repre- 
sented at the convention, both in exhibits and salesmen. 
No doubt there will be opportunities for making sales of 
some of the apparatus exhibited. I dare not be too explicit 
for fear of disappointing, and I do not wish to make any 
definite promises. But on behalf of the Western railway 
men I can assure manufacturers that we will certainly do 
all in our power to save the exhibitors the expense of re- 
turn freight on apparatus which is sent out to the conven- 
tion largely for our instruction and benefit. 


S. M. Coffin, master mechanic, Mobile Light & Railroad 
Company, has equipped the single-truck cars of that com- 
pany with special bridges to support the trolley bases. 
Thus the roof of a car is not only protected from undue 
strains, but the noise within the car is minimized. The 
"trolley board" or truss on which the trolley base is mount- 
ed comprises two pieces of wood 2 in. x 6 in. in section 
at the center and sized to 1^ in. x 6 in. at the ends. These 
pieces are trussed from _end to end with two ; >'8-in. rods. 
The wooden pieces are held about 4 in. apart by spacing 
blocks and are connected to the truss rods by two queen 
posts placed about 18 in. from the center. This combination 
of wood and steel trolley plank is in turn supported only at 
its ends, and therefore the load of the trolley base is en- 
tirely removed from the center of the car roof. 

An iron saddle extending over the width of the mon- 
itor carries two rubber cushions supporting the trolley 
board. Two through bolts at each end securely fasten the 
trolley board to the roof, and the tightening of the nuts 
on these bolts compresses the rubber cushions so that the 
trolley board holds the trolley base securely in place. The 
cost of these trolley boards is small and the resulting saving 
in repairs to the roof is said to be quite marked. 


[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 


The publication of "American Street Railway Invest- 
ments," the Red Book for 1909, makes available the operat- 
ing reports for 1908 of the principal electric railway com- 
panies in the country. These figures are given in the ac- 
companying table. No attempt has been made in these sta- 
tistics to indicate the trackage from which these earnings 
are secured, and in some cases a considerable difference ex- 
ists between that in 1907 and 1908, owing to extensions and 
consolidations. The fiscal years of the companies also vary. 
That for the New York and Pennsylvania companies, as 
reported in the table, in most cases ends June 30, that of 
the Massachusetts companies on Sept. 30, and that of the 
Ohio companies on April 30. In the case of other companies 
the fiscal year is in general that ended Dec. 31. 

The companies are graded according to gross receipts, 
but it should be understood that the list below does not give 
all of the companies in the country within the limits men- 
tioned, simply those whose operating reports are made 
public. In some cases the company's report shows the 
gross receipts of all the subsidiary organizations ; others 
give simply the receipts derived from securities owned. 
The latter companies are distinguished in the accompanying 
table by an (*) asterisk. Where holding companies have 
reports in both ways, both figures are given and the date. 
The meaning of the other emblems is explained at the foot 
of the second column on page 23. 

OVER $1,000,000. 

NAME OF COMPANY. 190/. I908. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., New 

York City $23,179,635 $25,279,470 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Brooklyn, 

N. Y 19,936,753 20,548,390 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Phila- 

phia, Pa 18,338,618 18,557,503 

Stone & Webster Organization, Boston, 

Mass 14,996,712 17,328,336 

New York City Ry. Co., New York City 18,549,109 16,923,189 

Philadelphia Co., Pittsburg, Pa 19,332,306 16,829,156 

Boston Elevated Ry Co., Boston, Mass 13,952,966 14,074,196 

Chicago Railways Co., Chicago, 111 10,560,572 11,037,071 

Public Service Railway Co., Newark, 

N. J 10,582,857 10,989,970 

United Railways Co. of St. Louis, St. 

Louis, Mo 10,828,737 10,593,166 

Pittsburg Railways Co., Pittsburg, Pa.. 9,846,984 

Long Island Railroad Co., L. I. City, 

N. Y 10,130,407 9,818,544 

Chicago City Ry. Co., Chicago, 111 1 7,8i7,978 "9,195,783 

Massachusetts Electric Cos., Boston, 

Mass 7,758,5U 7,809,010 

California Gas & Electric Corp., San 

Francisco, Cal 6,923,664 7,746,750 

Detroit United Ry., Detroit, Mich 7,133,751 7J797I7 

Brooklyn Heights R. R. Co., Brooklyn, 

N. Y 11,705,860 "7,101,313 

Connecticut Co., New Haven, Conn 7,994,903 6,961.436 

United Railroads of San Francisco, Cal. 4,745,116 6,866,303 

Brooklyn Union El. R. R. Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y 6,853,057 

United Rys. & Electric Co., Baltimore, 

Md 7,024,587 6,838,042 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapo- 
lis, Minn 6,055,743 6,399,509 

Kansas City Ry. & Lt. Co., Kansas City, 

Mo 5,715,339 6,175,796 

New Orleans Ry. & Lt. Co., New Or- 
leans, La 5,999,731 5,968.498 

American Cities Ry. & Lt. Co 5,437,796 5,434,495 

International Ry. Co., Buffalo, N. Y 5,445,070 5,226,983 

Boston & Northern St. Ry. Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass 4,618,992 4,662,562 

Seattle Electric Co., Seattle, Wash 3,949,434 4,520,488 

Cincinnati Traction Co., Cincinnati, O.. 4,459,229 4,428,278 

Portland Ry., Light & Pwr. Co., Port- 
land, Ore 4,050,145 4,351,676 

Rhode Island Co. (The), Providence, 

R. 1 3,859,715 4,217,022 





3,300,126 3,434,132 


Illinois Traction Syst., Champaign, 111.. $3,779,187 

Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co. (The), 

Milwaukee, Wis 3,926,666 

Montreal St. Ry. Co., Montreal, Que., 
Can 3,558,745 

Washington Ry. & Elec. Co., Washing- 
ton, D. C 3,385,749 

Toronto Ry. Co., Toronto, Ont. Can... 3,511,198 

Nassau Electric Railroad Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co., At- 
lanta, Ga 3,309,341 3,339,021 

Denver City Tramway Co., Denver, Col < 2,9i3,650 *3,i 52,567 

Old Colony St. Ry. Co. Boston, Mass.. 2,906,663 2,035,599 

Oakland Traction Co., Oakland, Cal 2,789,684 2,801,787 

Louisville Ry. Co., Louisville, Ky 2,668,146 2,758,555 

Metropolitan West Side El. R. R. Co., 

Chicago 2,878,588 2,746,840 

*American Light & Trac. Co., New York 

City 2,463,158 2,723,064 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co., 

Indianapolis, Ind 2,683,826 2,673,436 

Toledo Railways & Light Co., Toledo, O. 2,565,200 2,542,111 

Washington Water Power Co., Spokane, 

Wash 2,094,282 2,464,118 

Northwestern Elev. R. R. Co., Chicago, 

111 2,100,316 2,463,188 

Ohio Electric Ry. Co. (The), Cincin- 
nati, 2,463,164 

Rochester Ry. Co., Rochester, N. Y . . . . 2,395,273 2,453,632 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry. Co., 

Omaha, Neb 1,713,673 2,304.162 

Columbus Ry. & Light Co., Columbus, O. 2,228,531 2,289,296 

South Side Elevated R. R. Co., Chi- 
cago, 111 2,105,193 2,241,690 

Third Ave. R. R. Co. (The), New York- 
City "2,231,303 

Birmingham Ry., Light & Power Co., 

Birmingham, Ala 2,220,999 2,167,546 

United Traction Co., Albany, N. Y 2,048,424 2,145,220 

East St. Louis & Suburban Co., E. St. 

Louis, 111 2,157,443 2,009,514 

Havana Elec. Ry. Co., Havana, Cuba. . 1,889,685 2,002,108 

British Columbia Elec. Ry. Co. (Ltd.), 

Vancouver, B. C 914,157 1,979,319 

Utah Light & Ry. Co., Salt Lake City, 

Utah 1,925,935 

Indiana Union Traction Co., Anderson, 

Ind 2,089,232 1,902,330 

Northern Ohio Trac. & Light Co., Ak- 
ron, 1,909,061 1,890,473 

Capitol Traction Co., Washington, D. C. 1,786,508 1,855,974 

Tri-City Ry. & Light Co. (The), Daven- 
port, la 1,782,356 1,819,077 

Brooklyn, Queens County & Sub. R. R. 

Co., Brooklyn, N. Y .'. 1,618,905 1,789,980 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Light Co., 

Youngstown, 1,900,662 1,747,927 

*North American Co. (The), New 

York City 1,610,965 1,723,186 

Puget Sound Elec. Ry. Co., Tacoma, 

Wash 1,664,281 1,694,973 

Memphis Street Ry. Co., Memphis, Tenn. 1,604,385 1,627,648 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry. Co., 

Worcester, Mass 1,641,265 1,626,143 

Dominion Power & Transmission Co., 

Hamilton, Ont., Can 1,461,757 1,600,312 

Nashville Ry. & Light Co., Nashville, 

Tenn 1,578,207 1,597,030 

Union Railway Co., New York City.... 1,583,656 1,590,156 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. Co., 
Brooklyn, N. Y 

*United Railways Investment Co., San 

Francisco, Cal 1,560,864 1,558.789 

West Penn. Railways Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 1,242,379 1,551,138 

Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Co., 

Milwaukee, Wis 1,172,278 1,471,477 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. Co., Chi- 
cago, 111 1,340,244 1,408.892 

Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction 

Co., Fort Wayne, Ind 1,283,782 1,322,720 

Springfield St. Ry. Co., Springfield, 

Mass 1,306,729 1,317,871 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry. Co., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y 1,176,767 1,312,291 

Chicago Consolidated Trac. Co., Chi- 
cago, 111 "1,235,307 

Scranton Ry. Co., Scranton, Pa '. . 1,090,149 1,183,687 

1,621,615 1,562,061 

July 3, 1909.] 




Forty-second St., Manhattanville & St. 
Nicholas Ave. Ry. Co., New York 

City $1,083,871 $1,171,463 

Dallas Electric Corporation, Dallas, Tex. 1,125,673 1,160,967 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co., Utica, 

N. Y 1,045.278 1,151,031 

Spokane & Inland Emp. R. R. Co., 

Spokane, Wash 1,172,626 1,146,177 

Manila Elec. R. R. & Ltg. Corp., Manila, 

P. 1 967,345 1,110,941 

Galveston-Houston Elec. Co., Galves- 
ton, Tex 1,088,447 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co., Allentown, 

Pa 1,031,279 1,087,277 

Northern Texas Trac. Co., Ft. Worth, 

Tex 1,060,953 1, 080,577 

Wilkes-Barre & Wyoming Valley Trac- 
tion Co., Wilkes-Barre, Pa 939,05 1 1,000,273 


BETWEEN $1,000,000 AND $500,000. 

NAME OF COMPANY. 1907- I908. 

New York & Queens County Ry. Co., 

Long Island City, N. Y $913,212 $944,856 

Grand Rapids Ry. Co., Grand Rapids, 

Mich 944,916 940,645 

St. Joseph Ry., Light, Heat & Power 

Co., St. Joseph, Mo 870,286 909,965 

Des Moines City Ry. Co., Des Moines, 

la. 779,058 906,74/ 

Winnipeg Elec. Ry. Co., Winnipeg, 

Man., Can 863,990 903.184 

San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose 

Consolidated Ry., Oakland, Cal 812,868 

Springfield Ry. & Light Co., Spring- 
field, 111 863,728 893,342 

Lake Shore Electric Ry. Co., Cleve- 
land, 938,161 892,269 

Duluth Street Ry. Co., Duluth, Minn... 846,084 890,295 

Schenectady Ry. Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 1,068,741 887,021 

Chicago & Oak Park El. R. R. Co., 

Chicago, 111 892,569 869,892 

United Traction Co., Reading, Pa 841,573 853,678 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R. 

Co., Gloversville, N. Y 794.933 809,925 

Portland R. R. Co., Portland, Me 759,891 782,519 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 

Ry. Co., Cleveland, 756,898 775,737 

Conestoga Traction Co., Lancaster, Pa. 742,161 762,926 

Charleston Consolidated Ry., Gas & 

Electric Co., Charleston, S. C 727,661 756,327 

Houston Electric Co., Houston, Tex.... 681,724 , 732,171 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co., Har- 

risburg, Pa 737,220 715,264 

*United Power & Transpt. Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa 840,119 688,285 

Wheeling Traction Co., Wheeling, W. 

Va 679,799 

Little Rock Ry. & Elec. Co., Little 

Rock, Ark 642,011 670,897 

Hudson Valley Ry. Co., Glens Falls, 

N. Y 618,614 639,300 

Ottawa Elec. Ry. Co. (The), Ottawa, 

Ont., Can 574,278 616,229 

Chicago, S. Bend & Northern Indiana 

Ry. Co., South Bend, Ind 604,163 612,538 

Lexington & Interurban Rys. Co., Lex- 
ington, Ky 561,580 611,812 

Pueblo & Suburban Traction & Ltg. 

Co., Pueblo, Col 601,795 608,642 

Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery 

R. R., New York City 627,979 599,174 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Trac. Co., Buffalo, 

N. Y 583,718 

City Ry. Co. (The), Dayton, 562,840 575,789 

Rockford & Interurban Ry. Co., Rock- 
ford, 111.... 591,396 575,249 

Michigan United Rys. Co., Jackson, 

Mich 449,058 573439 

Knoxville Ry. & Lt. Co., Knoxville, 

Tenn 605,777 572,271 

New Jersey & Hudson River Ry. & 

Ferry Co. (The), Hackensack, N. J.. 508,179 564,3-58 

Mobile Light & R. R. Co., Mobile, Ala.. 614,743 563,728 

Eastern Pennsylvania Railways Co., 

Pottsville, Pa 506,335 562,386 

Boston & Worcester St. Ry. Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass._. 531,560 553,613 

Tampa Electric Co., Tampa, Fla 521,181 552,574 


Susquehanna Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co., Lan- 
caster, Pa $551,479 

* American Cities Ry. & Light Co., New 

York City $527,123 547,897 

El Paso Electric Co., El Paso, Tex 506,693 534,222 

Trenton Street Ry. Co., Trenton, N. J. 528,325 528,463 

Chattanooga Rys. Co. (The), Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn 536,861 525,741 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R. 

Co., Scranton, .Pa 483,540 524,509 

Savannah Electric Co., Savannah, Ga. ., 602,399 505,819 

Altoona & Logan Valley Elec. Ry. Co., 

Altoona, Pa 532,392 500,743 


BETWEEN $500,000 AND $100,000. 


*American Rys. Co. (The), Philadel- 
phia, Pa $527,063 $498,758 

Ohio Valley Electric Ry. Co., Hunting- 
ton, W. Va 410,741 493,748 

Holyoke Street Ry. Co., Holyoke, Mass. 450,650 478,153 

Richmond Traction Co., Richmond, Va. 454,713 475,512 
Southwest Missouri R. R. Co. (The), 

Webb City, Mo 56i,535 474,473 

Union Street Ry. Co., New Bedford, 

Mass 467,853 470,661 

Johnstown Passenger Ry. Co., Johns- 
town, Pa 461,385 466,718 

Manchester Traction, Light & Power 

Co., Manchester, N. H 455,337 464,211 

Bangor Ry. & Electric Co., Bangor, Me. 412,434 451,913 

Butte Electric Ry. Co., Butte, Mont.... 475,138 446,571 

Western Ohio Ry. Co. (The), Lima, O. 444,846 441,791 
Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry. Co., Joliet, 

111- 412,326 435,238 

Jacksonville Electric Co., Jacksonville, 

Fla ■ 392,394 430.838 

Columbia Electric Street Ry., Light & 

Power Co., Columbia, S. C 410,254 428,818 

Halifax Elec. Tramway Co._, Halifax, 

_N. S., Can. 405,452 424,618 

Lincoln Traction Co., Lincoln, Neb 408,216 423,515 

Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Co., j*. 

Fairmont, W. Va 389,972 416,882 

Berkshire Street Ry. Co., Pittsfield, 

Mass. 409,286 406,150 

Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction 

Co., Indianapolis, Ind 399,368 

Richmond Light & R. R. Co., New 

Brighton, S. I., New York 335,oo8 395,145 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co., 

Honolulu, Hawaii 374,610 389,927 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street 

Ry. (The), Lewiston, Me 366,234 387,185 

Auburn & Syracuse Elec. R. R. Co., 

Auburn, N. Y 354,346 377,372 

Evansville & Southern Indiana Traction 

Co., Evansville, Ind 363,491 373,144 

Newton Street Ry. Co., Newton, Mass.. 357,588 371,99? 
Springfield Ry. & Light Co., Spring- 
field, _ Mo 378,046 367,639 

East Liverpool Traction & Light Co. 

(The), East Liverpool, 202,028 363,551; 

Whatcom County Ry. & Light Co., 

Bellingham, Wash 354,469 362.25 r 

Columbus Electric Co., Columbus, Ga. .. 340,574 358.497 
Schuylkill Valley Traction Co., Norris- 

town, Pa.... 360,822 357,555 

Easton Consolidated Elec. Co., Easton, 

Pa 376,34 r 356,615 

Galveston Electric Co., Galveston, Tex. 369,168 356,275 
Scioto Valley Traction Co., Columbus, 

O. _ 329,213 355.O0O 

Atlantic Shore Line Ry., Sanford, Me 295,152 348,207 
Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern 

Traction Co., Indianapolis, Ind 265,883 344,694 

Washington, Alexandria & Mt. Vernon 

Ry. Co., Washington, D. C 325,969 344,370 

Atlantic Coast Elec. Ry. Co., Asbtiry 

Park, N. J 305465 343,055 

Topeka Ry. Co. (The), Topoka, Kan.. 310,344 342,067 

Smith Brooklyn Ry. Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 34MS6 
Manchester Street Ry., Manchester, 

N. H -339,541 340460 

Ft. Smith Light & Traction Co., Ft. 

Smith, Ark 309,842 335,5 t8 

Toledo, Urban & Interurban Ky. Co., 

Toledo, 331,076 331.312 




No. i. 

NAME OF COMPANY 1907 1908 

Kansas City-Western Ry., Kansas City, 

Kan $280,514 $330,651 

Union Electric Co., Dubuque, la 294,922 323,320 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. Co., 

Columbus, 310,995 321,578 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eeastern R. R. 

Co., Rochester, N. Y 310,958 

Binghamton Ry. Co., Binghamton, N. Y. 287,024 310,828 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R. R. 

Co., Cleveland, 296,318 295,811 

Atlantic Shore Line Ry., Sanford, Me.. 290,033 295,152 

Western, N. Y. & Pennsylvania Traction 

Co., Olean, N. Y 140,779 291,780 

Oneida Ry. Co., Oneida, N. Y 26,409 '290,253 

New York & Long Island Traction Co. 

(The), Long Island City, N. Y 242,526 280,756 

Newport & Fall River St. Ry. Co., New- 
port, R. 1 257,067 280,687 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry. Co., 

Rochester, N. Y 258,984 280,024 

Phila. & West Chester Traction Co., 

Philadelphia, Pa 259,248 280,017 

Beaver Valley Traction Co. (The), 

Beaver Falls, Pa 270,612 279,820 

Montreal Park & Island Ry. Co., Mon- 
treal, Que., Can 262,814 277,634 

Fitchburg & Leominster Street Ry. Co., 

Fitchburg, Mass , 289,170 276,899 

Chester Traction Co., Chester, Pa 377.179 274,808 

Wisconsin Traction, Light, Heat & 

Power Co., Appleton, Wis 254,599 273,666 

Helena Light & Railway Co., Helena, 

Mont 268,774 270,674 

Worcester & Southbridge Street Ry. Co., 

Worcester, Mass 229,019 270,561 

Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Ry. 

Co., St. Catharines, Ont, Can 270,463 268,209 

Albany & Hudson R. R. Co., Hudson, 

N. Y 273,997 267,777 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction 

Co., New Albany, Ind : 257,972 266,080 

Houghton County Traction Co., Hough- 
ton, Mich 249,919 265,575 

Sea Beach Ry. Co., Brooklyn, N. Y.... 265,313 

Asheville Electric Co., Asheville, N. C. . 269,185 264,362 

Consolidated Rys., Lt. & Pwr. Co., Wil- 
mington, N. C 236,092 263,902 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. Co., Ot- 
tawa, 111 263,416 

Eastern Ohio Traction Co., Cleve- 
land, 244,360 259,172 

Roanoke Ry. & Electric Co., Roanoke, 

Va 192,603 258,528 

Interurban Ry. & Terminal Co. (The), 

Cincinnati, 259,148 254,581 

Elmira Water, Light & R. R. Co., El- 

mira, N. Y 224,817 248,022 

Cape Breton Elec. Co., Ltd., Sydney, 

N. S., Can 250,065 247,545 

Citizens Ry. & Light Co., Ft. Worth, 

Tex 246,664 

New York & Stamford Ry. Co., Port 

Chester, N. Y 136,748 246,514 

Rutland Ry., Light & Power Co., Rut- 
land, Vt 254,835 246,336 

Quebec Rv., Lt. & Power Co., Quebec, 

Can "238,461 

Toledo & Western R. R. Co. (The), To- 
ledo, 239,233 236,538 

London Street Ry. Co., London, Ont., 

Can 232,377 235,032 

Mansfield Ry., Light & Power Co., 

Mansfield, 189,906 234,456 

Staten Island Midland Rv. Co., New 

Brighton, S. I., N. Y 223,033 233,949 

Joplin & Pittsburg Ry. Co., Joplin, Mo.. . "179,227 "228,707 

Paducah Traction & Light Co., Paducah, 

Ky 237,513 226,614 

Dayton & Troy Electric Ry. Co., Day- 
ton, 213,139 225,057 

Ottumwa Ry. & Light Co., Ottumwa, la. 208,177 222,534 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. Co., New 

York City . "222,415 

Eastern Wisconsin Rv. & Light Co., 

Fond du Lac, Wis 189.996 218,611 

West India Electric Co., Ltd. (The), 

Kingston, Jamaica 198,845 217,410 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. 

Co., Waterloo, la 205,321 217,103 

NAME OF COMPANY 1007 1908 

Pittsburg & Butler Street Ry. Co., But- 
ler, Pa $ 36,684 $215,272 

Stark Elec. R. R. Co., Alliance, 205,192 213,617 

Dartmouth & Westport St. Ry. Co., 

New Bedford, Mass 209,581 213,510 

Citizens' Traction Co. (The), Oil City, 

Pa 198,200 212,876 

Interurban Ry. Co., Des Moines, la 220,099 211,326 

Fries Manufacturing & Power Co. 

(The), Winston-Salem, N. C 229,201 209,587 

Pensacola Electric Co., Pensacola, Fla.. 228,150 209,183 

Cincinnati & Hamilton Traction Co., 

Cincinnati, 186,460 207,0/4 

Pittsfield Electric St. Ry. Co., Pitts- 
field, Mass 203,530 206,941 

Schuylkill Ry. Co., Girardville, Pa 202,252 206,480 

Valley Traction Co., Lemoyne, Pa 206,475 221,936 

Grays Harbor Ry. & Lt. Co., Aberdeen, 

Wash 193.744 205,978 

Long Island Electric Ry. Co., Jamaica, 

Long Island, N. Y 200,182 205,010 

Meridian Light & Ry. Co., Meridian, 

Miss 208,278 202,657 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 

Indianapolis, Ind 199,620 200,355 

Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction 

Co., Kokomo, Ind 188,269 199,209 

Benton Harbor-St. Joe Ry. & Light Co. 

(The), Benton Harbor, Mich 172,790 192,239 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Ry. Co., 

Hazleton, Pa 170,998 191,951 

Oneonta & Mohawk Valley R. R. Co., 

Oneonta, N. Y 165,937 190,043 

Lehigh Traction Co., Hazleton, Pa 174,424 187,787 

Steubenville & East Liverpool Ry. & 

Light Co., Steubenville, 184,115 185,495 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Ry. Co., 

Cedar Rapids, la 170,904 185.028 

Hartford & Springfield Street Ry. Co., 

Warehouse Pt., Conn 178,092 184,612 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. Co., 

Seattle, Wash 149,494 182,295 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry. Co., 

Northampton, Mass 180,018 182,180 

Toledo & Indiana Ry. Co., Toledo, O.. 161,227 178,261 

Toledo, Pt. Clinton & Lakeside Ry. Co., 

Toledo, 109,172 176,267 

Jamestown St. Ry. Co. (The), James- 
town, N. Y 166,445 172,096 

Northampton St. Ry. Co., Northamp- 
ton, Mass 174,487 171,440 

Western Massachusetts Street Ry. Co., 

Westfield, Mass 138,760 167,080 

Railways Co., General, New York City.. 171,019 167,071 

Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth 

R. R. Co., Cincinnati, 153,616 164,493 

Allentown & Reading Trac. Co., Allen- 
town, Pa 165,169 164,462 

Pittsburg, McKeesport & Greensburg 

Ry. Co., Greensburg, Pa 202,052 163,258 

Orange County Traction Co., Newburgh, 

N. Y 133,029 162,562 

Sandwich. Windsor & Amherstburg Ry. 

Co., Windsor, Ont.. Can 135,517 159-959 

Sheboygan Lt., Pwr. & Ry. Co., Sheboy- 
gan, Wis _ I5I.37S 158,770 

Interstate Consolidated Street Ry. Co., 

North Attleboro, Mass I74,49T 158.379 

Camden & Trenton Ry.. Trenton, N. J.. 170,049 156.722 

St. John Ry. Co. (The), St. John, N. B., 

Can 140,230 156,654 

Mil ford & Uxbridge St. Ry. Co., Mil- 
ford, Mass 178,871 156,308 

Southern Wisconsin Ry. Co., Madison, 

Wis '. I54J58 156,157 

Chippewa Valley Ry., Light & Power 

Co. (The), Eau Claire, Wis 138,475 156,069 

Jersey Central Traction Co., Keyport, 

N. J \ 125,943 154.080 

North Carolina Public Service Co. 

(The), Greensboro, N. C "150,000 "153,913 

Boston & Maine R. R. (Concord & Man- 
chester Electric Branch), Concord, 

N. H 154,772 152,863 

Peoria Ry. Terminal Co., Peoria, 111 150,782 152,457 

Lexington & Boston St. Ry. Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass 151,135 151,503 

Green Bay Trac. Co., Green Bay, Wis.. 143,052 148,538 

Portsmouth St. R. R. & Lt. Co., Ports- 

mbuth, 137,257 147,768 

July 3, 1909.] 


Muscatine Light & Trac. Co., Muscatine, 

Austin Electric Ry. Co., Austin, Tex.... 

Allegheny Valley St. Ry. Co.. Tarentum, 

Fairmount Park Transportation Co., 
Philadelphia, Pa 

Southern Colorado Power & Ry. Co. 
(The), Trinidad, Col 

Lorain Street R. R. Co., Lorain, O 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. R., 
Syracuse, N. Y 

Kingston Consolidated R. R. Co., Kings- 
ton, N. Y 

Williamsport Pass. Ry. Co., Williams- 
port, Pa 

Washington & Canonsburg Ry. Co., 
Pittsburg, Pa 

Louisville & Eastern R. R. Co., Louis- 
ville, Ky 

Cairo Electric & Traction Co., Cairo, 

Vicksburg Traction Co., Vicksburg, Miss 

Northern Electric Street Ry. Co. (The), 
Scranton, Pa ' . . 

Bridgeton & Millville Trac. Co. (The), 
Bridgeton, N. J 

Tarrytown, White Plains & Mamaroneck 
Ry. Co., White Plains, N. Y 

Iowa & Illinois Ry. Co., Clinton, la 

Carolina Power & Light Co., Raleigh, 
N. C 

Rockland, Thomaston & Camden St. Ry. 
Co., Rockland, Me 

Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora 
Electric Street Ry. Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Texas Traction Co., Dallas, Tex 

Poughkeepsie City & Wappingers Falls 
Electric Ry. Co., Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Anniston Electric & Gas Co., Anniston, 

Peekskill Lighting & R. R. Co., Peeks- 
kill, N. Y 

Athens Electric Ry. Co., Athens, Ga 

Clinton Street Ry. Co., Clinton, la.... 

Southern Ry. & Light Co., Natchez. Miss. 

Evansville, Suburban & Newburg Ry. 
Co., Evansville, Ind 

West Chester St. Ry. Co., West Chester, 

Chautauqua Traction Co., Jamestown, 
N. Y 

Ithaca Street Ry. Co., Ithaca, N. Y 

Haverhill & Amesbury St. Ry. Co., Hav- 
erhill, Mass 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Ry. & Light 
Co., Cedar Rapids, la 

Elec. Ry., Lt. & Ice Co. (The), Junction 
City, Kan 

New Bedford & Onset St. Ry. Co., New 
Bedford, Mass 

Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry. Co., 
Brockton, Mass 

Dayton & Xenia Transit Co., Dayton, O. 

Washington, Arlington & Falls Church 
"Ry. Co., Washington, D. C 

Elgin & Belvidere Electric Co., Chicago, 

Danbury & Bethel St. Ry. Co., Dan- 
bury, Conn 

Syracuse & Suburban R. R. Co., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y 

Holmesburg, Tacony & Frankford Elec- 
tric Ry. Co. (The) Philadelphia, Pa. 

Astoria Electric Co., Astoria, Ore 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Ry. Co., 
Kendallville, Ind 

Bristol & Plainville Tramway Co., Bris- 
tol, Conn 

Northampton Traction Co., Easton, Pa.. 

Ponce Electric Co., Ponce, P. R 

Atlanta Northern Ry. Co., Atlanta, Ga. 

Pennsylvania & Ohio Ry. Co. (The), 
Ashtabula, O 

Union Traction Co. of Kansas, Inde- 
pendence, Kan 

Jefferson Traction Co., Punxsutawney, 

Sydney & Glace Bay Rv. Co., Sydney, 
N. S., Can 


10X37 I908 NAME OF COMPANY 100/ I908 

Delaware County & Philadelphia Electric 

$142,293 $147,638 Ry. Co., Philadelphia, Pa $110,867 $109,668 

118,476 146,670 Gait, Preston & Hespeler St. Ry. Co., 

Gait, Out., Can 107.093 109,104 

105,677 146,342 Pascagoula St. Ry. & Power Co., Scran- 
ton, Miss 116,049 109,045 

133,823 145,543 Power, Transit & Light Co., Bakers- 
field, Cal 108,920 

131,342 143,882 Denison & Sherman Ry. Co., Sherman, 

177,804 143,381 Texas 108,448 

Dayton, Covington & Piqua Traction Co., 

136,345 I43,29 T Dayton, 112,740 107,587 

Groton & Stonington St. Ry. Co., Gro- 

142,246 142,467 ton, Conn 104,073 107,077 

New York City Interborough Ry. Co., 

137.358 141,157 New York City 62,466 106,935 

Lebanon Valley Street Ry. Co., Leba- 

125,961 140,667 non, Pa 109,510 106,211 

Richmond & Petersburg Electric Ry. Co., 

156,372 140,653 Richmond, Va \ 102,426 105,532 

Burlington Traction Co., Burlington, Vt. 98,868 105,507 
140,139 Cincinnati, Milford & Loveland Traction 

114,116 139,072 Co., Cincinnati. O 9L337 105,145 

Cincinnati & Columbus Trac. Co., Cin- 

138,823 cinnati, 95492 105,070 

Citizens' Electric Street Ry. Co., New- 

141,793 138,637 buryport, Mass 108,383 104,313 

Ocean Elec. Ry. Co., Rockaway, L. I., 

132,386 137,995 N. Y 92.578 102,733 

124,026 136,719 Steubenville & Wheeling Traction Co., 

Wheeling, W. Va 73."4 102,225 

136,357 Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction Co., 

Bluffton, Ind 100,913 

133,432 135.177 Rome Railway & Light Co., Rome, Ga.. . 92.695 100,635 

Hudson, Pelham & Salem Street Ry. Co., 

150,300 134,845 Hudson, N. H 98,272 100,109 


124,650 131,679 BETWEEN $100,000 AND $50,000 

T „«-,™ ,„x T ™ NAME OF COMPANY. 1907. I908. 
146,399 131,100 

Salisbury & Spencer Ry. Co., Salisbury, 

111,164 128,987 N - C $99,546 

110,446 128,753 Warren Street Ry. Co., Warren, Pa $97,9i6 98,695 

122,000 128,000 Philadelphia & Easton Elec. Ry. Co., 

126,786 Doylestown, Pa 98,001 98,644 

Natick & Cochituate St. Ry. Co., Natick, 

118,508 126,036 Mass 100,078 97,862 

Montreal Terminal Ry. Co. (The), 

100,422 125,933 Montreal, Que., Can 95,5 2 6 97-354 

Springfield, Troy & Piqua Ry. Co., 

95,739 125,306 Springfield, 98,660 97,294 

113,644 122,149 Cortland County Traction Co., Cortland, 

N. Y 77.298 97,197 

121,823 121,552 Dover, Somersworth & Rochester St. Ry. 

Co., Dover, N. H 95.993 96,454 

107,717 121,529 Geneva, Waterloo, Seneca Falls & Ca- 
yuga Lake Traction Co., Geneva, N. Y. 97.148 95.979 
93738 121,177 Hudson River Traction Co., Rutherford, 

OQQ N - J 92.6l6 95,487 

117,808 120,737 New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction 

_, Co., Trenton, N. J 104,259 95,248 

121,749 119,862 F & Moor ] iea d St. Rv. Co., Fargo, 

127,555 119,784 nTd ;.. 85 ,000 95,ooo 

<- o o Marshalltown Light, Power & Rv. Co., 

106.338 119,289 Marshalltown, la ." 88,055 94,136 

T T o Muskogee Elec. Trac. Co., Muskogee, 

118,478 Qkla ;2i365 94)Il8 

n „ nn Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Ry. 

113.200 117,900 Co > Mnfordj Mass 105,470 93g0I 

n7 n77M Erie Traction Co., Erie, Pa 83,538 93.893 

7,473 11 7-752 Baton Rouge E]ectric CO i Baton Rouge, 

116.339 116,989 La 8o -°54 93,257 
107 AQ-i 1 16 760 Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Electric Ry. 

Co., Toledo, 79.989 92,242 

102,592 116,028 Blue Hill Street Ry Co., Canton, Mass.. 85,228 91,085 
Providence & Danielson Ry. Co., Provi- 

110,641 114,614 dence, R. 1 92,061 91,023 

106,495 113,223 Boise R. R. Co., Ltd., Boise, Idaho 90,000 

120,087 113J31 Southwestern Traction Co., London, 

112^21 Out., Can 89,971 

Butler Passenger Ry. Co., Butler, Pa.... 92,420 89,626 
1 18 427 112664 Great Falls & Old Dominion R. R. Co., 

Great Falls, Va 72,664 88,861 

112,076 Middlesex & Boston St. Ry. Co., Natick, 

Mass 89,876 88,481 

57,022 111,212 Conneaut & Erie Trac. Co., Erie, Pa 80,594 88,380 

Monmouth County Elec. Co., Red Bank, 

113,614 110,698 N. J 83.500 88,274 



Shamokin & Mt. Carmel Transit Co., 

Shamokin, Pa $77-294 $88,100 

Port Arthur & Ft. William Electric Ry., 

Port Arthur, Ont, Can 69,181 87,367 

Sea View R. R. Co., Wakefield, R. I. . . . 81,902 87,026 

Danville Ry. & Elec. Co., Danville, Va. . . 77,315 87,007 

Worcester & Blackstone Valley Street 

Ry. Co., Worcester, Mass 85,348 86,906 

Lawrence & Methuen Street Ry. Co., 

Lawrence, Mass 79,473 86,236 

Warren & Jamestown St. Ry. Co., James- 
town, N. Y 84,135 86,114 

Walla Walla Valley Traction Co., Walla 

Walla, Wash 84,556 

Lewistown & Reedsville Electric Ry. Co., 

Lewistown, Pa 119,919 84,052 

Bennington & North Adams St. Ry. Co., 

Hoosick Falls, N. Y 48,360 83,962 

Niagara Gorge R. R. Co., Niagara Falls, 

N. Y 75,175 83,757 

Tri-State Traction Co., Steubenville, O.. 83,354 

Black River Traction Co., Watertown, 

N. Y 94,221 82,757 

Southeastern Ohio Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co. 

(The), Zanesville, 66,067 81, 88: 

Philadelphia, Bristol & Trenton St. Ry. 

Co., Philadelphia, Pa 76,705 81,502 

Freeport Ry., Light & Power Co., Free- 
port, 111 81,833 81,212 

Joliet & Southern Trac. Co., Joliet, 111.. . 80,109 80,488 

Youngstown & Southern Ry. Co., 

Youngstown, 29,543 79,891 

Jackson Ry. & Light Co., Jackson, Tenn. 68,827 • 79,209 

Ashland Light, Power & Street Ry. Co., 

Ashland, Wis 25,972 78,849 

Rochester & Suburban Ry. Co., Roches- 
ter, N. Y 70,860 78,754 

Maumee Valley Rys. & Light Co., To- 
ledo, 76,212 

Rock Island Southern R. R. Co., Mon- 
mouth, 111 69,931 76,191 

Waverly, Sayre & Athens Traction Co., 

Waverly, N. Y 77,303 76,127 

Great Falls St. Ry., Great Falls, Mont... 62,467 75,91 1 

Cambridge Power, Light & Traction Co. 

(The), Cambridge, 74,032 75, 142 

Cohoes Ry. Co., Cohoes, N. Y 70,051 74,810 

Columbia & Montour Electric Ry. Co., 

Bloomsburg, Pa 80,724 74,565 

Bristol Gas & Electric Co., Bristol, Tenn. 70,142 74,358 

Hull Electric Co. (The), Aylmer, Que., 

Can 101,905 74,3H 

Northern Illinois Light & Traction Co., 

Ottawa, 111 66,420 74,292 

Sedalia Light & Trac. Co., Sedalia, Mo. "74,122 

Biddeford & Saco R. R. Co., Biddeford, 

Me 67,582 73,496 

Norfolk & Bristol St. Ry. Co., Norwood, 

Mass 69,029 70,564 

Galesburg & Kewanee Electric Ry. Co., 

Kewanee, 111 63,275 69,432 

Shamokin & Edgewood Electric Ry. Co., 

Sharfiokin, Pa 60,064 68,269 

Manistee Light & Traction Co., Manistee, 

Mich 67,570 

Norwich & Westerly Ry. (The), Nor- 
wich, Conn 13 52,i83 67,307 

Portsmouth Electric Ry., Concord, N. H. 68,043 67,245 

Fort Scott Gas & Elec. Co., Fort Scott, 

Kan 67,612 66,700 

Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Electric Ry. 

Co., Sterling, 111 57,628 66,498 

Farmington St. Ry. Co., Hartford, Conn. 62,342 66,435 

Coney Island & Gravesend Ry. Co., 

Brooklyn, N. Y 54,387 65,994 

Suburban R. R. Co., Chicago, 111 .'. 65,650 65,917 

Newport & Providence Ry. Co., New- 
port, R. I 64,179 65,339 

Elmira & Seneca Lake Traction Co., El- 

mira, N. Y 52,568 65,199 

Springfield & Xenia Ry. Co. (The), Xe- 

nia, 63,979 64.446 

Southern Boulevard R. R. Co., New 

York City 57,648 64,262 

Hattiesburg Traction Co., Hattiesburg, 

Miss 63,943 

Buffalo Southern Ry. Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 58,940 63,786 

Toledo, Ottawa Beach & Northern Ry. 

Co. (The), Toledo, 63,596 


Wilkes-Barre, Dallas & Harvey's Lake 

Ry. Co., Wilkes-Barre, Pa $65,103 $63,506 

Toronto & York Radial Ry. Co. (The), 

Toronto, Ont, Can 58,964 63,412 

Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield Elec. 

Ry. Co. (The), Norwalk, 47.473 62,877 

Gardner, Westminster & Fitchburg St. 

Ry. Co., Gardner, Mass 64,900 62,780 

Tiffin, Fostoria & Eastern Electric Ry. 

Co., Tiffin, 52,812 "62,752 

Northern Cambria Street Ry. Co., Pat- 
ton, Pa 55,602 62,649 

•Chillicothe Electric R. R., Light & Power 

Co., Chillicothe, 56,229 62,355 

People's Street Ry. Co., Nanticoke, Pa.. 58,569 62,240 

Norton & Taunton St. Ry. Co., Norton, 

Mass 57,104 62,031 

Slate Belt Electric Street Ry. Co., Ban- 
gor, Pa 59,431 61,906 

Providence & Fall River Street Ry. Co., 

Swansea Centre, Mass 62,057 61,667 

Vincennes Traction & Light Co., Vin- 

cennes, Ind 55,023 61,164 

Walkill Transit Co. (Th.e), Middletown, 

N. Y 59,866 60,819 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R. Co., 

Youngstown, 60,796 

Newton & Boston St. Ry., Newton, Mass. 74,005 60,652 

Trenton & New Brunswick R. R. Co., 

Trenton, N. J 56,689 59,637 

Columbus, New Albany & Johnstown 

Trac. Co., Columbus, 52,582 59,499 

Mason City & Clear Lake Ry. Co., Ma- 
son City, la 50,387 59,441 

Oshawa Ry. Co. (The), Oshawa, Ont., 

Can '. 63,031 59,169 

Mattoon City Ry. Co., Mattoon, 111 55,374 58,760 

Ashtabula Rapid Transit Co., Ashta- 
bula, 72,189 58,737 

Oswego Traction Co., Oswego, N. Y.... 56,466 57,8io 

Van Brunt St. & Erie Basin R. R. Co., 

Brooklyn, N. Y 61,447 57,519 

Concord, Maynard & Hudson Street Ry. 

Co., Maynard, Mass , 59,982 57,500 

Ohio River Elec. Ry. & Power Co., Pom- 

eroy, 58,121 57,210 

Anderson Traction Co., Anderson, S. C. . 57,023 

Webster, Monessen, Belle Vernon & Fa- 
yette City St. Ry. Co., Monessen, Pa.. 48,486 56,920 

Burlington County Ry. Co., Mt. Holly, 

N. J 55,045 56.307 

Southwestern St. Ry. Co., Phila., Pa.... 64,841 56,045 

Levis County Ry., Levis, Que., Can..... 56,987 55,700 

Kittanning & Leechburg Rys. Co., Kit- 
tanning, Pa 57,029 55,486 

Phillipsburg Horse Car R. R. Co., Phil- 

lipsburg, N. J 54,246 55,376 

Chatham, Wallaceburg & Lake Erie Ry. 

Co., Chatham, Ont., Can 55,002 

West Chester, Kennett & Wilmington 

Ry. Co., Chester, Pa 56,309 54.995 

Warren, Brookfield & Spencer Street 

Ry. Co., Brookfield, Mass 61,322 54778 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Ry. Co., 

Charlottsville, Va 52,162 54.7.45 

Corning & Painted Post Street Ry. Co., 

Corning, N. Y 53,247 54.310 

Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon 

Ry. Co., Bowling Green, 22,392 53-453 

Oley Valley Ry. Co., Boyerstown, Pa.. 53,089 

Exeter. Hampton & Amesbury Street 

Ry. Co., Exeter, N. H 52,214 52,963 

Sarnia Street Ry. Co., Sarnia, Ont., Can. 37,609 52,436 

Uxbridge & Blackstone Street Ry. Co., - 

Co., Uxbridge, Mass 29,692 52,305 

Taunton & Pawtucket St. Ry. Co., Taun- 
ton, Mass 52,925 51,452 

'Trenton, New Hope & Lambertsville 

St. Rv. Co., Yardly, Pa . 54,047 50,958 

Haverhill & Southern New Hampshire 

Street Ry. Co., Haverhill, Mass 46,925 50,614 

Waterville & Fairfield Ry. & Light Co., 

Waterville, Me 75,68o 50,017 

BETWEEN $50,000 AND $25,000. 


Centre & Clearfield Street Ry. Co. 

(The), Phillipsburg, Pa $48,909 $49,731 

Fishkill Electric Ry. Co., Fishkill-on-the- 

Hudson, N. Y 51,182 49,710 

July 3, 1909.] 


2 3 


Paul Smith Electric Light, Power & 

R. R. Co., Paul Smith's, N. Y $47,329 $49,368 

Titusville Electric Traction Co., Titus- 

ville, Pa 44,431 49,031 

Ft. Wayne & Springfield Ry. Co., De- 
catur, Ind 48.498 

Easton & Washington Traction Co., 

Washington, N. J 52,546 48,476 

Nahant & Lynn St. Ry. Co., Lynn, Mass. 47,325 48,247 

Egerton Tramway Co., Ltd., Stellerton, 

N. S., Can 46,466 47,229 

Coal Belt Electric Ry. Co., Marion, 111.. 53,420 46,565 

Pottstown & Reading Street Ry. Co., 

Pottstown, Pa 47,583 46,518 

Berlin Street Ry. Co. (The), Berlin, 

N. H 44,512 45,8o6 

Pittsburg & Allegheny Valley Ry. Co., 

Leechburg, Pa 51.531 45,757 

Athol & Orange Street Ry. Co., Athol, 

Mass 45,674 45,197 

New. London & East Lyme St. Ry. Co., 

New London, Conn 43,756 45J70 

Escanaba Electric Street Ry. Co., Esca- 

naba, Mich 47,043 44,398 

St. Francois County Ry. Co., Farming- 
ton,- Mo 44-337 

Lancaster Trac. & Pwr. Co. (The), Lan- 
caster, O 44,826 44,149 

Owosso & Corunna Elec. Co., Owossa, 

Mich 42,000 44,000 

Lowell & Fitchburg St. Ry. Co., Lowell, 

Mass 38,725 43,745 

Hannibal Ry. & Electric Co., Hannibal, 

Mo 43,458 

Westmoreland County Ry. Co., Pitts- 
burg, Pa 46,997 42,870 

Templeton St. Ry. Co., Templeton, Mass. 44,265 42,669 

Hutchinson Interurban R. R. Co., Hutch- 
inson, Kan 42,358 

Meadville & Cambridge Springs Street 

Ry. Co., Meadville, Pa 40,924 41, 911 

Worcester & Holden St. Ry. Co., 

Holden, Mass 43,722 41,854 

People's Traction Co., Galesburg, 111.. 38.717 41,440 

Chambersburg & Gettysburg Electric Ry. 

Co., Chambersburg, Pa 41,636 40,961 

East Taunton Street Ry. Co., Taunton, 

Mass 40,319 40,760 

Manchester & Nashua Street Ry. Co., 

Manchester, N. H 40,123 

International Transit Co. (The), Sault 

Ste. Marie, Ont, Can 43,744 40,019 

Dubois Electric & Traction Co., Du- 

Bois, Pa . 39,773 39,407 

Montgomery Traction Co., Norristown, 

Pa 39,526 39-2i6 

Toronto Suburban Street Ry. Co., Tor- 
onto Junction, Ont., Can 36,257 39,oio 

Kankakee Electric Railway Co, Kanka- 
kee, 111 22,456 38,796 

Port Jervis Electric Light, Power, Gas 

& R. R. Co., Port Jervis, N. Y 38,478 

Trans-St. Mary's Traction Co., Sault. 

Ste. Marie, Mich 38,141 

Buffalo & Williamsville Electric Ry. Co., 

Williamsville, N. Y 36,603 37,977 

Haverhill, Plaistow & Newton St. Ry. 

Co., Plaistow, N. H 36,964 37,681 

Portland & Brunswick Street Ry. Co., 

Brunswick, Me 45,447 37,672 

Sunbury & Northumberland Electric Ry. 

Co., Sunbury, Pa 29,575 37,5 2 3 

Vallamont Traction Co., Williams- 
port, Pa 34,705 36,972 

Grand Valley Ry. Co., Brantford, Ont. . . 41,064 36,947 

Marlborough & Westborough St. Ry. 

Co., Westborough, Mass 31,253 36,600 

Berlin & Waterloo St. Ry. Co., Ltd., Ber- 
lin, Ont., Can 36,571 36,215 

Carbon Transit Co., Mauch Chunk, Pa. 32,520 35.783 

Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid 

Ry. Co. (The), Kingsville, Ont., Can.. 35,585 

Millville Traction Co., Millville, N. J.... 37,i86 34,565 

Sherbrooke St. Ry. Co., Sherbrnokc, 

Ont., Can 32,899 34,132 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynes- 
boro Street Ry. Co., Waynesboro, Pa 53,428 33,924 

Laconia Street Ry. Co., Laconia, N. H.. 32,851 33,722 

Troy & New England Ry. Co., Troy 

N - Y 33,463 33,355 


Brantford St. Ry. Co., Brantford, Out, 

Can $31,294 $32,909 

Ogdensburg Street Ry Co., Ogdensburg, 

N. Y 33,509 32,880 

Peterborough Radial Ry. Co., Peter- 
borough, Ont., Can 33,597 31,042 

Citizens' Electric Co., Eureka Springs, 

Ark 50,225 30,084 

Claremont Ry. & Ltg. Co., Claremont, 

N. H 51,998 "30,652 

Paris Traction Co., Paris, 111 30,489 

Waterville & Oakland St. Ry. Co., 

Waterville, Me 32,338 30,364 

Penn Yann, Keuka Park & Branchport 

Ry., Penn Yann, N. Y 30,028 30,241 

Homestead & Mifflin St. Ry. Co., Home- 
stead, Pa 30,300 30,151 

Susquehanna Traction Co., Lock Haven, 

Pa 30,416 30,010 

Kingston, Portsmouth & Cataraqui Elec. 

Ry. Co., Kingston, Ont., Can 30,693 29,712 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry. Co., 

Richmond, Va 29,706 

DeKalb, Sycamore & Interurban Trac- 
tion Co., DeKalb, 111. "44,195 "29,691 

Bush Terminal R. R. Co., Brooklyn, 

N. Y 33,798 29,545 

Central Passenger Ry. Co., Atlantic City, 

N. J 32,094 29,488 

Eastern New York R. R. Co., Ballston 

Spa, N. Y 45,109 29,479 

Hornellsville & Canisteo Ry. Co. (The), 

Hornell, N .Y 26,152 29,355 

Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake Ry. 

Co., Walworth, Wis 29,506 29,161 

Sharon & Newcastle St. Ry. Co., Sharon, 

Pa 30,838 29,030 

Bangor & Portland Traction Co., Bangor 

Pa 27,929 29,000 

Blue Ridge Light, Power & Rys. Co., 

Staunton, Va 28,578 28,547 

Lewisburg, Milton & Watsontown Pas- 
senger Ry. Co., Milton, Pa 28,151 28,546 

Guelph Radial Ry. Co., Ltd., Guelph, 

Ont., Can 28,304 28,304 

Calais Street Ry. Co., Calais, Me 28,466 28,293 

Philadelphia & Chester Ry. Co., Chester, 

Pa 30,445 28,267 

Henderson Traction Co., Henderson, 

Ky 28,103 

Tama & Toledo Electric Ry. & Light 

Co., Toledo, la 28,094 

Ware & Brookfield Street Ry. Co., Ware, 

Mass 25,673 27,502 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Ry. Co., 

Lincoln, Neb 26,612 26,956 

Keene Electric Ry. Co., Keene, N. H. . . . 28,077 26,694 
Marcellus & Ostica Lake Ry. Co., Mar- 

cellus, N. Y 23,597 26,557 

Granite City Ry. Co., St. Cloud, Minn... 27,098 26,492 
Dedham & Franklin Street Ry. Co., Ded- 

ham, Mass 23,248 26,212 

Cornwall Elec. Ry., Lt. & Pwr Co. 

(The), Cornwall, Ont., Can 25,814 26,244 

Jersey Shore Electric Street Ry. Co., 

Jersey Shore, Pa 24,965 26,233 

Hummellstown & Campbellstown Street 

Ry. Co., Hershey, Pa 24,126 26,101 

Latr-obe Street Ry. Co., Latrobe, Pa 27,415 26,074 

Pawtucket Valley St. Ry. Co., Wes- 
terly, R. 1 35,927 25,979 

Amesbury & Hampton Street Ry. Co., 

Amesbury, Mass 26,187 25,964 

Plattsburg Traction Co., Plattsburg, 

N. Y 25,522 25,796 

Danville & Bloomsburg Street Ry. Co., 

Grovania, Pa 28,864 25,093 

*Income derived from securities owned; 'covers 11 months' 
operation ; 2 covers 13 months' operation ; "for Brooklyn Heights 
R. R. only ; 'consolidated report of the Denver & Northwestern 
Ry's properties; 'Receiver's statement, June 12 to Sept. 30, 1908; 
"Receiver's statement, June 25 to Dec. 31, 1908; '1908 figure in- 
cludes West Shore R. R.'s electrified division ; "net earnings ; 
"covers partly completed road only; "'operation from Feb. 26 to 
June 30, 1908; "figures are for Greensboro Electric Co.; "cov- 
ers only 7 months' operation ; la operation from Nov. 12, 1906, 
to June 30, 1907; "covers 14 months' operation; "includes gas, 
light and heat returns; "does not include gas, light and heat 
returns; "7908 figures do not include lighting plant returns. 





Among the latest developments in interurban railroading 
the performance of the 1200-volt system stands out promi- 
nently. In many ways it has proved to be a remarkable 
advance in economy, both in first cost and cost of mainte- 
nance, while the perfection of the system as shown by 
operation is the most phenomenal of any radical change in 
methods as yet applied to electric railways. 

Without exception the results with 1200 volts have been 
successful and the apparatus has given the manufacturing 
company no more trouble than do the standard 600-volt 
equipments after they leave the factory. This is remark- 
able when one considers the long experience and the suc- 
cessful operation of the present interurban 600-volt system. 
There are several fundamental reasons for the success 
with 1200 volts. It is different in few details from the 
standard 600-volt system and as there are no radical 
changes, experience on the 600-volt roads has been directly 
applicable. With the exception of the duty on circuit- 
breakers and control switches, the problem is purely one of 
insulation, a simple condition to meet. 

The 1200-volt interurban railway system has been in- 
stalled on the four roads named below. The statements 
regarding performance are based on experience, and some 
tests made to determine the performance of substation ap- 
paratus under abnormal conditions. 

Indianapolis & Louisville. — Consists of a 41-mile section 
operated at 1200 volts and some foreign operation over 
600-volt tracks in Louisville. Country ranges from slightly 
rolling at the northern end to a rather hilly section at the 
south. This road operates under representative interurban 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern. — Principal opera- 
tion, 600 volts direct current, but runs cars to Louisville 
over the tracks of the Indianapolis & Louisville Railway. 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & Newcastle Railway. — 
There are 73 miles of single-track operated at 1200 volts 
and about 30 minutes of 600-volt city running in the city 
of Pittsburgh. The natural difficulties have forced the 
railway to adopt sharp curves and frequent grades of 3 to 
6 per cent. Conditions of service unusually severe, as 
cars are either running with brakes on down-hill or accel- 
erating up-hill most of the time. In Butler there is a 7.9 
per cent grade at the end of a 13-mile stub-end trolley 
feed. Equipments which operate well on this line should 
give satisfaction anywhere. 

Central California Traction Company.- — Six hundred- 
volt operation in the city of Stockton. The rest of the 
system is operated at 1200 volts from a third-rail. Coun- 
try, level ; schedules, moderately severe. 


Maximum economy is obtained when the entire road 
can be operated from single direct-current station located at 
the center of distribution, doing away with all high-tension 
wires and substations; such is the case on the Indianapolis 
& Louisville line, where the stub-end feed is 21 miles one 
way and 20 miles the other way from the power house. 
As will be noted from the schedule speed performed and 
the level running speed of the car, the voltage must be 
reasonably good, better than on the average 600-volt inter- 
urban road. In this station each generating unit consists 
of two 300-kw, 600-volt machines connected in series. 
There has been absolutely no trouble with this generating 
outfit from an electrical standpoint and it is a matter of 
record that the power house in over a year has delivered 
power to the line continuously, except when ordered ofr 
by the train dispatcher or during momentary interruptions 
when feeder circuit-breaker has blown from overload. The 
switchboard is extremely simple, consisting of panels for 
the generators and two feeders. There has been no trouble 
of any description with the switchboard apparatus. 

On the Central California Traction ^Company's line 
power is purchased at 60 cycles and changed to 1200-volt 
direct current through a motor-generator set, the direct- 

* Abstract of a paper read before the Street Railway Association of 
the State of New York, Bluff Point, N. Y., June 29-30, 1909. 

current generator being wound directly for 1200 volts. At 
first some trouble was experienced with the arc holding 
over in case of a bad short-circuit, but this has been en- 
tirely overcome by better protection of brush-holders. 

On the Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & Newcastle line 
power is generated three-phase, 13,200 volts, 60 cycles, 
and transmitted directly to motor-generator substations 
without step-up or step-down transformers. Experience 
in this power house has been the same as for any 60-cycle 
power installation and requires no comment. 

There are no special features in connection with trans- 
mission between power house and substations for 1200-volt 
work, but attention might be called to the fact that either 
60-cycle or 25-cycle power may be used. 

The existing substations are operated either with 1200- 
volt motor-generator sets, the direct-current machine be- 
ing wound directly for 1200 volts, or motor-generator sets 
with two 600-volt machines connected in series. The pref- 
erence and tendency at the present time is for two 600-volt 
commutators in series since the same set is frequently 
called upon to supply not only 1200 volts for the interur- 
ban running, but 600 volts for use in city service, the sub- 
station being located between the city and interurban 
sections. While there are not as yet any 1200-volt roads 
operating with rotary converters, this will probably be the 
most common form of substation on account of the higher 
efficiency. Tests under all conditions corresponding to 
operation, including short-circuits with various combina- 

I. &L., I., C. & S. 

600,1200 600,1200 

Volts. Volts. 

Months in operation 21 12 

Miles of track 41 41 

Total number of passenger cars 10 3 

Number required for time-table 5 2 

Average daily car-miles operated 1,650 860 

Miles per car per day 165 286 

Miles per car in service 330 430 

Stops per mile local service .4 ... 

Schedule speed m.p.h. — locals* 27.8 ... 

Stops per mile limited .12 .12 

Schedule speed m.p.h. — limited* 38.4 38 

Speed level track with avge. voltage. 42 42 

Diameter car wheels, inches 33 33 

Acceleration ln.p.h.p.s 1.76 1.76 

Motors horse-power rating 75 75 

Armature speed free running 940 940 

Motors open or closed Closed Closed 

Condition Excellent Excellent 

Motor voltage 600 600 

*Speeds given are for interurban section. 

P., H., B. 


1 2 




. 1 



C. C. T., 




2 1 



tions of conditions, have shown that there is no reason 
to anticipate any more trouble with two 600-volt converters 
operating in series as a unit than there is with converters 
operating in parallel. It may be of interest to know that 
six sets, each consisting of two 750-kw rotary converters in 
series, have been sold to the Southern Pacific Railway Com- 
pany for its Oakland-Alameda division; that 15 300-kw 
converters for series operation will be used on the Wash- 
ington, Baltimore & Annapolis road, and that similar ar- 
rangements are contemplated for several other roads under 

Motor-generator substations on the Pittsburgh line have 
been found no more difficult to operate than standard 600- 
volt converter stations, and the same class of substation 
operators have been employed at the wages customary for 
600-volt substations. 


At Pittsburgh, Mr. Bryan and his associates have devel- 
oped an especially interesting overhead construction which 
has proved admirable for the service on his road. On the 
other roads using overhead trolley standard 600-volt mate- 
rial has been used, generally by the addition of strain in- 
sulators in series with standard hangers to give double in- 
sulation. Such constructions have given no trouble and 
may be relied upon. On none of the roads has a case 
been known where service has been interrupted due to a 
trolley grounding, showing that the 1200-volt overhead 
system is as reliable as the 600 volts. It has been found in 
case of the failure of an insulator or a trolley becoming 
grounded to a bracket arm that the insulation of the pole 
itself is sufficient to prevent leakage which would interfere 
with service. 

The Central California Traction Company uses an under- 

July 3, 1909.] 


2 5 

running third-rail very similar to that used in the New 
York Central terminal electrification. The rail is standard 
section, 40 lb. per yard and is supported on ties 12 ft. apart. 
The operation has been successful from the start, and the 
maintenance has been practically nothing up to the present 

No difficulty has developed in working on either 1200-volt 
trolley or third-rail, and it has been found unnecessary to 
take off power when making repairs. 

A typical weight distribution for a 1200-volt interurban 
car equipment is as follows : 

Car body 30,000 lb. 

Trucks 17,000 lb. 

Electrical equipment 20.000 lb. 

Heaters, brakes, etc 3,000 lb. 

Total tons 35 

Seating capacity, 50 passengers, plus baggage compartment, or 60 
passengers, without baggage compartment. 

The control is series-parallel Type M, additional ruptur- 
ing capacity of contactors being obtained by using more 
breaks in series. 

Six hundred-volt power for operation of control and 
lighting circuits is obtained by a small direct-current com- 
pensator or dynamotor which operates automatically from 
the 1200-volt trolley. This machine has liberal bearings, 
transmits no power through its shaft, the armature running 
free like a rotary-converter armature, and is not giving the 
slightest trouble. 

By the adoption of 1200 volts and winding the motors for 
600 volts on each commutator, the problem of operating on 
both 1200-volt and 600-volt trolleys has been much simpli- 
fied. Cars by using 1200-volt connections may be run 
on the 600-volt sections at half speed with good economy 
for city service, or at full speed with all motors in parallel 
where there are 600-volt interurban sections. 

The control is giving entire satisfaction and the troubles 
from the start have been of a trivial nature, such as snow 
causing rheostats to ground, a few cases of grounded 1200 
leads punctured by lightning, etc. 

The trolley-wheel life is somewhat longer than with 
similar 600-volt service, averaging 5000 or 6000 miles. 


Up to the present time there has not been a failure of 
insulation requiring replacement of a single armature coil 
or field coil in any motor. One of the principal roads car- 
ries no motor repair parts of any description except arma- 
ture and axle bearings. 

With 600 volts on each motor, with two in series, it is 
evident that when a motor slips the car wheels it will be 
subjected to abnormal voltage and speed. In meeting this 
mechanical condition in the design it has been found that 
the low armature speed has practically eliminated arma- 
ture-bearing trouble and in meeting the commutating re- 
quirement the performance of the motors in operation has 
shown them to be the most perfect commutating railway 
motors which have ever been built. 

Brush life in a railway motor is the criterion of its per- 
formance, since commutation, commutator wear and ex- 
posure of windings to dirt, etc., are all dependent upon this 
item. The actual life of brushes on 600/1200 motors has 
not yet been determined as on no road have any brushes as 
yet worn out, though a few have been replaced on account 
of breakage. 

Some sample brushes taken from a motor on the Pitts- 
burgh, Harmony, Butler & Newcastle line, which operates 
under the most severe interurban conditions, have run ap- 
proximately 70,000 miles and show y% in. wear. Seven- 
eighths inches may be worn off before the brush need be 
thrown away. It is, therefore, safe to assume that the life 
in some cases may be over 200,000 miles. 

No commutators have been reslotted and none has been 
reduced in diameter over 1/32 in. by wear. 


1. First Cost. 

Generally decidedly lower than for 600 volts, as less 
copper is required and fewer substations. 

2. Reliability. 

In operation the equipments have in all cases proved as 
reliable as the best 600-volt equipments. 

3. Maintenance. 

Has proved as low, or lower, than for 600 volts, due to 

fewer substations, greater distribution efficiency and low 
motor armature speeds. 

4. Safety. 

There have been no fatalities from employees or the 
public coming in contact with trolley, third-rail or station 

5. Flexibility. 

There are many places where the 1200-volt trolley can 
be applied to existing 600-volt systems ; an extension of 
10 to 15 miles on present lines can be made by the simple 
addition of a 600-volt converter insulated for 1200-volt 
operation and connected in series with the machines in 
existing 600-volt stations which will then feed the trolleys 
from both 600-volt and 1200-volt busbars. This makes a 
simple and economical arrangement without additional sub- 
station attendants. 

The 600/1200-volt motors can be made in small or large 
sizes to suit all classes of service. 

The success of the 1200-volt system is assured. It will 
probably be as common as 600 volts for interurban roads 
in a very few years. There are now either in operation or 
under contract eleven (11) 1200-volt railway systems 
equipped with 50-hp, 75-hp and 150-hp motors. 



Two years ago in papers by Messrs. Renshaw and Hill 
before this association the advantages of the interpole con- 
struction for railway motors were set forth. Subsequent 
experience with several hundred thousand horse-power of 
these motors in service has more than substantiated the 
claims made for them. A brief resume of these claims may 
be of interest. 

The greater percentage of electrical troubles in a motor 
arise from the faulty collection of the current at the com- 
mutator, and they commence with the sparking, which burns 
away the copper and the brush, causing high mica, irregu- 
larity and roughness of surface, flashing, break-down of 
insulation from carbon and copper dust, and deterioration of 
brushes, brush-holders and commutators. In a non-interpole 
motor, sparking is due primarily to stray magnetic fields, 
produced by the magnetizing power of the armature wind- 
ing. These fields are not useful in producing actual power 
at the axle, and are sources of trouble, as the coil con- 
nected to adjacent bars of the commutator, on which the 
brushes lie, cuts these stray fields and produces a voltage 
and a strong extra current under the brush which short- 
circuits the coil. As the brush leaves the commutator bar, 
the voltage and the extra current induced produce a spark. 
This spark is of a very destructive nature to both brush 
and commutator, and especially so if heavy overloads are 
put on the motor. 

The interpoles are small poles placed between the main 
poles, and excited by coils placed permanently in series with 
the armature, and so connected as to oppose the effect of 
the armature winding. The field produced by the armature 
is thus neutralized and consequently all sparking is stopped. 
As the same current goes through both interpole and arma- 
ture coils, the sparking is annulled at all loads within the 
operating range of the motor. 

The ability of an interpole motor to commutate the cur- 
rent is remarkable. On a 65-hp motor, rated at 500 volts, 
and 100 amp a load of 300 amp at 750 volts can be momen- 
tarily carried without showing the least sparking. At any 
ordinary speed this voltage may be thrown on and off 
without producing a flash or serious spitting at the brushes. 
The interpole motor will establish its right to survive if 
for no other reason than its ability to withstand the abuse 
of the motorman. 

Electric braking, owing to severe abuse of the motors in 
the past, has had a limited field of application, but with the 
advent of the interpole motor and the modern designs of 
traction brakes, this method of braking will become more 

* Abstract of a paper read before the Street Railway Association of the 
Slntc of New York, Rluff Point, N. Y., June 29-30, 1909, 



The interpole construction also offers the possibility of 
speed control, through weakening the field strength, and 
thus largely reducing the rheostatic losses in starting up. 
The gain of this economy in power consumption in city 
service is sufficient to justify the extra complication, and 
led once in the early days to the introduction of shunted- 
field motors. This type rapidly passed out of favor, due 
conjointly to the inability of the older types of motors to 
properly commutate the loads under these conditions and 
also to the introduction of the series-parallel control, which 
gave greater efficiency in acceleration. 

In heavy elevated and subway service with frequent trains 
and stops, and where the motor power required is large, the 
use of the interpole motor offers a possibility of a material 
saving in power consumption, effecting very high economy 
not only in acceleration by shunted-field control, but also in 
braking by a system of regenerative control returning power 
into the line. 


After an experience covering a year and a half of opera- 
tion, we find all claims for the interpole motor fully realized. 
On a large elevated system using 200-hp motor equipments, 
the commutators have maintained a very high degree of 
polish from the start, the wear on the commutators can 
hardly be detected, and the average life of brushes is found 
to be from 100,000 to 150,000 miles. 

On another large system where motor flashes averaged at 
times 300 per month, and proved a most serious source of 
trouble and interruption to the service, the use of interpole 
motors entirely stopped the flashing from all causes. Rec- 
ords show inappreciable wear on the commutators, with a 
resulting brush life of over 100,000 miles. Motors are free 
from copper and carbon dust. Under these conditions elec- 
trical troubles have been practically eliminated. 

The same good reports come from small motors in city 
service and indicate that the saving in the wear on com- 
mutators, brush-holders and brushes, together with in- 
creased reliability of service, will many times over pay for 
the extra cost of the interpole construction. Operating 
records show a brush life of 60,000 to 70,000 miles with_the 
softer grades of carbon brushes. 

The general troubles from commutation on the non- 
interpole motors have been enormously reduced by the ex- 
pedient of slotting out the mica in the commutator below 
the surface and by the adoption of a softer brush with a 
larger graphite content and somewhat lower brush tension. 
Many operating companies which have been led to adopt 
this method are most enthusiastic over the results obtained. 
Operating records show that where 10,000 miles was a 
good mileage without slotting, the brush life runs from 
20,000 to 30,000 miles with slotting, and the commutators 
do not have to be turned down more than one-third as 
often. Great improvements have been made in the quality 
and strength of carbon brushes. Operating engineers are 
finding out that there is economy in the use of a high-grade 
carbon brush. 


The increasing use of larger cars with heavy motor 
equipments and the rapidly extending practice of retiring 
equipments for general overhauling at regular periods, are 
bringing the solid-frame motor more and more into gen- 
eral favor. Pit work in making repairs is being aban- 
doned on these double-truck cars, and with an operating 
life of motor equipments of later design greatly overlapping 
the periods between overhauling, the less accessibility of 
the solid-frame motor for repairs has become much less of 
a factor than the sturdy mechanical advantages gained by 
the box-frame design. In the past year the three largest 
individual orders for purely city service motors have been 
for the box-frame type. 

Of great importance in increasing the length of time 
between general overhaulings is the use of higher grade 
and longer life material in the pinions and gears. For a 
small additional cost the steel of the pinion can be put 
through special processes and treatments which will add 
to its life 33 to 50 per cent. The solid cast-steel gear is 
coming more and more into favor, and with the general in- 
troduction of the annealed and specially treated cast-steel 
gears, the principal objection to the use of solid gears 
should be overcome. The annealing of the casting toughens 

the fiber, makes it finer of grain, and at the same time 
eliminates shrink strains and other weaknesses. 

On heavy equipments, where the design is limited, the 
material must be carefully selected for strength, wear and 
toughness. In such gears wrought-tire steel rims specially 
treated are shrunk on annealed cast-steel centers. 

The improper meshing of gears and pinions from wear 
on them, and in the armature and axle bearings, is recog- 
nized as being the cause of rapid deterioration of the motor 
armatures under the excessive vibration, and means are 
taken to increase the life of the gearing and armatures 
by the use of higher-grade materials, the protection of 
bearings by proper dust shields and allowing less wear 
on the teeth. 

An attempt to make the armature windings -more com- 
pact and resistant to vibration as substantially as in the 
larger strap-wound armatures, has led to the introduction 
of the two-turn strap winding for the smaller armatures. 
This winding packs very solidly in the slot and on the ends. 
The straps are molded side by side around the whole coil, 
and there are no crossings of a single strap on another to 
offer edges, as in a wire-wound coil, to cut through the 
insulation in winding or to abrade through under vibration. 
This type of winding marks as distinct an improvement 
over wire windings as has been given by the substitution 
of flat strap windings in the field coils of smaller motors 
for wire windings. Interpole motors of recent design from 
50 to 100 hp capacity are provided with windings of this 
two-turn, strap-wound type. 


It is desirable to remove the possibility of arcing in the 
platform controller. The controller can be so arranged as 
to break the arc on a separate auxiliary contactor under 
the car. In a recent design this contactor is an electro- 
pneumatic switch, operated from a storage air tank and 
controlled by a valve magnet, energized through a high 
resistance from the trolley circuit. The storage air tank 
has a capacity sufficient to provide enough air pressure 
after standing several days to operate the switch. This 
system can only be applied on cars with air brakes. 

The complications of the entirely automatic multiple- 
unit control become of less consequence the better the con- 
ditions of inspection and maintenance. For smaller city 
and interurban roads with less favorable conditions of 
supervision, the control can be greatly simplified by elim- 
inating all automatic features and arranging it for direct 
operation at the will of the motorman. 


While the connecting rod has been a long-established 
and favorite method of transmission with the steam-railway 
engineer, the electrical engineer has exploited to the great- 
est degree the advantages of a uniform torque produced 
by the motor and gearing. There is a general tendency 
toward two-motor equipments rather than four-motor equip- 
ments, on account of the lower first cost, higher efficiency, 
less weight and maintenance of the two-motor equipment. 
At the same time it is desirable to utilize the full tractive 
effort of all the wheels for acceleration and braking. A 
large city system, after experimenting with the side-rod 
method of drive, has recently placed in service., a, large 
number of equipments of this type. 

While this device has been often proposed in the past for 
heavy high-speed locomotives, the development of the elec- 
tric locomotive has been along the lines of the electric car 
with the motor on the axle. The dangers of having a heavy 
motor or armature pounding at the rails from a low posi- 
tion over the track were not fully realized until recently. 
The use of connecting rods enables the motor to be mounted 
up in the cab where it is easily accessible and provides 
a high center of gravity with as light and unrestricted 
running gear and wheels as possible — two essential requi- 
sites for heavy high-speed operation. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company has adopted a de- 
sign of this type for its powerful direct-current electric 
locomotives to be used in hauling trains through the tunnel 
into Manhattan. The motor equipment consists of two 
large motors, each individually connected to two 68-in. 
coupled drivers through an intermediate countershaft 
placed forward of the wheels. 

July 3, 1909.] 




No discussion of the improvements in railway apparatus 
during the last two years would be complete without some 
mention of the single-phase system. Although the system 
was well developed prior to this period and no essential 
changes have been made other than in details of construc- 
tion, such as are continually being made in every class 
of apparatus, new roads have been installed and additional 
operating experience gained. Several of the earlier in- 
stallations have been in operation for over four years and 
have thus reached a point where they may be reviewed 
from the standpoint of the accountant and the financier and 
the results relied upon. 

The economies in first cost and the saving in power and 
substation attendance which can be effected in the case of 
interurban and other heavy electric railway lines by the 
use of the single-phase system can very readily be demon- 
strated conclusively by means of calculations or on a test 
track, but many conservative operators, educated to regard 
with suspicion any new system or device, have hesitated 
to consider the single-phase system until actual operating 
costs from existing lines could be obtained. Accurate fig- 
ures of this kind for several different roads are now avail- 
able and bear out to a remarkable degree the predictions 
made in advance by the promoters. 

One of the" single-phase lines referred to lies partly in 
New York State, and the figures given form a part of the 
records of the Public Service Commission. This line is 
the Warren & Jamestown Street Railway Company, which 
operates 22 miles of road between Warren, Pa., and 
Jamestown, N. Y. The road owns a total of six cars, each 
equipped with four 50-hp single-phase motors, with hand- 
operated controllers, and weighing complete, but without 
load, approximately 29 tons. The line was started during 
the summer of 1905, and during the year ending June 30, 
1907, a total of 284,886 car-miles were run, which was 
increased during the year ending June 30, 1908, to 296,804. 
The accounts are kept upon the standard association basis 
and showed a total operating expense for 1907 of 14.8 cents 
and for 1908 of 13.9 cents per car-mile. These costs are 
remarkably low for a small interurban railway and would 
have been considerably greater had the direct-current sys- 
tem been used. From an engineering standpoint also the 
mileage record of the cars is a good one, the average per 
car per year being approximately 47.500 for the first year 
and 49,500 for the second. These figures give a good indi- 
cation of the reliability of the apparatus, since with the 
speeds and service in force on this line such a mileage 
per car would be impossible if much time was spent in the 

The second single-phase line for which operating costs 
are available is that of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company, which operates 24 cars over 108 miles of line 
between Indianapolis and Connersville and Indianapolis 
and ,Greensburg, Ind. 

This. line was the first single-phase railway in the world 
to be started on a large commercial scale, and now is oper- 
ated under conditions of speed and mileage per car which 
eclipse all other records. The cars weigh approximately 
50 tons complete, without load, and are equipped with four 
100-hp motors with multiple-unit control. 

Certain limited cars on the line make the run of 58.3 
miles between Indianapolis and Connersville in i l / 2 hours, 
or at an average speed of approximately 39 miles per hour 
between terminals. About 30 minutes of this time is re- 
quired, moreover, for covering about 6 miles in Indianap- 
olis, Rushville and Connersville, so that a little over 52 
miles is covered in the remaining hour. 

During the year 1908 the entire number of cars of this 
road averaged nearly 65,000 miles each and eight of the 
cars averaged nearly 99,000 miles each. 


The entire cost of operation for this road on the stand- 
ard Street Railway Association basis was approximately 
15.5 cents per car-mile for the year 1908, and that of main- 
taining the electric equipment of the cars approximately 
0.72 cent. 

The economies which have been effected in the operation 
of this road by the single-phase system are clearly indi- 
cated by comparing its cost of operation with that of sev- 

eral direct-current interurban lines also operating out of 

The following table gives comparative figures of total 
operating expenses (i. e., accounts Nos. 1 to 38, inclusive, 
of the American Street Railway Association classifica- 
tion) for the year ending Dec. 31, 1908, on a car-mile 
basis and also on a basis of the cost per mile of road: 

Op. exp. Operating 
per expenses 

Miles mile of per 

of road. Car-miles. road, car-mile. 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & East- 
ern Traction Company: 

Danville Division 19-83 245,600 $2,525.18 20.5c 

Martinsville Division 30.18 441,275 3>°37-°5 20.8c 

Northwestern Division 91-99 1,280,260 2,383.86 17.1c 

Indianapolis, Columbus & South- 
ern Traction Company 62.22 1,054,766.16 3,282.65 19.36c 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & 
Western Traction Company 
(year ending June 30, 1908, the 
car-mileage for 1908 not being 

at hand) 45-10 557,194.67 2,260.88 18.3c 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company 107.38 1,550,060 2,175.92 15.46c 

It will be seen from these figures that in spite of the 
fact that the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company 
operates larger and heavier cars, equipped with more pow- 
erful motors and gives a considerably higher speed service, 
its costs of operation, both on a basis of car-miles and 
road-miles, were considerably less than those of its neigh- 
bors, which are typical high-grade roads under excep- 
tionally capable management. Figures of this sort, which 
are now becoming available, have established the single- 
phase system on a basis where even the most conservative 
cannot hesitate to adopt it for roads where investigation 
shows that the conditions are suitable. 



All persons employed by railways in the transportation 
department as trainmen require sufficient training to be able 
to satisfactorily and safely perform their duties. After 
the employment superintendent has made his selections 
from the applicants presenting themselves, and after he has 
culled his selection again upon receiving the applicants' 
histories and letters from their indorsers, the so-called new 
men are ready for their training. The system followed 
generally by the street railways all over the country in 
their preliminary training of employees is fairly uniform, 
The embryo motorman is put on with an experienced man, 
who shows him the right way to handle the controller and 
brake, and after 10 days or two weeks the instructor re- 
ports that he has taught his student all the things which 
are necessary for him to know concerning the operation 
of a street car. Usuallv the student is then quizzed by a 
traffic officer, and upon his satisfactorily answering the va- 
rious questions asked, his name is put upon the extra list 
and he is ready to go forth and either successfully pilot his 
car over the road or smash the first wagon which gets in 
the way. 

The training of a conductor is similar to that accorded 
the student motorman, in that he is taught the duties by an 
experienced conductor in regular service. Usually there is 
little to be added to the instruction of a conductor beyond 
that which he obtains from actual practice in collecting and 
registering fares. The young conductor, unfortunately, 
usually learns many things from his brother conductors, 
and others, which arc neither to his interest nor to that of 
his employer. The schooling of the motorman requires 
greater time and more careful supervision than is usually 
given him by the average superintendent of transportation. 


A systematic education of trainmen should start with the 
date of their employment, and should continue until they 
withdraw from the service. The applicant for a position 
as motorman should receive his preliminary training in 
the use of brake and controller in a school room, and from 
a school teacher who should not only be an experienced 

"Abstract of a paper read before the Street Railway Association of 
the State of New York, Muff Point, N. Y., June 29-30, 1909. 


trainman, but capable of imparting his knowledge, practical 
and theoretical, to the rawest recruit turned over to him 
for instruction. The student should then be placed on a 
car, preferably one equipped with hand brakes and operated 
on a side line, where, under the direction of an experienced 
motorman, he should be given practice in the actual opera- 
tion of a car. After the student has become familiar with 
the operation of the hand brake and controller, he should 
be turned over to the motorman of a car operating on a 
heavy trunk line, where the service requirements are more 
severe, and air brakes are used. Upon the completion of 
his service under two or more motormen, and upon his 
having learned the routes and time points of lines in his 
division, and having received a certificate stating that fact, 
the student should be returned to the school room for exam- 
ination. Upon passing this final examination he may be 
assigned to work as the transportation superintendent may 

Bearing in mind that in two weeks the student has grasped 
only the rudiments of his work, and that his various 
faults will rapidly develop when he is sent out alone on a 
car, then the real work of the instruction department be- 
gins. Certain employees, whether they be division superin- 
tendents, inspectors or instructors, should now begin their 
systematic work of following up the green motorman to 
ascertain his weak points and eradicate, if possible, his 
faults. This polishing process requires constant work and 
means daily hammering, with encouraging remarks inter- 
posed where they will do the most good. It is usually found 
that motormen who have been in the service for 15 years 
are as careless in some details as the rawest recruit. Old 
motormen have a proneness to overlook the notches on the 
controller, to misuse the air brake, to start the car before 
releasing the hand brakes, to take chances when passing 
wagons, and by at least a thousand and one things new 
men know nothing of, cause damage or expense. It is by 
following up and correcting these points that the school 
for trainmen can show its value. Lectures on the use and 
abuse of controllers, demonstrated with actual apparatus, 
together with a clear, practical statement about the equip- 
ment of power plants, "the reason why" for various operat- 
ing rules, and also lectures on accidents resulting from 
careless operation, form the basis for continuous instruc- 
tion work. As it is usually found that old trainmen, hav- 
ing once been forced to attend the school, come again 
voluntarily for further information, greater interest in their 
work is renewed, and frequently it is possible to note im- 
provements in their methods. The effect, however, is not 
lasting unless the work is followed up by a constant day- 
by-day inspection, instruction and supervision. Below is 
given the method followed by the Public Service Railway 
Company, of New Jersey, in training motormen in the 
school of instruction, and also the instructions which are 
given to them by the chief instructor. 


The student motormen, as previously stated, are em- 
ployed by the superintendent of employment and assigned 
to the different car houses, where they are placed in charge 
of instructing motormen, who are the picked men in the 
service and who are allowed an extra compensation when 
instructing a student. A student is kept busy on the road 
from seven to 12 days, breaking in, on both hand and air- 
brake cars, and after all lines have been covered and the 
instructing motormen consider him competent, they sign his 
"breaking in card," which he receives at the time of his 
appointment. He is then sent to the school of instruction 
for examination, presenting his card to the chief instructor 
for identification. Three schools of instruction are main- 
tained, one located at Camden, covering the men of the 
Southern Division; one in Newark, covering the Essex, 
Passaic and Central Divisions, and one at Jersey City, cov- 
ering the Hudson Division. These schools of instruction 
are in charge of a chief instructor, who has two assistants, 
both practical men, who were formerly employed as mo- 
tormen, promoted to road officers or inspectors, and then to 
assistant instructors,' after receiving a thorough training by 
the chief instructor. 

The schools of instruction are equipped with an exact 
duplicate of car platforms, on which are attached fender, 
arc headlight, controller, brake staff, fender trip and mo- 
torman's brake valve. In the center of the room is a trol- 

ley pole on a wire, with cables leading to an overhead cir- 
cuit-breaker, fuse box and controller. On the floor is 
practically the equipment of a four-motor car, consisting 
of four dummy motors, upon each of which is a group of 
five lights — four white lights, representing the fields, and a 
center light, which is purple — representing the armature. 
Between motors Nos. 2 and 3 are three boxes of grid re- 
sistance on a frame represented by six red lights, all being 
wired to a K-6 controller as on a car. On the first position 
of the controller all lights on resistance and motors are 
lighted, and as the controller is notched lights on the re- 
sistance go out one at a time and lights on the motors be- 
come brighter, until the sixth position of the controller is 
reached, when all lights on resistance go out, which shows 
the running point of series when the current is going direct 
to the motors. When the controller is thrown to the sev- 
enth or first parallel position part of resistance (about two- 
thirds) is again picked up, when four red lights are shown 
on resistance, and as the controller is notched these lights 
go out one at a time for each position of the controller 
until the running point of parallel is reached, when the 
lights on the motors show very bright. For further illus- 
tration, diagrams showing how motors take current in se- 
ries and parallel positions are exhibited on the walls. To 
fully complete the school for proper instruction, a full air- 
brake equipment and a truck with motor, pinion, gear and 
axle attached, have been installed. The terminals of the 
armature are uncovered to show where damage is done by 
failing to notch or recognize points on controller; also 
from starting and stopping car with a jerk, and to show 
how the current enters and leaves the armature with the re- 
verse handle in different positions. A large horseshoe 
magnet with iron filings is used to give the student an idea 
of what causes an armature to revolve. 

The student is started with what is called a "Students' 
Primer," which shows him, first, what is meant by a com- 
plete circuit, starting from the dynamo in the power house, 
how the current passes through the car, why it is neces- 
sary to have a complete circuit to operate anything elec- 
trical, what is meant by open circuit, short-circuit and 
ground; the proper names of the different equipment of a 
car so he can report intelligently any defects, avoiding 
any delay; standing position on platform and how to handle 
brake and controller; what to do before starting out of 
barn with car, etc. While going through the "Primer" 
with the student every move is illustrated by the machine, 
and students are requested to ask any questions on points 
which they do not thoroughly understand before taking up 
the oral examination, which consists of 100 questions, given 
below ; 

Q. Have you read your book of rules? 

Q. Is ignorance of rules any excuse for violation of same? 

Q. Name principal parts of car necessary for operation of same: 

1. On top of car? 

2. On platform? 

3. Under car? 
Q. Where are motors located? 

. How many motors under car? 

. What work does controller perform in operating car? 
Q. When controller is turned on what causes car to start? 
Q. In starting out with car, what is it necessary to do? 
Q. What are series positions of controllers? 

1. Four-motor car, K-6 controller? 

2. Four-motor car, K-28 controller? 

3. Four-motor car, K-14 controller? 

4. Two-motor car, K-11 controller? 

Q. Are all motors getting all current on running point in series? If 
500 volts in overhead wire, how divided? 

Q. What are multiple positions on controller? 

1. Four-motor car, K-6 controller? 

2. Four-motor car, K-28 controller? 

3. Four-motor car, K-14 controller? 

4. Two-motor car, K-n controller? 

Q. Are all motors getting all current in running position multiple? 
Q. Course of current from trolley wheel to running rail ? 
Q. What are the positions of reverse handle? 
Q. What are the running points on a K-6 controller? 
What are the running points on a K-28 controller? 
What are the running points on a K-14 controller? 
What are the running points on a K-11 two-motor controller? 
Q. Before attempting to fuse a car, cut out motors or touch any part 
of electrical equipment, what is it necessary to do? 
Q. Where is the resistance located? 
Q. What is the meaning of the word resistance? 
Q. How many leads to your resistance? 
. Why is it dangerous to run car on resistance points? 
. Why is all resistance on first position of controller? 
. How notch controller? 
O. Why is it necessary to recognize every point on controller? 
Q. What happens when controller is operated too quickly? 
Q. If it becomes necessary to decrease the speed of car, would you 
attempt to notch your controller backward, and how proceed? 

Q. Would you leave car on street at any time without locking con- 
troller, taking reverse handle and setting hand brake? 

Q. Would you attempt to use power with brake on, and what does it 
mean ? 

July 3, 1909.] 



Q. Case controller is jammed, finger caught so it cannot be thrown to 
off position, how proceed? 

Q. From which end of car do motors start to number? 

1. On single-end car? 

2. On double-end car? 

Q. Where do you find motor switches? 

Q. How are motors coupled on switches in controller? 

1. Four-motor car? 

2. Two-motor car? 
. Would you attempt to reverse car except to avoid accident? 
. Do motors generate on reverse four-motor cars without notching 

controller ? 

Q. Do they on two-motor cars, and what is it necessary to do? 
Q. Where is overhead switch or circuit-breaker located on car, and 
how throw and reset? 
Q. What is overhead switch or circuit-breaker placed on car for? 

B. Where is fuse box located. 
. What would you do in case cable leading to overhead switch or 
fuse were burned out or disconnected? 

Q. In case you had finger so badly burned that it could not be ad- 
justed to make contact, which finger could be taken off and used to 
best advantage? 

Q. What is fuse placed on car for? 

Q. In fusing car would you use any but standard size wire furnished 
by company, and what does using a heavier wire mean? 

Q. Is there any excuse for holding in or tying overhead switch, and 
what does it mean? 

Q. What will cause overhead switch or fuse to blow? 

Q. If you had a car which blew overhead or fused several successive 
times, what would you think was the cause, and how proceed? 

Q. Why throw controller to off position going over circuit-breaker? 

Q. Would you, in case power was off, attempt to notch controller to 
find out when power was turned on, and how proceed? 

Q. Car failing to move, how locate trouble, starting from trolley pole? 
How were you instructed? 

Q. How would you proceed to complete circuit on running rail in case 
of dirt on rail or off track? 

Q. If cable was disconnected at base of trolley, how proceed? 

y. If car failed to start on first position controller, but started on 
second or third, where locate trouble, how proceed? 

Q. In case fire in any part of electrical equipment, what would you 
use to put out same? 

Q. How many points can you feed controller with one motor cut out 
on a two-motor car? With two motors cut out on a four-motor car? 

Q. Should trolley leave wire, what would you do? 

Q. What is result of dragging controller handle around when shutting 
off power? 

Q. Where does trolley cable tap on to controller? 

Q. How proceed down grade in case pole came off and brakes give 

Q. How proceed up grade in case pole comes off and brakes give out? 
Q. Would you allow car to coast or drift whenever possible? Give 
reason ? 

Q. As soon as you discover any defect in motor which you cannot 
remedy, what is it necessary to do? 

Q. Electrical troubles as they develop, do they ever improve? 
Q. When disabled car is being pushed or pulled by another car, in 
what position would you set reverse handle and overhead switch? 

Q. What would you do in case you picked up loose wire in street 
and it caught in resistance or motor? How proceed? 

Q. What would you do in case you found broken trolley wire? How 

. Storage air — how charge? 
. Where is pump switch located? 
Q. Where is pump fuse located? 
Q. If pump failed to start, where locate trouble? 
. If you found air pressure going too high, what would you do? 
. Follow course of air from reservoir to brake cylinder? 
. How apply air to make ordinary service stop? 
Q. How release? 
Q. How apply air on down grade? 
Q. How apply air on bad rail? 

Q. Do you get better results with small application on bad rail? 
Q. What is it necessary to do when you find car sliding? 
Q. One bell means what? 

Two bells mean what? 

Three bells, car running? 

Three bells, car standing? 

Four bells, car running? 

Four bells, car standing? 
Q. Case of obstruction on overhead wire, how signal conductor to 
pulT pole? 

Q. Who may operate car while on line? 

Q. Which side of street stop for passengers? 

Q. Have you read bulletin relative to stopping on crosswalks, and 
what does it say? 

Q. Who is to throw derailing switches, and would you look back be- 
fore starting car? 

Q. Car coming in opposite direction against facing point switch, 
would you attempt to move car until trucks of other car were clear of 
the point? 

Q. Who is allowed to ride on the front platform? 

Q. Would you attempt to make up excess amount lost time, and what 
does it mean? 

Q. How proceed in case of lightning? 

Q. Where is lightning arrester located on car, and what duty does it 
perform ? 

Q. How proceed in case water on track? 

Q. Would you attempt, in case blockade, to move car right on top 
of leader, and what will happen if you attempt same? 
Q. How many feet give leader in case of above? 

O. Under special work and around curves, what rate of speed run? 
Q. Is it advisable to stop car in a curve except to avoid accident? 
Give reason. 

Q. Is it necessary to make a full stop at all trolley and railroad inter- 

Q. What is rule for operating car in foggy weather? 

Q. Why is it necessary to sign book at your respective car barns as 
to condition of car? 

Q. Pulling car into car barn, what is it necessary to do before leaving 
same ? 

Q. What does red light being displayed mean? 

Q. How proceed approaching all street inlersections? 

O. How proceed passing standing car? 

Q. How proceed following wagon going same direction as car on 
track? How close get to wagon? 

Q. How proceed following car on independent line? How close 
approach ? 

O. In case you hear fire engines approaching, how proceed? 
Don't attempt to get ahead of your leader. 

Don't see how close you can get to wagon without striking same. 

Don't see how near you can stand car on end when making stops. 
Don't see how many people you can throw down when starting car. 

Public Service Railway Company. 

After the oral examination the student is requested to 
leave the room while different parts of the machine are 
crippled or cut out. For instance, the reverse handle is 
placed at rest and the overhead switch or circuit-breaker 
thrown off, fuse is taken out, cable disconnected, base trol- 
ley, lamp or resistance unscrewed, causing open circuit, 
field lead light unscrewed, causing open circuit in that 
.motor, etc. The student is then called in to locate these 
defects. He is also allowed to handle the machine, is 
shown how to throw out the overhead circuit-breaker and 
reset same, how to cut out motors, how to fuse car, how 
to splice cable, the movements he would make in case he 
was coming down hill and brake and power were gone, the 
course air pursues from the compressor to the atmosphere, 
how to make an application of the brakes, how to release, 
how to make an application on bad rail, what to do when 
wheels slide, etc. 

The subject of prevention of accidents is also taken up 
thoroughly. The company has certain rules for insuring 
safe operation of cars, which may be summarized as fol- 
lows : Shut off controllers at all street intersections 30 ft. 
before reaching the corner. In passing a standing car ring 
the gong and have the car under such complete control that 
it can be stopped in 2 ft. Remain at least 200 ft. behind 
the next car ahead. Remain at least 20 ft. behind a wagon 
on the track going in the same direction. 

Occasionally the instructing motormen are called to the 
school in the evening and suggestions are made by the chief 
instructor for their government in handling students. 
Printed slips are distributed to them from time to time, 
with suggestions like the following: 

Take more interest in the student, showing and telling him all you 
know about a car; remember he is watching every move you make and 
is going to operate a car as he sees you do. If you take chances he 
will do the same, and his judgment of distance may not be as good 
perhaps as yours, and he may get in trouble, but encourage him if he 
lacks confidence. 

1. Show him where all switches and fuses are located. 

2. Tell him proper names of the equipment of a car, so he can report 
intelligently condition of a car. 

3. Show him the necessity of notching a controller, notch for notch, 
giving time on first and second positions, so as not to throw any pas- 
sengers. A car which is started smoothly makes the best time. 

4. Show him how to take off controller cover and throw back deflector. 
Warn him against trying to adjust fingers. 

5. Show him how to knock off overhead switch or circuit breaker and 
to reset same. 

6. Show him how to drop and reset fender. 

7. Show him how to adjust arc headlight. 

8. Tell him of the necessity for making a thorough examination of his 
car before leaving car house, trying brakes and controller. 

(a) In following a wagon going in same direction as car on or near 
the track, if you remain at least twenty (20) feet behind wagon he will 
do the same. 

(b) If you throw off your power for street intersections, anticipating 
a wagon coming out across the street, he will do the same. 

(c) If you have car under control passing standing car, being able to 
stop in two feet, he will do the same. 

(d) If you remain three hundred (300) feet behind your leader when 
running faster than series point speed, he will do the same. 

(e) The neat and tidy condition of the instructing motorman, also 
keeping car in clean condition, is very essential as an example for the 
new man. 

9. Show him the necessity of recognizing every point on controller 
at all times, even after shutting off for section insulator or circuit 

10. Show him the necessity of allowing his car to coast or drift at all 
times whenever possible, saving ^ machines and power and danger to 
motors if power is used when going down hill. 

11. Show him points on lines where rail is bad and crosswalks are not 
to be blocked by car. 

12. Tell him why he must cut out motors the minute any defect 

13. Tell him the necessity for reporting any defect on the car, so the 
car may be kept in good condition. 

14. Have him properly instructed in making out accident reports, and 
in rendering every assistance possible in securing witnesses to all acci- 

ALL TIMES. C. H. Coe. 


N. W. Bolen, Supt. of Transportation. 

R. E. Danforth, General Manager. 

This school work occupies the last day of the student's 
breaking in, and if in the estimation of the chief instructor 
he is not then competent he is given an opportunity to 
break in for a few days longer, after which he again comes 
to the school for another examination, which is considered 
a final one. As a last test he is taken out with an assistant 
instructor on a car and given a trial run, and if found in- 
competent he is dropped as failing to qualify. 

The student after leaving school is followed up for two 
or three days by the chief instructor or one of his assist- 
ants, and his movements carefully watched. If found 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

wanting in any way he is ordered to the school for further 

Reports are received daily from inspectors of motormen 
who abuse the equipment or fail to follow out instructions. 
For first offense they are ordered to school when off duty, 
but on second offense are sent to the school with loss of 

Student motormen who operate pay-as-you-enter cars 
are given an examination sheet regarding rules governing 
the operation of this type of car, which they are obliged to 
fill out, as follows : 


Tiie following questions apply to the operation of "pay-as-ycu-eiiter" 

1. Would you open front exit door before car had come to a full 

2. What exit door should be closed before starting car? 

3. Is it necessary to keep front exit door closed at all times? 

4. Would you allow any person to enter car through exit door? 

5. On what signal would you stop car? 

6. On what signal would you start car? 

7. Under what conditions would it be necessary for you to call out 
"Front way out"? 

8. Between what points are you allowed to use stools? 

9. In case it becomes necessary for conductor to leave the car, how 
proceed ? 

10. Do you understand the operation of destination signs, and that it 
is necessary to examine same and see that they are set square? 

11. When you receive four (4) bells from conductor, what does it 
mean ? 







A conductor when employed by the superintendent of 
employment and assigned to a car house is given a "break- 
ing-in card" and placed on a car with an instructing con- 
ductor, who permits him to do the actual work of collecting 
and registering fares under his direct supervision. After 
seven days if he finds the student able to do the work, he 
so certifies on the blank provided for that purpose. After 
the student works the various other lines of the division 
he is examined as to the rules, time points, etc., by a super- 
visory official, and his name is placed upon the working list. 
If the conductor is to work on a pay-as-you-enter line, his 
final examination is given by the chief instructor, who has 
the student try a written examination on the operation of 
pay-as-you-enter cars. 

All further instructions received by the young conductor 
on the average railroad come to him in the form of ad- 
monition or reproof from an inspector and others whose 
duties require them to follow the operation of the car; and, 
beyond a few perfunctory warnings from the division su- 
perintendent, he is usually not given any attention so long 
as he properly collects and registers his fares. 


An analysis of the accident statements of the average 
railway emphasizes the necessity for a more thorough 
schooling of the conductor. While collecting fares is an 
important duty of the conductor, it is by no means the only 
one, for in his keeping is the safey and comfort of the pas- 
sengers. He must be conscious of the movements of all 
his passengers, and look after their safety when they do 
not do so themselves. He must be polite and courteous at 
all times, and it must be impressed upon his mind that he 
is the company's personal representative in dealing with 
the public, that upon him falls the burden of caring for 
the passengers and creating public opinion. The careless 
and heedless conductor in a day may undo the work of 
months, to say nothing of dissipating the profits of the 
corporation for a great length of time. The schooling, 
therefore, of the conductor should in a general way follow 
that above described for motormen. His work should be 
carefully scrutinized, he should be kept thoroughly alive 
to the rules and regulations, both in printed order and bul- 
letins ; he should receive regular and systematic instruction 
and advice concerning the improper operation of a car 
liable to result in an accident, and should be the subject of 
a daily, hourly and a continuous supervision. 

Loyalty is the one trait necessary in the employee, and 
in these days is especially difficult to create and retain in 
the trainmen. Good discipline is the key to successful op- 
eration, and good discipline depends upon the willingness 
to do, on the part of the trainmen, as well as upon the 
methods followed in directing his work. Fair treatment, 

with a firm, kindly personal hand administering instruction 
and corrective reproof — equal or uniform treatment for all 
— the instant correction of evils and unfair acts from what- 
ever source are prime necessities where loyalty is desired. 
Loyal employees obey the rules cheerfully, take an interest 
in their work and are amenable to kindly discipline. 



In presenting to the convention this paper, which is 
based upon six months' experience with all three schedules 
of the new classification, my first wish is to express my 
hearty appreciation of the co-operation and assistance of 
my associates in its preparation. 

On Dec. 22, 1908, the commission issued an order to the 
effect that on and after Jan. 1, 1909, every electric rail- 
road corporation and every street railroad corporation shall 
keep, "so far as the said accounts are pertinent to the facts 
and circumstances of the corporation," the accounts pre- 
scribed in Schedule A of the uniform system of accounts 
for street railroads thereto annexed, and that on July 1, 
1909, Schedules B and C shall be adopted; corporations 
having gross earnings in excess of $500,000 annually to use 
the full detail of the classification, which contains, in 
Schedule A, 94 capital accounts ; in Schedule B, 160 income 
accounts, with 17 subdivisions, 22 of these accounts for op- 
erating revenues, 6 for non-operating revenues; 110 with 
6 subdivisions for operating expenses, 1 for taxes, with 
subdivisions for different classes, 1 with 7 subdivisions for 
non-operating revenue deductions, 10 with 4 subdivisions 
for income deductions and 10 for appropriations; in Sched- 
ule C, 9 accounts covering mileage and I account for car- 
hour statistics. 

Corporations having gross earnings less than $500,000 
and more than $100,000 per annum may use a condensed 
scheme, which contains, in Schedule A, 94 capital accounts ; 
in Schedule B, 117 income accounts, 22 of which are for 
operating revenues, 6 for non-operating revenues, 67 with 
6 subdivisions for operating expenses, 1 for taxes with sub- 
divisions for different classes, 1 with 7 subdivisions for 
non-operating revenue deductions, 10 with 4 subdivisions 
for income deductions, and 10 for appropriations; in Sched- 
ule C, 9 accounts covering mileage and 1 account for car- 
hour statistics. 

Corporations having gross earnings of less than $100,000 
per annum may use a second condensed scheme, which 
contains, in Schedule A, 94 capital accounts; in Schedule 
B, 100 income accounts, of which 22 are for operating rev- 
enues, 6 for non-operating revenues, 50 with 6 subdivisions 
for operating expenses, 1 for taxes with subdivisions for 
different classes, 1 with 7 subdivisions for non-operating 
revenue deductions, 10 with 4 subdivisions for income de- 
ductions, and 10 for appropriations; in Schedule C, 9 ac- 
counts covering car-mileage and 1 account for car-hour 

Where the accounts of both large and small companies 
are kept in the same office it has proved advisable that the 
accounts of all the companies be kept on the basis of the 
detailed scheme. The average electric railroad company 
required to keep its accounts in detail will find applicable 
approximately 111 of the accounts in Schedule B. It 
should be remembered that if the experience of accounting 
corporations with this classification shows opportunities for 
improvements, such improvements will receive the careful 
consideration of the commission and its representatives. 

The classification adopted by the American Street & In- 
terurban Railway Association and formerly used by the 
governing commission in this State provided 40 capital 
accounts and 63 income accounts, 12 of the latter for op- 
erating revenues, 4 for non-operating revenues, 38 for 
operating expenses, 8 for income deductions and I appro- 
priation account, the corporations subdividing them for the 
purpose of furnishing the heads of various departments 
with detailed information as desired, the number of sub- 
divisions varying to suit conditions and requirements. If 
it be desired to subdivide any of the accounts in the new 

* Abstract of a paper read at the meeting of the Street Railway Associa- 
tion of the State of New York, Bluff Point, June 29 and 30, 1909. 

July 3, 1909.] 



Classification for Corporations Having Gross Revenues Classification for Corporations Having Gross Revenues Classification for Corporations Having Gross Revenues 
Over $500,000 Less Than $500,000 and More Than $100,000 Less Than $100,000 

■ s "g 
"> s 
•S g 
s s . 

a o o 






















1 1 



7 17 


t \ a 


n In 






S— 522 

2 »•* 




















S-51 1 


S-51 2 


S-51 3 














































Maintenance of Way and Structures 
Superintendence of Way and Structures. " 

Rail Fastenings and Joints. 
Special Work. 
Underground Construction. 
Roadway and Track Labor. 

Miscellaneous Roadway and Track Expenses. 
Cleaning and Sanding Track. 
Removal of Snow, Ice and Sand. 
Repairs of Tunnels. 

Repairs of Elevated Structures and Foundations. 

Repairs of Bridges, Trestles and Culverts. 

Repairs of Crossings, Fences and Signs. 

Repairs of Signals and Interlocking Systems. 

Telephone and Telegraph Repairs. 

Other Miscellaneous .Way Expenses. 

Pole and Fixture Repairs. 

Underground Conduit Repairs. 

Transmission System Repairs. 

Distribution System Repairs. 

Miscellaneous Electric Line Expenses. 

Repairs of Buildings and Structures. 

Other Operations — Dr. 

Joint Way and Structures — Dr. 

Other Operations — Cr. 

Joint Way and Structures — Cr. 

Depreciation of Way and Structures. 

Maintenance of Equipment 
Superintendence of Equipment. 
Repairs of Furnaces, Boilers and Accessories. 
Repairs of Steam Engines. 
Repairs of Hydraulic Power Plant. 
Repairs of Gas Power Equipment. 
Repairs of Power Plant Electric Equipment. 
Repairs of Miscellaneous Power Plant Equipment. 
Repairs of Cable Power Equipment. 
Repairs of Sub station Equipment. 
Repairs of Passenger and Combination Cars. 
Repairs of Freight, Express and Mail Cars. 
Repairs of Locomotives. 
Repairs of Service Cars. 
Repairs of Electric Equipment of Cars. 
Repairs of Electric Equipment of Locomotives. 
Repairs of Shop Machinery and Tools. 
Shop Expenses 
Repairs of Vehicles. 

Other Miscellaneous Equipment Expenses. 
Other Operations — Dr. 
Maintaining Joint Equipment — Dr. 
Other Operations — Cr._ 
Maintaining Joint Equipment— Cr. 
Depreciation of Equipment. 


Superintendence and Solicitation. 

Parks and Other Attractions. 
Miscellaneous Traffic Expenses. 

Conducting Transportation 
Superintendence of Transportation. 


Power Plant Labor. 
a-Power Plant. 
b-Boiler Room Labor. 
c-Producer Labor, 
d- Engine Labor. 
e-Electric Labor. 
f-Cable Power Plant Labor. 



3 O ° 



Maintenance of Way and Structures 
Superintendence of Way and Structures. 

2-10 Roadway and Track Repairs. 

713 3" 11 Cleaning and Sanding Track. 

714 4 12 Removal of Snow, Ice and Sand. 

715 5 13 Other Repairs of Way. 

14-24 Repairs of Electric Power Line. 






















Repairs of Buildings and Structures. 

Other Operations — Dr. 

Joint Way and Structures — Dr. 

Other Operations — Cr. 

Joint Way and Structures — Cr. 

Depreciation of Way and Structures. 

Maintenance of Equipment 
31 Superintendence of Equipment. 

743 14 } 32-38 Repairs of Power Plant Equipment. 

S-528 IS 39 Repairs of Sub-Station Equipment. 

744 16 I 40-43 Repairs of Cars and Locomotives. 

752 18' I 46-49 Miscellaneous Equipment Expenses. 

Other Operations — Dr. 
Maintaining Joint Equipment — Dr. 
Other Operations — Cr. 
Maintaining Joint Equipment — Cr. 
Depreciation of Equipment. 
















770 24 (55-58 Traffic Expenses. 


Conducting Transportation 
781 25 59 Superintendence of Transportation. 


S-501 26 60 Power Plant Labor. 

a-Power Plant. 
b-Boiler Room Labor. 
c-Producer Labor. 
d-Engine Labor. 
e-Electric Labor. 
f-Cable Power Plant Labor. 



Sub-Station Labor. 




Sub-Station Labor. 



Fuel for Power. 




Fuel for Power. 



Water for Powers 




Water for Power. 



Lubricants for Power. 




Lubricants for Power. 



Miscellaneous Power Plant Supplies and Expenses. 




Misc. Power Plant Supplies and Expenses. 



Sub-Station Supplies and Expenses. 




Sub-Station Supplies and Expenses. 



Horse Power — Revenue Car Service. 




Horse-power — Revenue Car Service. 



Power Purchased. 




POwer Purchased. 



Jointly Produced Power — Dr. 




Jointly Produced Power — Dr. 



Power Exchanged — Balance. 




Power Exchanged — Balance. 



Other Operations — Dr. 




Other Operations— Dr. 



Other Operations — Cr. 




Other Operations- — Cr. 



Jointly Produced Power — Cr, 




Jointly Produced Power — Cr. 

Operation of Cars 



Passenger Motormen. 



Passenger Conductors. 





Horse Car Drivers. 



Other Passenger Trainmen. 



Freight and Express Motormen and Trainmen. 





Miscellaneous Car Service Employees. 



Miscellaneous Car Service Expenses. 





Station Employees. 





Station Expenses. 



Car House Employees. 





Car House Expenses. 



Operation of Signal and Interlocking Systems. 





Operation of Telephone and Telegraph Systems. 



Express and Freight Collections and Delivery. 





Loss and Damage. 





Other Transportation Expenses. 





Joint Operation of Cars — Dr. 





Joint Operation of Cars — Cr. 



Operation of Cars 

i 74-77 Passenger Motormen, Conductors and Train- 

803 41 1 78-79 Freight and Express Motormen and Train- 

80 Misc. Car Service Employees and Expenses. 
I 81-82 Station Employees and Expenses. 

I 83-84 Car House Employees and Expenses. 

I 85-86 Operation of Signal and Telephone Systems. 

87 Express and Freight Collections and Delivery. 

88 Loss and Damage. 

89 Other Transportation Expenses. 

90 Joint Operation of Cars — Dr. 

91 Joint Operation of Cars — Cr. 

S-843 . 
S-844A 105 
S-844B 105 
S 845 107 
S-847 108 
S-848 109 
3 849 110 


General and Miscellaneous 
Salaries and Expenses of General Officers. 
Salaries and Expenses of General Office Clerks. S-832 

General Office Supplies and Expenses. S-83 5 

General Law Expenses. S-836 

Insurance. S-837 

Relief Department Expenses. S-838 

Pensions. S-839 
Miscellaneous General Expenses. , 

General Amortization. S-842 

Other Operations — Dr. S-843 

Joint General Expenses— Dr. S-844 

Other Operations — Cr. S-845 

Joint General Expense— Cr. S-846 

Accidents and Damages. S-847A 

Law Expenses connected with Damages. S-847B 

General Stationery and Printing. S-848 

Store Expenses. S-850 

Stable Expenses. _ S-851 

Undistributed Adjustments — Balance. S-852 


General and Miscellaneous 

51 } 92-93 General Officers and General Office Clerks. 

52 94 General Office Supplies and Expenses. 

53 95 General Law Expenses. 

54 96 Insurance. 

98 Relief Department and Pensions. 

99 Miscellaneous General Expenses. 

100 General Amortization. 

101 Other Operations — Dr. 

102 Joint General Expenses — Dr. 

103 Other Operations — Cr. 

104 Joint General Expenses— Cr. 

105 Accidents and Damages. 

106 Law Expenses connected with Damages. 

107 General Stationery and Printing. 

108 Store Expenses. 

109 Stable Expenses. 

1 10 Undistributed Adjustments — Balance. 

M aintenance of W ay and Structures 
Superintendence of Way and Structures. 

2-10 Roadway and Track Repairs. 

11-12 Cleaning and Sanding Track and Remov- 
ing Snow. 
4 Other Repairs of Way. 

13-24 Repairs of Electric Power Line. 




Repairs of Buildings and Structures. 




Other Operations — Dr. 




Joint Way and Structures — Dr. 




Other Operations — Cr. 




Joint Way and Structures — Cr. 




Depreciation of Way and Structures 

Maintenance of Equipment 




Superintendence of Equipment. 




Repairs of Power Plant Equipment. 

S-528 14 
744 15 

749 17 \ 44-45 Repairs of Car and Locomotive Electric 749 16 

758 19 

759 20 

760 21 

761 22 

781 24 
S-501 25 

S-525 26 
S-502 27 

39 Repairs of Sub-Station Equipment. 
40-43 Repairs of Cars and Locomotives. 

44-45 Repairs of Car and Locomotive Equip- 

752 17 ! 46-49 Miscellaneous Equipment Expenses. 

50 Other Operations — Dr. 

51 Maintaining Joint Equipment — Dr. 

52 Other Operations — Cr. 

53 Maintaining Joint Equipment — Cr. 

54 Depreciation of Equipment. 


55-58 Traffic Expenses. 

Conducting Transportation 
59 Superintendence of Transportation. 




Power Plant Labor. 

a-Power Plant. 

b-Boiler Room Labor. 

c-Producer Labor. 

d-Engine Labor. 

e-Electric Labor. 

f-Cable Power Plant Labor. 
Sub-Station Labor. 
Fuel for Power. 



















63-67 Other Power Supplies and Expenses. 

Power Purchased. 
Jointly Produced Power — Dr. 
Power Exchanged — Balance. 
Other Operations — Dr. 
Other Operations — Cr. 
Jointly Produced Power — Cr. 

Operation of Cars 

74-78 Conductors, Motormen and OtherTrainmen. 

79-89 Miscellaneous Transportation Expenses. 

820 37 ' 90 Joint Operation of Cars — Dr. 

821 .38 91 Joint Operation of Cars — Cr. 

General and Miscellaneous 
92-95 General Administration. 


included in General Administration. 
General Amortization. 
Other Operations — Dr. 
Joint General Expense — Dr. 
Other Operations— Cr. 
Joint General Expense — Cr. 
105-106 Injuries to Persons and Property. 

General Stationery and Printing. 
) Store and Stable Expenses. 

Undistributed Adjustments — Balance. 























47 } 






49 1 





3 2 


[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

classification, the same method -may be pursued by first 
filing with the commission a statement showing the sub- 
divisions proposed. It is not necessary, however, that these 
subdivisions appear in reports to the commission. For 
purposes of comparison,' last year's income revenue and 
operating expense accounts may be reclassified on the basis 
of the new classification. A suggestion for a method of 
remembering operating expense accounts is shown in the 
accompanying table. Railway corporations operating elec- 
tric lighting or gas departments will have to use in addition 
the accounts prescribed therefor. 

The preparation of a uniform system of accounts neces- 
sitated that all known contingencies be provided for, and it 
will simplify matters greatly if each corporation will elim- 
inate from consideration such accounts as are not pertinent 
to the facts and circumstances. A careful study and analy- 
sis of the classification will correct any impression that it 
will be expensive and burdensome, detailed accounts being 
necessary for the information and guidance of the corpora- 
tions. The first cost of printing new blanks is not an im- 
portant matter for small companies, as they may be type- 

The books and records of a corporation simply reflect its 
actions and transactions. For example, a contract between 
an accounting corporation, designated as company A, and 
another corporation, designated as company B, provides 
that B operate its cars over A's tracks. This means 
that A shall credit to rent of tracks and terminals such 
amount as may be received therefor, B charging the cost 
thereof to track and terminal privileges under the general 
heading of other rent deductions. If the contract provided 
that A operate the cars of B over A's tracks and receive 
the revenue therefrom, then A should charge the amount 
paid to B to rental of cars and credit the earnings there- 
from to the proper account under revenue from transporta- 
tion. The service rendered and the result obtained are 
absolutely the same in both instances, the method of treat- 
ing the accounts being determined by the wording of the 


The capital accounts are well defined in the new classi- 
fication, and it should be borne in mind that it is not the 
intention of the commission to be technical. For example, 
the paragraph headed "First entries must enable identifica- 
tion," states that "throughout all capital accounts the first 
entry in respect of any particular thing shall describe it 
with such particularity as to enable its identification, and 
shall give it a distinguishing name, number, or other desig- 
nation by which it shall thereafter be designated in every 
entry in any capital account which in any way concerns it." 
If cars of a certain type are purchased, the bill being ex- 
planatory and the record through the voucher, voucher 
record, journal and ledger clear, this will be ample means 
of identification to determine at any future time the actual 
and not the estimated cost of that portion of the property. 

Discount upon securities — The ruling that discounts upon 
securities shall not be charged to capital accounts is one 
upon which there seems to be considerable difference of 
opinion. The Railroad Commission of Wisconsin, for ex- 
ample, permits the capitalization of discount on bonds and 
the expense incurred in connection with their issue, while 
this classification provides that such discounts be charged 
to unamortized debt discount and expense, that account to 
be credited and surplus debited with the amount at the op- 
tion of the corporation, in whole or in part, either at the 
time of the sale of the securities or monthly or yearly pro 
rata, according to a rule uniformly applied during the 
term for which the securities were issued. When a pre- 
mium is realized upon the sale of any particular class of 
stock, such premium shall be credited to the proper sub- 
account under premium on stock, and remain in such ac- 
count as long as the stock is outstanding. This should not 
prevent the corporation from using the funds for any legal 
corporate purpose. 

Withdrawals or retirements — When anything is with- 
drawn or retired from service, the actual cost, if known 
(estimated if not), shall be credited to the capital account 
in which it stood charged at the time of withdrawal. For 
example, the construction of a $20,000 bridge to take the 
place of a smaller bridge, the actual cost of which cannot 

now be determined, the original cost being estimated at 
$10,000, would necessitate the following entries : Debit ac- 
count bridges, trestles and culverts, $20,000; the estimated 
cost of the structure replaced, namely, $10,000, to be cred- 
ited to fixed capital, Dec. 31, 1908, and charged to the 
proper account under corporate surplus or deficit. This 
will leave the fixed capital account increased by $10,000, 
the difference between the estimated original cost of the 
old structure and the actual cost of the new. Assuming 
that the old structure had been in use 10 years, during one 
year of which the company had charged a proper propor- 
tionate amount to depreciation, crediting the same to ac- 
crued amortization of capital, the proportion of deprecia- 
tion applicable to the year, namely, $1,000, would neces- 
sitate the following entry: 

Accrued amortization of capital, debit $ 1,000 

Other deductions from surplus 9,000 

Fixed capital, Dec. 31, 1909, credit $10,000 


Small companies may feel it burdensome to keep a ma- 
terial and supplies account in the prescribed form. If these 
companies will take an inventory each year, placing the 
amount of the same on the general books under the head 
of material and supplies, and each month thereafter 
charge to this account on their vouchers an amount ap- 
proximately equivalent to one month's supply of material 
purchased, instead of charging the various construction 
or operating accounts direct, as heretofore, then by journal 
entry each month credit material and supplies and debit 
each construction or operating account with the entire 
amount assignable to it (assuming that approximately all 
has been consumed), adjusting any differences at the end 
of the fiscal year, they will have complied with the intent 
of the classification. 


The accounts covering express and freight revenues and 
expenses may be gathered together and subdivided on a 
special form for the purpose of furnishing the manage- 
ment with a fairly accurate idea of the revenues and ex- 
penses of this portion of the company's business. Careful 
estimates should be made of the department's pro rata 
share of all accounts not directly affected, such as those 
for use of tracks, power consumed, etc. 


The monthly report of a corporation owning any consid- 
erable amount of securities will be distorted by crediting 
dividend revenues at the time of payment with amounts 
received on account of dividends. In the case of securities 
upon which there is a reasonable expectation of dividends, 
however, there is nothing to prevent an estimated accrual, 
carefully made, not upon the books of the company, but 
upon the operating reports, showing what the result would 
be if the pro rata share of the dividends on such securities 
were received monthly. 


The classification provides for certain expense accounts, 
which may be assembled as desired by the accounting cor- 
poration. When reporting to the commission, however, it 
will be necessary to assemble the accounts as in the form 
of report provided. 


The determination of the accounting corporation's prob- 
able liability on account of casualties has met with some 
opposition, the objections being to the labor involved and 
the difficulty of estimating such liability with exactness. 
The experience of actual application may in time produce 
fairly accurate results. The adoption of the method of 
estimating yearly in advance the probable amount neces- 
sary to be charged to operating expenses will not affect 
those expenses, whether the claims are settled promptly or 
not, except through the saving which may be effected by 
prompt settlements. When beginning the use of this 
method, careful estimates should be made of the liability 
for unsettled accident claims then outstanding, charging 
the same to surplus and crediting casualties and insurance 
reserve. A further estimate, based on past experience, 
should be made of the probable expenditure for the ensuing 
12 months, a pro rata share of this amount to be charged 

July 3, 1909.] 



each month to operating expenses, preferably on some arbi- 
trary basis, such as car-miles operated, car-hours operated, 
or per cent of gross earnings. 


Depreciation accounting is a method of conserving cap- 
ital and maintaining assets intact by providing for renewal 
and replacement of wasting properties at the expense of 
revenue, a practice which has obtained to a considerable 
extent in the past under other designations. Assuming 
that electric railway corporations have not charged the 
proper amount of depreciation in the past, an examination 
of the sums expended in dividends would indicate not that 
they have suffered from a too generous distribution of 
profits, but that rates of fare have been too low. It may 
be contended that, through the issue from time to time of 
additional securities to provide funds for the renewal and 
replacement of wornout property which should have been 
provided out of earnings, interest charges have become bur- 
densome to an extent which will not permit proper divi- 
dends to be paid. As a matter of fact, such increase in 
capitalization has been brought about not by depreciation, 
but by obsolescence occasioned by the phenomenal develop- 
ment of electrical science and changes made in methods of 
transportation to meet demands of the public which could 
not have been foreseen or otherwise provided for; and if 
it is the purpose of depreciation accounts to provide that 
the capitalization of a public service corporation shall rep- 
resent its true value, the appreciation in the value of its 
assets should be considered in connection therewith. The 
public, however, is more interested in the efficiency of the 
service when rendered for a reasonable consideration than 
in the amount invested in the properties or the rate of re- 
turn that the security holders may receive. 

The difficulty of determining the point at which mainte- 
nance ceases and depreciation begins necessitates that each 
company ascertain as nearly as possible the amount re- 
quired to take care of maintenance and depreciation not 
due to obsolescence of the various portions of its property. 
This amount may then be arbitrarily apportioned on the 
basis of a unit; for example, car-mileage. For the purpose 
of illustrating, assume that the estimated amount necessary 
to be provided to cover the maintenance and depreciation 
of equipment (as provided in the classification of operating 
expense accounts) is approximately 5 cents per car-mile 
per annum. Such being the case, in some particular month 
an amount equal to 3 cents per car-mile having been ex- 
pended on account of maintenance, 2 cents per car-mile 
should then be charged to depreciation of equipment. The 
method or the amount, or both, may have to be changed 
from time to time, the amount of depreciation depending on 
local conditions, the type of property originally constructed, 
and the degree of maintenance, past and present. The 
amount of depreciation on different properties or different 
portions of the same' property will vary, making it imprac- 
ticable to lay down a rigid rule. The commission has left 
it to the corporations to determine to the best of their abil- 
ity the amount to be charged to depreciation on their par- 
ticular properties, and provided only that there shall be 
filed with them prior to its use the rule adopted. This can 
be changed at any time by filing the amended rule with 
the commission prior to its use. 

The development of electric railways in the future more 
and more depends upon public confidence in street railway 
investments and public confidence more and more depends 
upon complete and accurate information as to the condi- 
tions upon which it is invited. It is possible for individuals 
to build and operate small electric railways, but such de- 
velopment must of necessity be on a comparatively small 
scale. It is only when the use of corporate methods and 
the creation of corporate securities is resorted to that larger 
enterprises can be developed and the demands of the public 
met. A corporation is merely a body of persons legally 
associated and empowered by the State to transact business 
as an individual might do. Under these circumstances it 
owes to the general public from which it has received its 
charter, and more particularly to that portion of the public 
which constitutes its security holders, such information con- 
cerning internal conditions and affairs as may be necessary 
effectually to safeguard the public interest. As the agency 
for the collection and dissemination of such information, 

the activities of public-service commissions should go far 
to replace the drastic examinations by special commissions 
and the resulting hasty legislation which in the past have 
had such an unsettling effect upon the financial world. A 
suspicion on the part of the public, possibly occasioned in 
part by the past attitude of public-service corporations 
toward regulation by government commissions, that facts 
essential to the safeguarding of public interest were being 
withheld is being gradually overcome largely through pub- 
licity. The purpose of the public in creating such commis- 
sions is not to work hardship upon corporations by assum- 
ing the functions of management to such an extent as to 
destroy the incentive to ambition resulting from the pros- 
pect or possibility of wealth or attainment to be achieved by 
energy and close application. Now that public-service cor- 
porations may feel that they are to receive fair and im- 
partial treatment will they not be benefited by promptly and 
graciously furnishing government commissions with all the 
information desired? In this connection it is sufficiently 
suggestive to call attention to the salutary effect upon the 
market for securities resulting from scientific accounting 
conducted under such restrictions and conditions as con- 
stitute a virtual guarantee by law of the figures upon which 
the value of such securities is based. 



During the past two years I have had a very -good op- 
portunity to become familiar with the grievances of most 
of your companies, and when Mr. Fassett was kind enough 
to invite me to speak about the reports of traction com- 
panies to the State Tax Commission I was very glad to 
avail myself of the opportunity to tell you of a few of the 
troubles that the Tax Commission has in making the spe- 
cial franchise assessments. There is no feeling of hostil- 
ity on the part of the Tax Commission as far as the public 
service companies are concerned. The commission wishes 
to avoid as much as possible the misunderstandings which 
seem bound to occur each year and which react sometimes 
to the disadvantage of the companies and at other times to 
the locality where the tax is collected. From year to year 
we have asked for more information, and have gone more 
into detail, but experience has shown us that this detailed 
information is necessary in order to deal justly with the 
companies concerned. 

I want particularly to urge upon you the necessity of 
filing these reports as early as possible. We can appre- 
ciate the fact that with some of the larger companies it is 
a matter of some weeks to close the books for the year 
ending Dec. 31, but there is no reason why the supple- 
mental sheets for description of the property and the va- 
rious schedules should not be filled out by Dec. 31, so that 
the report may be in shape to forward to us as soon as the 
books are closed and the financial statement and classifica- 
tion of operating receipts and expenditures are made up. 
Between April 1 and the middle of May the board cer- 
tifies tentatively over 8000 special franchise assessments, 
and you can easily understand how the work is hindered 
by companies not reporting. 

There were several companies represented at the spring 
hearing this year who wished to protest against the assess- 
ment and file their annual report at the same time. These 
are the tactics which have forced the board to ask for 
the dismissal of writ of certiorari in certain cases where 
companies have not reported within the time allowed, which 
prevents the companies from obtaining the equalized reduc- 
tion to which they would otherwise be entitled. There is 
a penalty for not reporting within the time allowed of $100 
for the offense, $10 a day for each day that the report is 
refused, and the company is not entitled to review the 
assessments by certiorari proceedings. 

In justice to you, gentlemen, I will say, however, that 
we have less trouble with the traction companies than with 
any other class of public service corporations. If you 
have any other than the formal objection to file at the 

•Paper read before the Street Railway Association of the State of 
New York, Bluff Point, June 29, 1909. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

hearing, it is very essential that the attorney representing 
the company should be familiar with the physical condition 
of the property or that some person who is familiar with 
the property should be at the hearing to answer questions 
concerning local conditions, as in many cases we are obliged 
to carry a higher tentative assessment than would be the 
case if the facts were set out clearly. It is not necessary 
to wait until the day set for the hearing, as you will always 
find one of the engineers of the board at the office, and we 
shall be glad to take up at any time any proposition which 
may seem to affect the value of the franchise and which 
might not be shown in your report. This coming year we 
are putting two new blank pages in the report for any 
statements which you may care to make about the prop- 
erty, and we want you to give us all the facts that may 
seem in your minds to affect the value of the franchise 
in any way. 

I would suggest that the companies that operate amuse- 
ment places or parks, for the sake of the increased traffic 
on the lines leading to the park, should state the amount of 
their investment or interest in the park, and should also 
give us the estimate of what per cent of their receipts they 
consider to be due to the travel to or from the park or 
amusement place. The profit or loss from the places them- 
selves, where they are operated by the railroad company, 
can be shown in the schedules which provide for the classi- 
fication of operating receipts and expenses. 

There will also be a new page for a general description 
of property outside of streets and public places, as well as 
an estimate of its value. This information is necessary in 
order that we may know the total amount of property upon 
which the company is entitled to a return. The most com- 
mon failing of the traction companies is the failure to fur- 
nish the information called for in Schedule H of our re- 
port, where you are asked to give the estimate of receipts 
from operation according to tax districts, and to subdivide 
these amounts into receipts "on private right of way" and 
receipts "on streets, highways and public places." We 
understand perfectly that it is a very difficult thing for 
you to do, but it has to be done in order that the total 
assessment may be properly proportioned among the tax 
districts, and it is infinitely easier for you to make the 
approximation with your thorough knowledge of local con- 
ditions than for us to try to estimate it in the office. 

We often have reports where the source of amounts 
charged against reconstruction and new construction is not 
shown. If you sell securities to obtain money for better- 
ments it should be shown as stock issued in the current 
year. If taken from reserve for improvements and exten- 
sion or borrowed, it should show in the statement of liabil- 
ities, and if paid for out of earnings it should show under 
appropriations for extensions and improvements. At the 
bottom of the page for the financial report is a note, "dis- 
tribution of expenditures for reconstruction and new con- 
struction." Several companies, when part of the expense 
of reconstruction has been charged to capital account, have 
shown that amount as against new construction. By "new 
construction" we mean additional mileage, or property, 
and in a case where we find an amount charged against 
new construction and no additional mileage or property 
is shown on the supplemental sheets, it necessitates a higher 
tentative assessment until the matter is explained. 

I am speaking of reports to the Tax Commission only, 
for I think that where you replace with heavier construc- 
tion or improved pavement, the difference in cost is a 
proper charge against capital account. By reconstruction 
we mean the replacement of wornout or useless material 
by new or fit material other than the small repairs which 
must be constantly made. You may have paid for your 
reconstruction partly from your appropriation for mainte- 
nance and partly from your reserve for betterments. We 
ask for this information, as it is one of the elements which 
aids us in determining to what extent the property is being 
kept up. Formerly the only details of operating expenses 
required were salaries, conducting transportation, main- 
tenance of way and equipment, legal expenses, but the 
amounts charged against "other operating expenses" were 
so large that we were obliged to have the additional classi- 
fication now required. 

One of the greatest embarrassments that the commission 
has to contend with is the failure of the reporting com- 

panies to give the detailed information called for in the 
supplemental sheets. The length of tracks, the weight and 
type of rail, the ballast used, the kind of paving, the type 
of overhead construction and the length and size of cables 
and conductors. All these details are necessary in order 
that we may properly estimate the cost of reproduction. 
This year we have asked for the same classification of op- 
erating receipts and expenditures as required of all com- 
panies reporting to the Public Service Commission. There 
was some delay on that account last year, as I believe that 
the Public Service Commission did not decide upon its 
classification until after our reports were due. 

In the supplemental sheets we ask for the value of prop- 
erty as new for the current year; also the depreciated value. 
By the "value, new 1909," as the new supplemental will 
read, we mean the cost of reproduction at the present time, 
and not the original cost of the property. There seems to 
be a wide difference of opinion regarding depreciation, 
some companies allowing no depreciation, and others de- 
preciating down to what the property would bring if 
scrapped. We invariably allow for depreciation in esti- 
mating the value of the property, but try to keep between 
the two extremes. 

One thing I must ask you to bear in mind, an assessing 
officer must assess, but if you will give us the information 
called for in the schedules and supplemental sheets, I hope 
the time may come when your only reason for filing com- 
plaints against the special franchise assessment will be to 
get the equalized reduction. 



The twenty-seventh annual convention of the Street Rail- 
way Association of the State of New York was held at the 
Hotel Champlain, Bluff Point, New York, June 29-30, 1909. 
It was originally planned to hold the convention at the 
Fort William Henry Hotel, Lake George, but as announced 
in last week's issue of this paper the Fort William Henry 
Hotel was destroyed by fire on the morning of June 24. 
Upon receipt of the news at Albany, President Fassett, of 
the association, notified such members of the executive com- 
mittee of the association as could be reached by long-dis- 
tance telephone, made arrangements to change the hotel 
reservations to the Hotel Champlain and informed the tech- 
nical and associated daily press of the arrangements — all 
so promptly that the press was advised of the revised plan 
by 10 a. m. Within 12 hours after the discovery of the fire 
at Lake George printed notices of the change of location 
had been mailed to all railway companies and electric rail- 
way supply houses in New York State and to many in ad- 
joining States. At a meeting of the executive committee, 
held at the Transportation Club, New York, at 5 p. m., on 
June 24, Mr. Fassett reported what he had done and re- 
ceived the thanks, in behalf of the association, of all those 
present, as well as compliments for his quick action and 
satisfactory decisions. 

A number of delegates to the convention went to Bluff 
Point, by way of Lake George, to take the boat ride on 
that lake Monday, June 28, and saw the ruins of the Fort 
William Henry Hotel. Nothing is left but the foundation 

The change in, location seemed to make no difference in 
the attendance, which was up to the standard of previous 


The morning session, of June 29 was called to order at 
the Hotel Champlain by President Fassett at 10 :30 a. m. 
After the usual roll call the secretary introduced W. L. 
Pattison, general counsel of the Plattsburg Traction Com- 
pany, who referred briefly but in a very interesting way to 

July 3, 1909.] 



some of the historical incidents connected with points in 
the vicinity of the hotel. He concluded by welcoming the 
delegates to Plattsburg in the name of the company and of 
President Sanderson, and stated that transportation on the 
lines of the company during the convention would be af- 
forded those who wore the badge of the association. The 
secretary then said that he had received letters of regret 
from Governor Hughes, Horace E. Andrews, August Bel- 
mont and some others to whom invitations to be present at 
the convention and banquet had been extended. 

The secretary then read a letter from President Shaw, of 
the American Street & Interurban Railway Association, 
calling attention to the meeting of that association at Den- 
ver and urging all present to attend. Mr. Shaw also said 
that committees had been appointed to organize two special 
trains from New York to carry delegates and others who 
desired to go to the Denver convention. One of these trains 
would go to Denver by way of New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania, the other over the New York Central lines. The 
committee in charge of the latter train was C. Loomis 
Allen, chairman, James H. McGraw and John H. Pardee. 
This committee would make all necessary arrangements for 
the train, and those desiring to travel by it -should notify 
some member of the committee. 

The secretary then read a cordial invitation to the asso- 
ciation from E. J. Cook, general manager Rochester Rail- 
way, to meet in Rochester in 1910. Mr. Cook's letter was 
accompanied by invitations from the Mayor of the city and 
the president of the Chamber of Commerce, urging the asso- 
ciation to select Rochester next year and stating that a 
fine auditorium, recently erected, would be at the disposal 
of the association during the convention. Upon motion 
of Mr. Peck the letters were referred to the committee on 
next convention which should consider the invitation with 
the committee on nominations. 

The president then read his annual address. It follows : 


Owing to the disastrous fire which completely destroyed the 
Fort William Henry Hotel at Lake George last Thursday morn- 
ing, it was necessary to decide quickly on another place to hold 
the twenty-seventh annual convention of this association. Your 
executive committee immediately took steps in the matter and 
concluded that, inasmuch as our twenty-fifth annual convention 
was held here so satisfactorily two years ago, the Hotel Cham- 
plain offered the only appropriate solution to the problem, and 
we hope that our action has met with your approval. 

The financial depression of 1908 was the source of never- 
ceasing strife on the part of railroads generally throughout the 
country for their very existence. The receipts of trolley com- 
panies, however, suffered far less than those of the steam roads, 
for which we can thank the doing of principally a passenger 
business. With the dawning of the current year the business 
interests of the country, and particularly of our own State, 
have commenced to show a rapid recovery from the panic con- 
ditions, and I think it is safe to say that we are once more 
beginning another era of prosperity, and that with the per- 
ceptible reactionary sentiment in favor of progressive business 
advancement, we may all hope for a future that will permit the 
proper and logical development of public service industries, 
which the public is beginning to see is linked so closely with 
the very life of general prosperity. 

The association during the recent legislative session rendered 
especial service to the member companies. Arrangements were 
made for complete information relative to all legislation, and 
an attorney employed, who was particularly familiar with legis- 
lative procedure, to make careful inspection of all legislation 
and to report on such as affected our interests, making such 
memoranda in connection with it as would bring out the 
points involved, Copies of his reports were sent out from the 
president's office almost daily to the various companies. It 
has been with much satisfaction that we have heard it freely 
remarked that the service rendered was of the utmost value to 
numerous companies, together wild the assurance that this 
service, alone, has amply repaid the amount of Ihc assessed 
dues. If this is a fact, it is particularly gratifying, as we were 
able to furnish it at a less expense to the association 
than has previously been done, which, no doubt, was owing to 

the fact that your president, being located in Albany, had 

readier facilities at his command. It is also to be understood 
that in addition to the detailed reports sent out, there was 
very careful attention given in Albany to the sundry adverse 
bills introduced, which we can assure you materially assisted 
in preventing the passage of a number of them. The one 
measure introduced during the session which vitally affected 
the street railways was the proposed amendment to the Public 
Utilities Act. As you are all familiar with this amendment 
through the reports sent out by the association, it is unneces- 
sary for me to review it here ; it suffices to say the bill did not 
reach the Governor's hands, a committee having been appointed, 
not only to investigate the need of the proposed amendment, 
but also to investigate the results obtained under the present 
act and to report to the rfext legislature. 

During the preceding year the association held two very suc- 
cessful and well-attended quarterly meetings : one in Utica, 
Nov. 10, 1908, and one in Schenectady, March 24, 1909. The 
Utica meeting was called especially to discuss the subject of 
"Track Construction," and two very able papers were pre- 
sented on questions pertaining to the matter, one by Chas. R. 
Clark, chief engineer, New York & North Shore Traction Com- 
pany, entitled "Steel and Concrete Ties," and one by R. A. 
Dyer, Jr., general manager, Auburn & Syracuse Electric Rail- 
road Company, entitled "Tee Rail in City Streets." _ At the 
Schenectadv meeting the general subjects for discussion were 
"Transfers" and "Claims." The topics were capably introduced 
by C. Loomis Allen, vice-president and general manager, Syra- 
cuse Rapid Transit Railway Company, and Hubbell Robinson, 
attorney, Schenectady Railway Company, with their respective 
papers, "Transfers — Use and Abuse" and "Claims — Co-operation 
of Operating and Legal Departments." In addition to these 
subjects, the meeting received the reports of committees on the 
various subjects recommended by C. R. Barnes, electric railroad 
inspector, Public Service Commission, at our last annual con- 
vention, namely: "Use of Curtains in Car Vestibules," "Sig- 
naling Interurban Cars at Way Stations," and "Carrying Musi- 
cal Instruments on Passenger Cars." As these reports were 
merely read and accepted at the Schenectady meeting, they 
have been placed, at the request of the Public Service Com- 
mission, on the program of this convention for final discussion 
and definite action by the association. 

It is with sincere gratefulness that I wish to express my 
thanks to the various officers of the association, the executive 
committee, and the members of the several committees ap- 
pointed during the past year, for their unceasing efforts in 
behalf of the association, as it was only through their assist- 
ance that it has been possible to render the benefits that have 
been given to the members. 

In closing, I wish to earnestly request each attending delegate 
to make it his especial business to enter enthusiastically into 
the spirit of this convention. It is of the utmost importance 
that we all appear promptly at the hour set for the various 
sessions, remain during the entire time, and enter the discus- 
sions with vim and energy. The gentlemen who have prepared 
papers which will be presented for your consideration have 
devoted much careful labor in their preparation, and in justice 
to them and in order that we may derive the benefits for which 
we are assembled, I personally appeal to each of you to feel 
that the success of this convention depends absolutely on your 
individual contribution in the way of attendance and in enter- 
ing into the various discussions. 


The report of the executive committee was then read by 
the secretary. It stated that the number of active members 
of the association had been reduced by one, owing to the 
consolidation of the Rochester Railway and the Rochester 
& Eastern Rapid Railway Company into the New York 
State Railways Company. The number of associate 
members, which include street railway companies outside of 
New York State, had decreased by one. Of the allied 
members, which consist of the supply houses, five had re- 
signed and ten had joined the association, so that the allied 
members now number nearly 100. 


An abstract of the report of the treasurer follows : 

Balance on hand $3>978 

Receipts 6,485 

Total $10,463 

Disbursements 4,36t 

Balance on hand $6,101 

The report of the treasurer was received with applause. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

Arthur L. Linn, Jr., general auditor, New York State 
Railways, then read a paper on "Electric Railway Ac- 
counting." An abstract of this paper is - published on page 
30 of this issue. 


W. H. Davies, comptroller, Delaware & Hudson Com- 
pany, said in opening the discussion that the first point 
to which he wished to refer was the subject of improve- 
ment in the system of accounts. Mr. Linn had stated that "it 
should be remembered that if the experience of accounting 
corporations with this classification shows opportunity for 
improvements, such improvements will receive the careful 
consideration of the commission and its representatives." 

Of course, faults could easily be found in any new sys- 
tem that might be promulgated; and, no doubt, this system 
would not prove an exception, and therefore there was a 
field for the earnest endeavor and co-operation of this 
association in order that the best results might be obtained; 
this could be done by committees already in existence or 
by new committees specially created for the purpose. 

The greatest latitude should be allowed by the author- 
ities in which to work out these improvements ; by this 
Mr. Davies meant that the electric railways should not be 
compelled to make their improvements along the lines of 
the present classification, which was patterned so much 
after the classification adopted for steam railroads. 

No fault could be found with a uniform system of ac- 
counts where the character of the business was precisely 
the same; but in a great many particulars the street rail- 
way classification must of necessity differ from one de- 
signed for steam railways, and Mr. Davies felt that the 
commissions had gone too far in their efforts to make 
the two systems comparable. 

In discussing the subject of reclassification, Mr. Davies 
said Mr. Linn had stated that, for the purpose of compari- 
son, last year's income revenue and operating expense ac- 
counts may be reclassified on the basis of the new classi- 
fication. Mr. Davies said that some corporations may find 
it advantageous, and certainly less burdensome, to reclass- 
ify the coming year's accounts on the basis of the old 
classification. This could be done without the slightest 
difficulty, for in the majority of cases it could be accom- 
plished by simply grouping together some of the new ac- 

Referring to the identification of charges to capital ac- 
count, Mr. Davies said it must be borne in mind that the 
first cost may not always be the cost to credit to capital 
when a replacement is made. For instance, a structure 
may originally cost, say, $3,000, and soon after may be 
improved by an addition which would bring the new value 
up to $3,100. The $100 must be taken into account in de- 
termining the credit to capital by a replacement. This 
went to show that not only must the original entries be 
clear and concise as to identification, but also all other 
entries subsequently made that would affect its cost, and 
it was necessary to have the last entry refer properly to 
the former entries which it supplemented. In the case of 
rolling stock it might be well to have an historical record 
concerning each item of equipment, which would set forth 
all these facts and refer to the original entries on the 

The commission had ruled that discounts on securities 
issued shall not be capitalized under any circumstances. 
Those who favored this practice claimed that by issuing 
securities at a discount corporations were enabled to secure 
a lower interest rate, and therefore the discount should be 

periodically charged against income during the life of the 
security, which in effect increased the interest charge 
against income, but this premise was not strictly correct. 
Very few new corporations which had a credit to establish 
could float bonds at par, no matter what the rate of inter- 
est was, for the reason that as soon as a bond bearing a 
high rate of interest was put out, unfavorable attention 
was immediately attracted to the security back of the bond, 
and the result would be to defeat the object sought to be 
obtained. Mr. Davies, personally, was inclined to favor 
the claim that, in a majority of cases, discount on securities 
sold was a price paid to obtain money to construct the rail- 
way, just as much as the cost of the different materials used 
in construction; and, therefore, in such cases, at least, it 
should be considered a capital expenditure. At any rate, 
uniformity which was sought by this system of accounts 
would not obtain, for the reason that many new concerns 
would issue their securities to a construction company at 
par, instead of otherwise disposing of the securities and 
paying for the construction in cash. 

Mr. Davies endorsed what Mr. Linn had said in respect 
to handling the material and supply account, and added that 
some little trouble may be occasioned by such a method, but 
it could be easily overcome. For instance : An interurban 
road might buy its ties all in one month and therefore would 
not want to charge them all out at one time. But in such 
cases there would be no objection to distributing such 
charges over a longer period, provided, however, the ac- 
count was properly adjusted at the end of the year. 

The system of accounts provided two methods for taking 
care of the wasting of capital: 

First when anything was withdrawn or retired from 
service, the amount at which such thing stood charged in 
the capital account shall be credited to capital account at 
the time of withdrawal. Such a practice would provide for 
wear, tear and obsolescence which had not been taken care 
of through maintenance. 

Second, depreciation accounts were also set up, to which 
estimated losses shall be charged. This account was very 
objectionable, Mr. Davies said, particularly from the fact 
that, if over-estimates were made, the profits were unduly 
diminished and, vice-versa, under-estimates resulted in an 
over-statement of the profits. It could readily be seen what 
an opportunity for juggling the accounts was encouraged 

A suggestion was made by Mr. Davies that a question 
box for problems connected with the system of accounts be 
included in the programs for the quarterly meetings of the 

W. C. Austin, auditor, Oneonta & Mohawk Valley Rail- 
way, asked the titles of the accounts to which depreciation 
had been charged. 

A. J. Gies, auditor, United Traction Company of Albany, 
inquired the object of the total of seat car-miles, which is 
required by the schedule of traffic statistics. 

Mr. Fassett called attention to the Committee on Classifi- 
cation of Accounts, consisting of Messrs. Linn, Davies and 
Beardsley, and said this committee had co-operated with 
the commission and would continue to do so. 

R. M. Searle, general manager, Rochester Railway & 
Light Company, said that nine years ago the lighting in- 
terests found it necessary, in order to protect their securi- 
ties, to set up depreciation accounts. It was determined at a 
meeting in New- York City that it would be good practice 
to set aside 10 per cent of gross revenue. The United States 
Supreme Court had admitted the necessity for changes by 

July 3, 1909.] 



public service corporations of rates large enough to provide 
for unforeseen casualties. Real estate frequently was less- 
ened in value. Applying the possibility of similar change 
to the railway it could be imagined that the installation of 
a new car would make necessary the removal of. a bridge 
and no fund would exist to meet the expenditure required 
unless provision had been made for it in advance. With 
scientific acounting there was no reason why a buyer of 
securities in a public service corporation should not go to 
the commission and learn whether the property was well- 
managed and its accounts kept correctly. The commission 
had been saturated steadily with truths by the system of 
accounts. Three years ago the Rochester Railway & Light 
Company was glad to sell its bonds at 92 ; they were now 
101 bid, none offered, on the Rochester Exchange. 

As a security holder Mr. Searle appreciated the wiping 
out of the day of exploitation. That day was gone and 
officials of public utility corporations might as well recog- 
nize it and lift themselves where they belonged and draw 
the better salaries to which their work entitled them. By 
the decision in the case of the Longacre Company, which 
tried to set up in business in New York City as a competi- 
tive plant, and by that of the Buffalo, Rochester & Eastern 
Railroad, which sought to parallel the New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad, the commissions had indicated their 
attitude. These decisions were due to the enormous amount 
of truthful data submitted by the companies to the com- 
missions ; when the commissions analyzed the figures they 
were able to do so intelligently. When the commission 
asked for information it should be given more than it asked. 

Referring to Mr. Linn's conclusion that street railway 
fares had been too low, Mr. Searle said that the same asser- 
tion had been made for the lighting interests. If it had 
been argued all along that the companies had charged 
enough to meet the results of depreciation, they would now 
have funds, the properties would be more valuable and the 
officials would be drawing better salaries. 

Capt. J. W. Hinkley, Jr., Poughkeepsie City & Wappingers 
Falls Electric Railway, asked about the treatment of the 
inquiries and damages reserve. 

C. Loomis Allen, vice-president, Utica & Mohawk Valley 
Railway, asked what effect the estimates would have on the 
monthly and annual reports. Would the reports reflect 
facts or estimates? If the reports reflected only estimates 
did they not give the unscrupulous railway man and the un- 
scrupulous banker a chance to do the very thing that the 
commission was trying to prevent? 

Mr. Linn, replying to the foregoing questions, said that 
depreciation would be charged to maintenance of equip- 
ment and maintenance of way and structures. The object of 
seat car-miles was to show the commission the results, if 
it desired the information, on lines where cars of varying 
seating capacity had been used. All of the companies with 
which Mr. Linn was connected had charged for a number 
of years a certain amount to operating expenses each month 
to cover the estimated expense of injuries and damages 
The reports rendered under the new system were both facts 
and estimates. It was not possible to get at the facts with- 
out estimates. There was nothing in the law to prevent 
companies from making up reports for their own purposes 
from which allowances for depreciation were omitted. The 
heads of departments would need to know for their own 
information what the operating expenses had been inde- 
pendent of any allowance for depreciation. 

Mr. Allen said that assuming that there were men who 
had had experience in electric railways since their incep- 

tion, and had been guided by it, that experience could not 
guide them in the next 10 years. Development of the prop- 
erties had been along lines that had never been known 

Mr. Searle said that during the last 10 days he had en- 
deavored to float securities on a property. He had been 
asked in every instance by the people with whom he talked, 
including one lady, about the allowance for depreciation. 
He had been taught as a child to save for a rainy day. It 
was possible to start a fund modestly and let it grow, and 
when a crash came, as it did come to everyone, the fund 
would help. 

Mr. Allen said the question was as to the best method of 
providing for maintenance of the property. If a fund was 
set aside to take care of renewals or extraordinary main- 
tenance the problem would be solved in that way rather 
than by provision for a theoretical depreciation. 

Mr. Fassett said the action of the association had caused 
a modification of the original plan of the commission touch- 
ing depreciation. He thought that the classification com- 
mittee had a wide field for action and would recommend 
its continuance in order that it might keep in touch with the 
commission for another year. 

The committee was thereupon continued, by vote of the 


The first paper presented at the afternoon session was 
that of N. W. Bolen, superintendent of transportation, Pub- 
lic Service Railway, New Jersey. This paper will be found 
in abstract on page 27 of this issue. 

At the conclusion of the reading of this paper George L. 
Radcliffe, general superintendent, Schenectady Railway 
Company, complimented the author upon the completeness 
with which he had covered the subject. He thought it very 
important that the education should be continuous. Knowl- 
edge acquired only by cramming at the start cannot be re- 
tained. The instructors also should be kept fresh. On a 
large system especially, they tend to get into a rut unless 
care is taken that this should not happen. Mr. Radcliffe 
called attention to the final paragraph of Mr. Bolen's paper 
in regard to fair treatment of the men. This is very im- 
portant and should be begun in the employment department. 
The employment superintendent should be a capable man 
and familiar with human nature, particularly the nature of 
men who make good motormen and conductors. He should 
be able to impress them at the start with the fact that the 
company intends to treat them fairly and squarely, that this 
will continue to be the case as long as a man remains with 
the company and that the company will do all it can to make 
him a good motorman or a good conductor if he has the 
right material in him. 

W. R. W. Griffin, general superintendent of transporta- 
tion, Rochester Railway, said he understood that the paper 
referred entirely to the operation of city lines and he 
thought that in such service it was unnecessary to give a 
man much instruction in mechanical matters. With cars 
running on a 2 minute schedule it would be impossible for 
a motorman to do anything effectual in the repair of a car 
on the road. What the superintendent of transportation 
wanted was for the car to get out of the way. The most 
important things to teach the city employee were the ques- 
tions of operation and of safety. He asked whether the 
inspectors on the Public Service Railway report good work 
on the part of the men as well as bad work. Tie thought 
the positive records as valuable as those of a negative char- 



Mr. Bolen said both kinds of reports were turned in by 
the inspectors. 

W. C. Callaghan, superintendent of city lines, Rochester 
Railway, was opposed to giving the motormen being taught 
too much instruction about mechanical matters. He also 
criticised the term "hammer," used in the paper. He also 
thought that a man should be given more than two times to 
qualify. The best men, he said, often take the longest to 
make good. In Rochester reports of good as well as bad 
actions are turned in. It is also the practice there, after a 
new man has been out two weeks, to bring him in and have 
the inspector or instructor talk over with him the trouble? 
he has had. 

R. E. Danforth, general manager, Public Service Rail- 
way, explained that the word hammer, used in the paper, 
did not mean to "knock" but was intended to convey the 
idea of constant effort. One can hammer up as well as 
hammer down. If good results are to be secured all must 
be encouraged to do their best. Unlimited praise is not 
effective. There must be constant instruction and sugges- 
tion. The men above the trainmen need this more, as a 
rule, than the trainmen, to avoid getting in a rut. He 
thought that the criticisms upon the amount of mechanical 
instruction given the men were based upon a misapprehen- 
sion. This instruction was all covered by what could be 
taught in one or two hours, and that given had proved very 
useful. He had known of men on other roads who could 
not take out a brush, or open a circuit breaker, and who 
knew nothing of what was behind the controller. They 
had simply been taught to turn a handle and that was all. 
He thought the plan of bringing the men in at the end of 
two weeks an excellent idea, which if possible should be 
followed out. Frequent meetings of all departments are 
desirable to keep up the constant efficiency which he advo- 
cated. The general manager can key up the department 
heads by reminding them of the things they may have for- 
gotten. The superintendent of transportation can meet fre- 
quently with and talk to the inspectors and so on down the 
line. The work of the instruction of trainmen begins with 
the instruction of the inspectors. Too many inspectors can- 
not see anything unless it hits them. His suggestion of 
corps efficiency, based upon checking up the work of each 
department by the heads of those departments and of the 
department heads by the general manger did not mean one 
man responsibility. Each individual on the road had his 
duty to perform, but in the last analysis the conduct of a 
large transportation system depends largely upon one man. 
If he is lax, all become careless. 

W. J. Harvie, chief engineer, Utica & Mohawk Valley 
Railway, referred to the importance of instruction of the 
men in mechanical matters. He said that in Syracuse an 
instruction car had recently been fitted up and the older 
men on the system manifested a great interest in it and 
were anxious to take the course which it afforded. Another 
matter to be taught was the cost to the company of injury 
to its property. Too many trainmen have the most hazy 
ideas of the expense caused by an accident to their car or 
its equipment. Another point was to have the instruction 
given in the instruction room duplicate as nearly as possible 
actual operating conditions. He believed that the mechan- 
ical side of instruction to be subordinate in importance to 
...he operating side, but both are necessary. In fact, it is 
practically impossible to teach intelligent men what to do 
in cases of emergency without telling them something about 
the "why and wherefore" of what they are being taught. 
He then asked Mr. Bolen if his rules required the men to 

test the controller, air and sand box before taking a car out. 

Mr. Bolen replied that that was the case with the con- 
troller and air, but not with the sand box, as the Public 
Service Railway Company was now using sand cars instead 

of sand boxes. 

John Cain, superintendent, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester 
Railway, said it was very important to teach a motorman to 
know when the wheels slide, a condition which an experi- 
enced motorman immediately realizes. He did not believe 
a new man should be considered as competent until finally 
approved by the chief inspector. On his road all motor- 
men were instructed to test the controller and the air when 
the car started out, and also after cars had been coupled 

E. E. Peck, general manager, Schenectady Railway, 
thought written examinations desirable, and asked Mr. * 
Bolen if on the Public Service Railway they were given in 
any cases besides those described for the P. A. Y. E. cars. 
Mr. Bolen said they were not. 

E. S. Fassett, general manager, United Railway, Albany, 
called attention to the question of instruction in the opera- 
tion of cars at night. Often a new man is put on a run 
which extends into the evening as a relief and finds the 
service very different from the daylight run which he had 
been accustomed with his instructor. The practice in Al- 
bany is to give instruction in night as well as day operation. 
Another point is to prevent a new man from forgetting 
what he has learned during his period of instruction. When 
the Albany road has a large extra list, the practice is to 
have each new man make at least one run a day after break- 
ing in. By the end of that time he would probably get an 
assignment which would require at least two or three runs 
a week. 

D. M. Beach, attorney, Rochester Railway, advocated 
recognition of good conduct of the men, saying that it en- 
couraged loyalty in service. He thought some sort of 
premium should be given for good records. 

C. Loomis Allen, vice-president, Utica & Mohawk Valley 
Railway, believed that thorough education of the men was 
money well invested. On the original Oneida Railway, the 
trainmen were first employed at work in the shop as- 
sembling equipment. Then they were put on the road for 
30 days running the cars up and down. Then they ran the 
full schedule for seven days without passengers. This train- 
ing cost the road about $360 per man, but it was money well 
spent. The Oneida Railway was a high-speed line and the 
conditions there were somewhat exceptional, so that this 
plan might not often be necessary. 

H. M. Beardsley, secretary and treasurer, Elmira Water, 
Light & Railroad Company, said his company had the merit 
system in use. The motorman and conductor at the head 
of the list for each stated period received a vacation, with 

R. E. Danforth, in answer to a question, said that the 
only premium system in use on the Public Service Railway 
was one which had been in force at Camden. There a mo- 
torman and conductor, after five years' service, were given 
by the company a new suit or overcoat. Since the present 
sliding scale of wages had gone into effect this practice 
had been discontinued. 

W. C. Callaghan, Rochester, said that when the merit 
and demerit system was first introduced at Rochester the 
men paid but little attention to the acquisition of merits. 
Now they realize the importance of helping their records 
by obtaining these good marks by meritorious acts. One 
man on the system has 186 merits, although 10 is the high- 

July 3, 1909.] 



est number that can be earned at one time. The plan un- 
doubtedly is a good thing. 

L. F. Hoffman, general consulting counsel, Public Serv- 
ice Railway, thought the merit and demerit system would be 
inadvisable in some cases, particularly on large roads. One 
great difficulty experienced by the legal department was the 
large number of "no report" cases. These are very dan- 
gerous. He thought that when the men were penalized 
for accidents for which they were responsible the tempta- 
tion was very great to make no report of such an accident. 

W. R. W. Griffin said that in Rochester there had been 
no trouble from this cause. There is a standing rule there 
that if a man fails to make a report of an accident in which 
he has been involved he is discharged. No conductor 
would want to take this chance to save the motorman from 
demerits, and vice versa. 


President Fassett then introduced Ralph R. Rumery, ex- 
pert appraiser, State Board of Tax Commissioners, who 
read the paper published on page 35 of this issue. There 
was no discussion of Mr. Rumery's paper. 


President Fassett then said that he would call for the 
reports on the "Use of Curtains in Car Vestibules," "Sig- 
naling Interurban Cars at Way Stations" and "Carrying 
Musical Instruments on Passenger Cars." Mr. Fassett ex- 
plained that at the quarterly meeting of the association held 
at Schenectady, March 24, 1909, reports had been submit- 
ted on these three subjects, but no definite action had been 
taken by the association. This was due largely to two 
reasons. One was that the association could not compel 
its members to adopt its recommendations. The other was 
that the by-laws of the association did not recognize the 
quarterly meetings, and such action could be taken only 
at the annual meetings. He thought, also, that if the as- 
sociation should adopt recommendations of this character 
the Public Service Commission might conclude that all 
members should abide by them. 

C. Loornis Allen then briefly sketched the history of these 
reports. The committees to investigate them were ap- 
pointed last autumn at the request of Charles R. Barnes, 
expert of the commission, and the commission was anxious 
to get the conclusions of the association on these subjects. 
He made a very strong plea for the adoption of definite 

C. Gordon Reel, Kingston Consolidated Railway, agreed 
with Mr. Allen. 

President Fassett thought that in these matters local con- 
ditions were controlling factors. If the association should 
adopt certain recommendations which were best for one 
road, they might not be the best for another, yet if the as- 
sociation gave them its stamp of approval the Public Serv- 
ice Commission could accept them as the best recognized 
practice of the association. The legal departments would* 
recognize the force of that situation. 


A majority and a minority report were presented by the 
committee on the use of curtains in car vestibules. The 
majority report was presented by W. R. W. Griffin, general 
superintendent, New York State Railways, chairman of 
the committee, and John E. Duffy, superintendent, Syra- 
cuse Rapid Transit Railway. The minority report was 
presented by R. H. Smith, general manager, Albany & Hud- 
son Railroad. The reports were read by Secretary Pardee, 
and state : 


Your committee respectively presents majority and minority 
recommendations. The majority of the committee favors 
the convenience and unrestricted privilege of the passengers, 
and in view of the data submitted there does not seem to be 
any evidence that there is any more danger from accidents in 
having the curtains open than from having them closed, and 
in their opinion, this association should express the opinion 
that the curtains should be left open during the day time so 
that the passengers could have an unobstructed view of the 
road-bed and the surrounding country. 

There is no doubt in the minds of the majority of the com- 
mittee but that the public would be better pleased in enjoying 
this view ahead than by having the curtains closed. 

W. R. W. Griffin, Chairman. 

John E. Duffy. 

minority report 

In presenting a minority report on the use of car curtains in 
the daytime, the undersigned wishes it understood that where 
conditions are right, he is highly in favor of leaving the cur- 
tains open so as to permit passengers to see the track ahead, 
but he does not approve of doing this at the expense of safety, 
which in railroad operation is of first consideration. Condi- 
tions as to road characteristics, type of car, etc., vary so greatly 
among railroads and have such a direct bearing on the use of 
car curtains, that it seems hardly wise to decide either for or 
against the use of curtains in the daytime without at least 
indicating the type of equipment under consideration at the 
time the decision is made. 

There is no question about the practice at the present time, 
as the majority of roads operate with curtains open during the 
daytime. That it is a pleasure to look out the front end of a 
moving car cannot be denied, but the question before this com- 
mittee has been whether, taking all phases of the subject into 
consideration, the desire of the passengers in this respect, to- 
gether with the advantages pointed out by the advocates of this 
method, are sufficient in importance to offset the objections ad- 
vanced from a standpoint of safety. Those who believe in 
keeping the curtains drawn in the daytime are not prompted 
by any desire to detract from the pleasure of the ride, but in 
all cases the object is to promote safety of operation. Those 
not in favor of using curtains in the daytime have argued that, 
in addition to the general desirability of allowing passengers 
to see the country ahead, the motorman being in full view of 
the passengers (when operating on full-width platform) must 
feel the beneficial effect of this supervision and will operate his 
car with greater care ; furthermore, if the motorman has an 
attack of sickness, his condition will be readily noticed. 

Those advocating the use of curtains in the daytime are 
greatly in the minority, but have adopted their practice as a 
result of their general railroad experience applied to the condi- 
tions on their respective lines. Their arguments are that with 
the curtains open, the motorman is subject to the annoyance of 
passengers banging on the door in search of information, and 
that the lighting of matches, moving of newspapers, etc., inside 
of the car further tends to attract his attention from his work 
on account of the reflection caused on the window ahead. It 
may be that such distraction will last but a moment, but good 
fortune cannot always guide the coming of these interruptions. 
Rules cautioning passengers not to attract the attention of the 
motorman can be generally enforced, but in most cases only 
after the act of interruption has occurred. It is human nature 
for the motorman at such times to turn around (if curtains are 
open) when the doors rattle behind him, for the purpose of 
"squelching" his annoyer, if not to answer his query. Timid 
passengers when riding on a single-track road, especially one 
with a generous supply of curves and grades, are inclined, in 
case the curtains are open, to peer out the forward end of 
car and be the first to discover signs of danger either real or 
imaginary. Such people have been known in several instances 
to give an unnecessary alarm, thereby throwing the passengers 
into a state of panic, and a rapid movement on the part of the 
motorman, whether as an emergency measure or an act of 
routine operation, brings a nervous person again into the center 
of the aisle. 

Controller and circuit-breaker troubles when severe are quite 
conducive to panic among passengers, and the undersigned be- 
lieves that the elimination of such occurrences from the sight 
of the passengers in itself goes a long way toward vindicating 
the use of the curtains from a standpoint of safety. This has 
been the experience of the minority, and if similar experiences 
have not been met on other roads, it is very safe to say that 
this situation is the result of a difference in conditions, what- 
ever they may be. 

The conclusions to be reached from the answers received by 
this committee are obvious as far as the general practice at the 
present time is concerned, but it is somewhat difficult to see 
how, in view of the character of these answers, it is possible 
to consistently approve of a general recommendation to operate 
with the curtains open without pointing out the conditions 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

under which such practice would be undesirable. No good' rail- 
road man would knowingly bring about any conditions which 
would be inimical to the safety of passengers. 

In response to the questions as to whether it would add to 
the safety of operation to isolate the motorman from all pos- 
sible chance of interference, 14 of the 17 companies have re- 
plied in the affirmative. Thus, it would seem that a large ma- 
jority of the member companies are in favor of completely 
isolating the motorman, either by the use of a motorman's cab, 
the drawing of the curtains, or by such rules as will prevent 
the passengers from interfering with the motorman, those in 
favor of the cab being in the majority. Nine of the 17 com- 
panies replying do not believe that proper isolation of the 
motorman can be accomplished, if the conditions surrounding 
him are such that he can turn around, look through the glass 
door, and see the actions of any person or persons inside of the 
car ; in other words, over half of those answering do not be- 
lieve, according to these responses, that it is a matter of safe 
operation to have the curtains open. 

In case of an impending collision of cars, the ability of pas- 
sengers to see the track ahead is considered to be an advantage 
by only three of the companies answering, seven being of the 
opinion that such a condition would result in increased personal 
injuries, and seven of the companies expressing themselves as 
being in doubt on this point. Bringing the matter of safety 
into the consideration of this subject, it will be seen that on 
the strength of the answers alone, there is a grave question as 
to the propriety of leaving these curtains open during the day- 
time, and if it is true, as the majority have decided, that the 
safety of the public is best conserved by completely isolating 
the motorman, then it seems that the only consistent recom- 
mendation that can be made is as follows : 

r. That when cabs are used, the portion of the front bulk- 
head not occupied by such cab should be unobstructed by cur- 

2. That when no cabs are used, and the motorman occupies 
the full width of the vestibule, curtains should be drawn during 
the daytime. 

R. H. Smith. 

E. F. Peck, general manager, Schenectady Railway, 
moved the adoption of the majority report. 

Mr. Allen said he did not believe the recommendation of 
the association would act as an order of the commission. 
It would be considered by the commission as evidence of 
the character that would be presented at a formal hearing. 
The point, however, was that the commission had submit- 
ted three questions and asked the association for answers. 
If it was a fact that the members of the association were 
agreed on the recommendation of the majority report he 
did not see why the association should not make a recom- 
mendation as requested by the commission. He believed 
that the commission, before issuing an order on this sub- 
ject, would investigate local conditions governing each case. 

The report of the majority of the committee was then 


A supplementary report was presented by the committee 
on this subject. The committee was composed of J. G. 
Phillips, assistant general manager, Hudson Valley Rail- 
way; S. J. Dill, general manager, Elmira Water, Light & 
Railroad Company, and George L. Radcliffe, general super- 
intendent, Schenectady Railway. The report states : 

A. description of a signal, presented with the supplemen- 
tary report, is as follows: 

The committee on signaling interurban cars at way sta- 
tions begs leave to submit to this association the following 
recommendation, viz : , 

Of the signals now in use for the purpose of signaling inter- 
urban cars at way stations, the one best adapted to that pur- 
pose consists of an enclosed signal located at the station and 
operated by the passenger, and which, when so operated, shows 
a light toward the approaching car. 

This signal was described in our report made in Schenectady 
on March 24, 1909. [See Electric Railway Journal of April 
3. Page 619. — Eds.] 

We do not recommend the use of a semaphore arm with this 
signal, as we believe it impossible to enforce the use of any sig- 
nal by the public except as necessity requires. 

Another signal to be used for this purpose consists of a box 
enclosing five incandescent lamps with a glass disk or lens in 

one or both sides of the box. This box is attached to a pole 
at the stations so that the light, when the connection is made, 
shines through the disks in such a way that it is visible to the 
motorman approaching the station. The signal is lighted by 
means of a rope extending down the pole to within easy reach 
of the platform, this rope being pulled by the passenger when 
he desires to stop the car. The connection by which these 
lights are turned on is weighted so that it shuts off automatically. 
The supplementary report of the committee was adopted. 


Albert Eastman, general express and passenger agent, 
Utica & Mohawk Railway, chairman of the committee 
which considered this subject, read the report. The report 
was signed by Mr. Eastman and C. H. Smith, general 
superintendent, United Traction Company of Albany, and 
is as follows : 

Owing to the fact that the replies received from the various 
electric railways in the State of New York indicated a great 
diversity of opinion as to rules and regulations governing the 
carrying of musical instruments on passenger cars, your com- 
mittee did not feel justified in making any recommendation at 
the Schenectady meeting. 

It now seems desirable that a definite recommendation be 
made, and in considering the matter further we beg to make 
the following report : We believe that to prohibit the carrying 
of musical instruments on passenger cars would cause a great 
inconvenience, especially when no other facilities are offered 
for transportation of such instruments, and in order to regulate 
this traffic the committee begs to make the following recom- 
mendations, namely : 

That large musical instruments be carried on passenger cars 
only on permit, such permits to be issued in books of 10 or 20 
coupons, or a permit to cover one particular movement signed 
by proper officer. These permits to be issued after a release 
has been signed and subject to the rules and regulations of the 
individual companies as to what hours such instruments will 
be carried and on what part of the car. In making this recom- 
mendation we believe the same rule should apply to any large 
or bulky article that passenger desires to carry on a passenger 
car and that cannot be carried on the lap of the passenger. 

Mr. Fassett described the practice of the United Trac- 
tion Company, which requires a release in each case before 
a book of permits is issued. The permits provide that the 
holder shall not attempt to board cars with bulky instru- 
ments during rush hours or at other times of heavy load. 

The report of the committee was then adopted. 

President Fassett appointed the following nominating 
committee, and adjournment was then taken until Wednes- 
day morning: C. Loomis Allen, B. B. Nostrand, R. E. 
Danforth, Joseph K. Choate and C. H. Smith. 


The Wednesday session was called to order by President 
Fassett. The first order of business was the presentation 
of a paper by J. L. Davis on "Latest Improvements in Elec- 
tric Railway Apparatus." This paper will be found on 
page 25 of this issue. After the reading of his paper, Mr. 
Davis said in answer to a question that tests on regenerative 
control with interpole motors had proved very satisfactory. 
He thought there was a future for this system, but it had 
not been commercially perfected. Mr. Davis also briefly 
described the Pennsylvania Railroad side-rod locomotive, 
which he said was designed to make 90 miles an hour. 
Several locomotives were in course of construction and 
would be tested this summer. 

C. D. Eveleth then read his paper on "Latest Develop- 
ments in Electric Railway Apparatus," which will be found 
on page 24 of this issue. At the conclusion of this paper 
he read a short addition on automobile block signals. He 
said that the General Electric Company had developed such 
a signal with track circuit control and that it afforded the 
same high-class protection as the ordinary d.c. steam rail- 
road system. The new method is known as the "two-fre- 
quency" system, and does not require any insulated joints 
or impedance bonds. 

July 3, 1909. J 



W. H. Davies spoke of the lack of unity between the 
Interstate Commerce Commission's classification of accounts 
and that of the New York Public Service Commissions. He 
said that there were differences of opinion concerning the 
course to be followed regarding matters connected with the 
accounts. President Fassett said that this subject would 
be taken up by the committee on classification of accounts. 
In view of the great interest in the subject he suggested 
further that the accounting system be considered at the 
next quarterly meeting of the association. 

During the session, Matthew C. Brush, general manager 
of the Boston Suburban Electric Companies, entered the 
room and was invited by the president to take a chair at 
his table. 

On motion of C. Gordon Reel, a rising vote of thanks was 
extended to President Fassett for his efficient conduct of 
the affairs of the association and the promptness with which 
he acted in changing the location of the convention after the 
Fort William Henry Hotel had been destroyed by fire. Mr. 
Fassett acknowledged his thanks to the executive and enter- 
tainment committees which had assisted him in this work. 

C. Loomis Allen, general manager of the Oneida Rail- 
way Company, Syracuse, then presented the report of the 
nominating committee as follows : President, E. F. Peck, 
general manager of the Schenectady Railway Company. 
Schenectady ; first vice-president, C. Gordon Reel, general 
manager of the Kingston Consolidated Railroad Company. 
Kingston; second vice-president, E. J. Cook, general man- 
ager of the Rochester Railway Company, Rochester. Ex- 
ecutive committee : E. S. Fassett, general manager of the 
United Traction Company, Albany ; J. W. Hinkley, general 
manager, Poughkeepsie City & Wappingers Falls Electric 
Railway Company, Poughkeepsie ; W. H. Collins, general 
superintendent, Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad 
Company, Gloversville; J. K. Choate, president, Oneonta & 
Mohawk Valley Railroad Company, Cooperstown ; secretary, 
J. H. Pardee, operating manager, J. G. White & Company, 
New York; treasurer, H. M. Beardsley, secretary and treas- 
urer, Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company, Elmira. 
All the foregoing were unanimously elected. 

President Peck was then escorted to the chair by Messrs. 
Reel and Choate. He expressed the hope that he would 
have the co-operation of all the delegates in making the 
work of the association a success during the coming year. 

The next annual convention will be held at Rochester. 

The Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania has offered a 
series of prizes for the best design for ornamental poles 
to be used as combination supports for trolley wires and 
electric lights. Designs will be considered based on using 
any desired material for these poles, such as iron, wood 
or concrete, but, as the competition is based on practical 
lines, economy in design will be taken into consideration. 

The poles should be constructed so that wires carried 
in conduits can be brought in at the base and passed through 
to necessary outlets for feed wire connections. This will 
necessitate one or more passages. Provision should be 
made for good foundations and anchorage, so that all 
lateral strain will be taken care of without it being neces- 
sary to furnish outside supports. Each design must be 
accompanied by specifications, estimate of weight, and 
cost based on 100 poles being required. 

The competition is open to the general public and all 
specifications and estimates must be in the hands of the 
committee by noon of July 15. The prizes offered arc: 
First prize, $25; second prize, $15; third prize, $5. 


The fine weather and the picturesque surroundings of 
the Hotel Champlain assisted the entertainment com- 
mittee in providing a very attractive and popular pro- 
gram during the two days' stay at Bluff Point. A num- 
ber of ladies were present and took part in the golf tourna- 
ment which occurred Tuesday morning. The first prize 
was won by Mrs. H. N. Ransom, of Albany, and the second 
prize by Mrs. Fuller, of Springfield, Mass. Mr. Garland, 
of the Ohio Brass Company, had charge of the tournament 
At its conclusion the Fifth Regiment Band, from Pitts- 
burgh, gave a concert on the hotel piazza. On Tuesday 
afternoon an automobile ride was given the ladies by cour- 
tesy of the Lozier Company. 

The great social event of the day, outside the banquet, 
was the ball game at 5 p. m. between the railway men and 
the supply men. The former were captained by E. J. Cook, 
of Rochester, whose side, including substitutes, were Cap- 
tain Hinckley, E. F. Peck, C. Gordon Reel, E. S. Fassett, 
C. Loomis Allen, W. H. Collins, R. E. Danforth, Henry 
Page, George Radcliffe, W. R. W. Griffin, A. E. Reynolds 
and N. W. Bolen. The supply men were under the doughty 
leadership of H. N. Ransom, and consisted of J. B. Smiley, 
C. R. Ellicott, Jr., R. M. Campbell, E. H. Chapin, B. Stan- 
dish, B. Bradfield, C. S. Hawley, W. G. Corey, T. Thomp- 
son, N. Garland, W. M. Wampler, N. W. Grier. The field 
umpire was A. L. Linn, Jr., and the home umpire Major H. 
C. Evans. After a vigorously contested game, in which 
several home runs were made, the score stood 18 to 11 in 
favor of the supply men. 

The annual banquet of the association was held in the 
main dining room of the Hotel Champlain on Tuesday 
night, June 29. The attendance was large, and the speeches 
were listened to with appreciation and enthusiasm. The 
following menu was served : 

Little Neck Clams 
Cream of Chicken a La Reine 
Olives Salted Almonds Radishes 

Boiled Salmon, Mouseline 
Cucumbers Porames Hollandaise 

Sweetbread Croquettes with Peas 
Sirloin of Beef with Green Peppers 
Punch Cardinal 
Broiled Squab on Toast 
Lettuce and Tomato Salad 
Neapolitaine Ice Cream 
Fancy Cakes 

President Fassett introduced J. H. Stedman, of Roches- 
ter, who presided as toastmaster. The speakers were C. S 
Sims, general manager of the Delaware & Hudson Rail- 
road, whose subject was "Railroad Capitalization"; Hon. 
Martin H. Decker, member of the Public Service Commis- 
sion of New York, Second District, who spoke on "Cor- 
poration Advantages Under Comprehensive Regulation" ; 
Howard MacSherry, general counsel, Public Service Rail- 
way, Newark, N. J., whose text was "Our Critics," and 
Rev. H. D. L. Grabin, rector of Trinity Episcopal Church, 
Plattsburg, who spoke in place of Warnick L. Kernan, of 
Utica, who was unable to be present. 

On Wednesday the ladies joined in a bridge whist tour- 
nament in the hotel, and in the afternoon all went to 
Plattsburg to inspect a dress parade of the Fifth Regiment 
of regular infantry stationed there. The party occupied the 
grand stand erected in anticipation of the Champlain cere- 
monies next week, and greatly enjoyed the military dis- 
play, as well as the music of the regimental band. Alto- 
gether, the social festivities, as well as the technical feat- 
ures of the convention, were very successful. 


DISTANCE BETWEEN CENTERS OF TRACKS IN CHICAGO, was put to vote. Charles V. Weston, then a member of the 

board representing the city of Chicago, and Harvey B. 

Ihe distance between centers of tracks and width of cars t-t • ^ ^ ■ r> m j • 

, , .Fleming, representing the Chicago Lity Railway, voted in 

has been the subject of a heated controversy m Chicago c £ , • ■ ,'■ • £ OT/ . t> T 

,'.«-, favor of retaining the dimension of 9 ft. 8V2 in. 13. J. 
during the past three months. On June 23 the committee a , A . • , T v »* , .. ., ^. • 

, . . . , J „ Arnold, chairman, and J. Z. Murphy, representing the Chica- 

on local transportation of the City Council held a public -r, •, n . , £ , • t , 

, , . , * , , 1 go Railways Company, voted for a change m the spacing, 

hearing at which the advocates of both wide and narrow » ,, ,. ,. , , , , 

. , As a result of the tie vote the distance was not changed and 

spacing were heard. George Weston, member of the Board „ . , . , . , , , 

' . all new construction carried on to date has been in accord- 

of Supervising Engineers, presented a written discussion on .., ■ . , - c 

, , . . , . , , . , , . , ance with the original specmcations. 
the subject m which he reviewed the action of the board in ™ .. ,. , , , , , ... . , 

, . J . , 1 he present agitation has been caused by a bill mtro- 

this matter during the first year of its existence and at . , . c , . T • , . c . ■ ■ ,■ , 

, . ° . duced 111 the State Legislature fixing the minimum distance 

other meetings of later date. He also expressed himself , £ , , ■ , , ■ 

. 1 between cars at 3 ft. and a similar ordinance introduced m 

m favor of the narrow spacing now being used m recon- ^, • ^ -1 Tl ^ ■ t 

, , the Chicago City Council. It was this ordinance on which 

structing the surface tracks. ..... . ... ... . , . . 

the public hearing was held. Mr. Weston continued his 

The distance between track centers was one of the first r ■ , , • , £ „ 

...... i . discussion by expressing his personal views- as follows : 

questions taken up for decision by the Board of Super- A ., , , , ■ , ■ j . ■„ ■ « . 

1 . , 1 J * A condition should be maintained that will result m the least 

vising Engineers after its organization and prior to the number of accidents. In order to make the space between 

passage of the rehabilitation ordinances. The decision was tracks safe for a cool-headed, self-possessed man the space 

1 , £ , or/ u -j I t_ j j should be 30 in. to 36 in., and it would be better if it could be 

to adopt 9 ft. 8j/ 2 in. where wide cars were to be used and made 4 g in j am not convinced that the safety would be 

this was incorporated in the ordinances as follows : greater with a 20-in. space between cars than with an 8^-in. 

The distance between track centers may remain as at present, s P ace - A medium or undersized person, at least, would not be 

but in order to accommodate large modern cars and provide crushed to death between cars m a 20-m. space, but it is be- 

for their safe passage, this distance may be at least 9 ft. Sy 2 in. heved b y many people who have studied the subject and who 

between center lines of tracks. are engaged in the business of operating cars on public streets 

m, , £ • ,. , ' , -.1 £ , that a space between cars approaching 20 in. would result in a 

The centers of existing tracks with few exceptions were conditio £ that would invite ^ ople to a seek refuge in that spac6( 

9 ft., 9 ft. 6 in. and 10 ft. Cars 9 ft. wide were being who might be knocked down or fall and be dragged under the 

operated on the o-ft. 6-in. tracks and cars 8 ft. 6 in. wide trucks, and thereby greatly increase the number of crossing 

. . , , ™ . ,. , accidents, 

on tracks with 9-ft. centers. The maximum distance be- This ques tion _is not strictly a technical or engineering ques- 

tween cars was 18 in. and the minimum distance 6 in. tion, and it is impossible to theorize on which condition will 

Mr. Weston called attention to these facts as showing that res , ult in the , ]east number of fatal accidents. _ The crossing 

. & policeman, who is stationed at the busy street intersections to 

the use of narrow spacing was not of recent origin. In July, regulate traffic and to safeguard the pedestrians, and who is in 

1907, the board adopted standard specifications for tracks daily contact with the problem, is competent to pass judgment 

which fixed the distance between centers at 9 ft. 8/ 2 in. and u P on . this subject. I have recently interviewed a number of the 

y ' crossing policemen at intersections where street cars are being 

the work of rehabilitation was actively begun. Shortly operated, and in every instance these men say that if the space 

afterwards a fatal accident occurred to a person caught cannot be made wide enough to be absolutely safe then it 

. . , , . . . should remain as it is. There should be no condition existing 

between cars and the newspapers began a campaign against that WQuld inyite people tQ take refuge Jn an unsafe gpace 

the narrow spacing. B. J. Arnold, chairman of the board, With tracks 10 ft. 2 in. center to center and cars 8 ft. 6 in. 

directed that an investigation be made at once into the wide overall the distance between the overhang of the car and 

. . . . . . . the curb will be practically the same as with a track center of 

practice in other cities. The result of this investigation is Q tt gy 2 in and cars Q tt wide over all, namely, 9 ft. 7% in. in 

shown in the accompanying table. In addition to the data one case, and 9 ft. 8 in. in the other. This distance between car 

and curb is the minimum that should be considered, particularly 

TRACK SPACING AND CAR WIDTHS IN CITIES. upon a business street with a 38-ft. roadway, because with the 

cj ~ S £ ordinary delivery wagon backed up to the curb for loading or 

2 g . % % unloading the space is just sufficient to allow a car to pass; and 

u« "o2 tj £ with a large coal wagon or truck moving parallel with the track 

City and company. vo o" „ ^ v there is just space sufficient for the car to pass and allow some 

■£ ^ £ •£ »> variation in the exact position of the wagon in the space. The 

«'o ~£ 2,3 Chicago Railways Company now have under contract 350 cars 

Q > m m 8 ft. 6 in. wide overall and this new equipment and widened 

Boston El. Ry. Co 9' ^Yi" 8' 6" 70'^ ^'/i" centers on some streets will give an opportunity to study by 

v> * r> 1 c r t 1 a t> c 9 > q'\'i'/'" comparison the net result in accidents to pedestrians. 

Prospect Park & Coney Island Rv. Co. 12 8 2y 2 60 45^2 " ■ 1 u 

Nassau Eiec. Ry. Co 8'ioH" 8' v 2 " 24' 10'A" At a meeting of the Board of Supervising Engineers, held 

Phila. Rapid Transit Company 11' 7" 8'6" 88' 37" fe , . , , r , . . , 

9 ' 2%" 8'6" 34' 8Y2" on June 29, a resolution was adopted fixing the minimum 

Rochester Ry. Co 9'n" S'z" S9'35^"2i" ,. . , . . r , • . j ,u : 

1' 7 " 7'8" 38' n" distance between track centers at 10 ft. 2 in. and the maxi- 

Swauke y e Ele^ ^f&c^:: It' °o" t>P" to' 3 P" mum width of cars to be built hereafter at 8 ft. 6 in. This 

international Railway Company %> £/*» W' H' V"" is in accord with Mr - Arnold's original recommendation. 

9' 0V2" 8'9 r 4" 28' zYi" i ^ 

Denver City Tramway Company 12' o" 8'2" 60' 46" ■ 

-united Railways Company of st. I0 ' °" 34 ' ~" COST OF SPRINKLING STREETS IN DETROIT 

Louis 10' 2" g'o" 36' 14" 

Cincinnati Traction Company 9' 8V2" §'4" 42' 16V2" , . . , , . ~ 

9' 2 / 2 " 8'4" 30' io'/ 2 " Some data on cost of sprinkling tracks in Detroit was 

'Cars of this company that are operated single-ended— that is. turn on published in the ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL of May 22, 
loops, are offset on the trucks from the center lines 2", making an added _ _.„_.„ „ .„ ; n mnnpctinn with rhp rennrt nf F H 

clearance between cars of 4", and making a total space between offset cars I9°9> P a ? e 949» ln Connection Wltn tne repori OI r. n. 

of t8 "- \ MacPherson & Co., accountants, made to the Committee of 

given in this table Mr. Weston cited the practice in New Fifty, which is investigating the street railway situation in 

York City where the standard spacing of tracks is 10 ft. that city. A correction should be made in the heading of 

y 2 in. and the width of the widest cars is 8 ft. 3^ in., which the table showing the cost of sprinkling which appeared 

leaves 21 in. between cars. on the bottom of page 949. The title of this table should 

At a meeting of the board on Aug. 27, 1907, Mr. Arnold read, "Sprinkling Tracks — Showing Number of Tanks of 

recommended that a track center spacing of 10 ft. 2 in. be Water Used, Mileage and Direct Labor Cost, 1904-1908, 

adopted and that the overall width of cars be limited to inclusive." The columns of costs cover the direct labor 

8 ft. 6 in. At a subsequent meeting this recommendation charges only and not the entire cost of sprinkling. 

July 3, 1909.] 




Another stage of the long-drawn-out litigation usually 
referred to as the "Peoria electrolysis case," but by no 
means the final one, was reached on June 22, when Frank 
L. Wean, of Chicago, as special master in chancery, filed 
a second report to the United States Circuit Court for the 
Northern District of Illinois. The complainant in this case 
is the Peoria Waterworks Company and the defendant is 
the Peoria Railway Company. The suit, which has been 
pending in one form or another for perhaps 15 years, arose 
out of the damage to the plaintiff's buried water mains 
alleged to be due to escaping current from the defendant's 
return electric circuit. The master's finding is as follows : 

The evidence offered on this re-reference fails to dis- 
close any method which will completely or substantially 
prevent the injury complained of and all the evidence fails 
to disclose the discovery, since the hearing under the pre- 
vious order of reference, of any new principle or funda- 
mental law, regarding the nature and effect of electric cur- 
rent, or of any new method of preventing the escape of 
such current different in principle from those known at the 
time of the former hearing. In other words, the evidence 
on this reference, taken as a whole, tends to confirm the 
findings stated in this special master's former report. 

The former conclusions, which the master fails to change, 
were published in the Street Railway Journal for June 
22, 1901. In effect they were that the injury complained of 
exists; that it is permanent and continuing; that it is being 
caused by the defendant; that the complainant can do 
nothing to prevent the injury; that the defendant can pre- 
vent it by the use of the double trolley system, which, 
though more expensive to install, is as safe, economical 
and satisfactory in its operation as the single trolley system. 

Objections to the master's report have been filed by the 
defendant's counsel, John P. Wilson, of Chicago, and I. C. 
Pinkney, of Peoria, who contend that many of the findings 
of the master are contrary to the evidence, particularly the 
statement that it is more difficult to prevent the escape of 
current since the former hearing, owing to the increase 
of traffic and the passage of large interurban cars. Cate- 
gorically, findings as to injury to pipes, pitting and the al- 
leged injury to the complainant's distributing system are 
objected to as being contrary to the greater weight of 

The next step in this litigation no doubt will be a motion 
by the complainant's attorneys to have the master's report 
confirmed by the court. Undoubtedly the judge hearing 
that motion will take the case under advisement, and it will 
probably be some time before the court's decision is an- 
nounced. From this decision there is, of course, oppor- 
tunity for appeal by either side. 


Since the announcement by the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way Company that it would accept eight college graduates 
into its employ as apprentices it has received more than 
500 applications. The announcement mentioned was pub- 
lished in the Electric Railway Journal for May 29, 1909. 
Some of the institutions whose graduates are represented 
among those from whom applications have been received 
and the number of applicants are as follows : Cornell Uni- 
versity, 14; Pratt Institute, 17; Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology, 11; College of th'e City of New York, 7; Hebrew 
Institute of Technology, 5; Cooper Union, 9; International 
Correspondence School, 7; West Point, 2; Fordham, 3; 
Yale, 4; Harvard, 3; Purdue, 1 ; Leland Stanford, 2; Brook- 
lyn Polytechnic, 6; Syracuse University, 9; Holy Cross, 2; 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7, and Missouri 
University, 1. 

George Keegan, secretary of the Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, has sent out this week a circular containing ad- 
vance information about the convention arrangements in 
Denver. The text of the circular follows: 

As previously announced, the date for holding the twenty- 
eighth annual convention of the American- Street and Interurban 
Railway Association at Denver, Col., has been changed from 
Oct. 18 to 22, inclusive, to Oct. 4 to 8, inclusive. 

The Manufacturers' Association, which holds an exhibition in 
connection with the street railway convention, has secured for 
exhibit purposes the use of the Auditorium Building, located at 
Fourteenth, Champa and Curtis Streets. This building, together 
with temporary buildings that will be erected immediately ad- 
joining the Auditorium, will provide approximately 45,000 sq. ft. 
of exhibit space exclusive of aisles. 

The executive committee at its last meeting fixed the rate for 
this space at 30 cents per square foot for space in the Audito- 
rium proper and 20 cents per square foot for exhibit space in 
the annex building. These figures include light, electric power, 
and practically all other concessions that went with the space 
at Atlantic City convention last October. Excellent facilities 
will be provided for track exhibits, which can be displayed on 
tracks in the street adjoining the Auditorium. 

The Western Passenger Association, covering the lines be- 
tween Chicago and Denver, and the Eastern Passenger Associa- 
tion, covering the lines between New York and Chicago, will 
soon announce their decision on passenger rates. The change in 
date made it necessary to reopen negotiations with these asso- 

The matter of reduced freight rates is under consideration 
with excellent chances of securing exposition rates on all freight, 
which is full rate from initial point to Denver with free return, 
amounting practically to half rates. 

A circular containing information regarding hotel rates is 
now being prepared by Secretary Swenson of the American 
Association and will be issued within a few days. 

The exhibit committee has had plans drawn showing the lay- 
out of the exhibit space and will forward to all members within 
a few days all detailed information concerning exhibits, together 
with application blank for exhibit space. [The circular, contain- 
ing a plan of the exhibit space, rates and other information, 
which was distributed prematurely to some members last week, 
contained several errors, which are corrected in part above. An 
accurate plan will be mailed as soon as prepared. — Eds.] 

From the amount of enthusiasm displayed by the members 
of the American Association the twenty-eighth annual conven- 
tion promises to be one of the best attended meetings ever held 
and it is hoped that the members of the Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion will do their share to add to the success of the convention. 


The book departments of the McGraw Publishing Com- 
pany and the Hill Publishing Company have consolidated 
under the corporate name of the McGraw-Hill Book Com- 
pany, with offices after July 1 at 239 West Thirty-ninth 
Street, New York. This consolidation brings together two 
of the most active publishers of technical books in the 
country. The new company takes over the book depart- 
ments of both houses with a list of about 250 titles, both 
industrial and college text books, covering all lines of en- 
gineering. It will continue as well the retail, importing 
and jobbing business of the two houses. 

The officers of the new company are : President, John A. 
Hill ; vice-president, James H. McGraw ; treasurer, Edward 
Caldwell ; secretary, Martin M. Foss. 

Mr. Hill is head of the Hill Publishing Company, which 
controls the American Machinist, The Engineering and 
Mining Journal, and Power and the Engineer. Mr. 
McGraw is head of the McGraw Publishing Company, 
which issues the Electrical World, Electric Railway 
Journal and The Engineering Record. Mr. Caldwell has 
been manager of the McGraw Book Department for sev- 
eral years and Mr. Foss manager of the Hill Book De- 
partment. • 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 


A' meeting of the committee on education of the Ameri- 
can Street & Interurban Railway Association was held at 
the offices of the association at 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, 
New York, on June 24. Those present were : Prof. H. H. 
Norris, of Cornell, chairman; Prof. D. C. Jackson, of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Prof. A. S. Richey, 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and R. E. Danforth. On 
April 10 the committee sent out a circular letter in regard 
to the work for the coming year, a copy of which was pub- 
lished in the Electric Railway Journal for May 1, 1909. 
This letter described the two educational plans which the 
committee had in mind, one for the benefit of technical 
graduates who desire to learn the railway business, and the 
other for present employees of the companies who wish to 
increase their knowledge of the technical side of electric 
railways. The replies which have been received to this 
letter indicate that the railway companies as a whole are 
very enthusiastic over both plans. The two plans decided 
upon at the meeting held on June 24 which were recom- 
mended to the association for adoption are similar to those 
outlined in the previous circular, but will embody certain 
changes suggested by the letters already received. 

Some of the smaller companies in their replies indicated 
that they are uncertain whether the plan of the apprentice- 
ship course for technical graduates could be inaugurated on 
their systems. The committee wishes it to be thoroughly 
understood, however, that no company is too small to take 
advantage of this plan, if it desires to do so, and will make 
this point clear in the next circular to be issued within a 
short time. 

The comments made on the second plan of a corre- 
spondence course for the benefit of present employees of 
the companies were also enthusiastic and seemed to indi- 
cate that all of the member companies replying will take 
advantage of this plan. If all of the member companies of 
the association are equally enthusiastic there will be enough 
men to start a new university. 


The Garton "Multi-Vapo-Gap" lightning arrester, made 
by the Lord Electric Company, New York, is of the type 
in which natural cloud conditions are simulated by ar- 
ranging for a large number of vapor gaps which will not 

Car and Station Line Arrester 


permit the passage of dynamic electricity. The body of 
the arrester is a highly hygroscopic mass, which holds 
moisture in suspense in a fixed and definite volume and 
maintains it in a static conductor form only. The hygro- 
scopic mass is hermetically sealed In a porcelain housing. 

It is stated by the manufacturer that the impedance of 
this arrester is virtually nil, because the myriads of moist- 
ure globules, though mechanically separated, are infinitely 
close together, due to the chemical and hygroscopic com- 
position. The multiplicity of vapor gaps eliminates the 
need for an air-gap, which feature, together with the low 
impedance, makes it impossible for static electricity to 
build up on the line. The arrester is provided with a tell- 
tale, which indicates and records the passage of the dis- 
charge. This telltale can also be used to open the circuit, 
which is a valuable feature when testing. The mainte- 
nance of the arrester involves no trouble, as it has no 
moving parts, is electrically indestructible, and contains no 
metal aside from the terminals. The arrester is also free 
from all forms of carbon. 

The block type of this arrester is enclosed in weather- 
proof wooden boxes when made for line or car use. It 
is recommended that for line use the arresters should be 
distributed five to the mile and connected with the same 
maker's "Hydro-Ground" grounding device, described in 
the Electric Railway Journal of June 19. In the case 
of car protection it is suggested that the arrester be con- 
nected directly to the trolley base by a separate conductor 
and the truck or motor body by another conductor. This 
will make the lightning arrester circuit on the car inde- 
pendent of other circuits, and establish a direct path from 
the trolley base to the running rails. 


The Watson-Stillman Company, New York, has just in- 
troduced a reversed cylinder forcing press, which should 
prove a handy tool for pressing bearings and for miscel- 

Reversed Cylinder Press 

laneous work. As will be seen from the illustration, a 
crane bracket and beam extending from one end enables 
the operator to swing a heavy piece of work on to bracket 
shelves extending out from each side of the bottom platen. 
These shelves, 30 in. x 12 in., are detachable, can be lifted 

July 3, 1909.] 



off on jobs where they would be in the way, and are suffi- 
ciently strong to support any work that will go into the 
machine. They will be appreciated by those who have 
had to push castings or parts into place on the ordinary 
small platen. The motor, mounted upon pedestals on top 
of the press, drives the pump shaft through single reduc- 
tion gearing. If desired, a hand or belted drive is fur- 
nished, instead of the motor. On the other end of the 
pump shaft are two eccentrics, each driving one of the 
pistons of a Y^-'ivi. x 2-in. twin pump, for which the pedestal 
legs act as reservoirs. The operating valve is of the single- 
screw stem type, and connected to release the pressure from 
the work when opened and start the ram down when closed. 
It will not retain the pressure unless the motor is stopped 
or the liquid driven through the safety valve. Other types 
of valves may be substituted to meet special conditions. A 
gage is furnished to read in tons or pounds per square inch, 
as desired. 


The American General Engineering Company, New 
York, has just perfected a unique combination tool which 
should find a place in many electric railway shops. In 
this device one foundation framing and bed is used for all 
kinds of coil winding, banding and heading, commutator 
truing and slotting, and miscellaneous grinding. A view 
of the machine is shown in the accompanying illustration. 

A spindle at the rear of the main spindle takes care of 
the armature coil winding, and a spindle on the end of the 
live spindle takes care of the field winding. The lever 

Combination Tool for Coil, Commutator and Grinding 


attachment used in banding work for putting tension on 
the wire is fitted with a fiber shoe to minimize friction 
while there is strain on the arm. The use of this fiber 
shoe allows the operator to move the arm more freely. 

The work on commutators from 4 in. to 20 in. in diam- 
eter is done at the other end of the machine. The feature 
of having the motor on top of the center gives the oppor- 
tunity of tightening or loosening the belt. By means of a 
screw the upper arm shown can be placed in a vertical po- 
sition or at an angle, so that while a commutator is being 
taken out or put in the lathe it will not interfere in any 
way with the crane above the machine. 

The emery wheel spindle is on the slide at the left. By 
substituting for this wheel a plate with a high-speed tool 
attachment, any desired cut can be made on the commu- 
tator. The grinding wheel may then be used to take off 

all tool marks and give a fine finish to the work. The ma- 
chine has also received a commutator slotting device which 
will work on the same slide and drum as that used for 
grinding and commutator truing. 

The commutator slotter and grinder are motor driven, 
and the winding end is belt driven through a new style 
friction clutch, which gives a powerful positive drive. 


During 1908 the steam and electric railroads of the United 
States purchased more than 112,000,000 cross-ties, costing 
at the point of purchase over $56,000,000, an average of 
50 cents a tie, according to statistics just made public by 
the Bureau of Census in co-operation with the United 
States Forest Service. This was some 40,000,000 ties less 
than the quantity purchased in 1907, when the total was 
approximately 153,700,000, the highest ever recorded. The 
decreased purchases in 1908 were, of course, chiefly due to 
the business depression which affected every line of in- 
dustry. This forced most of the roads to purchase only 
the ties which were absolutely essential for renewals, and 
heavily cut down the purchase for new track. In 1908 
only 7,431,000 cross-ties were reported as purchased for 
new track as against 23,557,000 in 1907. Of the total num- 
ber of ties purchased for all purposes the steam roads took 
approximately 94 per cent, leaving about 6 per cent for the 
electric roads. 

It is interesting to note the wide range of woods used 
for cross-ties. The preliminary report by the Census Bu- 
reau lists separately 15 classes or species. Of these the 
oaks are now and have always been by far the most im- 
portant. The oak ties amounted to more than 48,000,000, 
or 43 per cent of the total quantity purchased. Next to 
these ranked the southern yellow pines, with 21,500,000, or 
19 per cent of the total. It will be seen that the oaks and 
southern pines combined furnished nearly three-fourths of 
all the ties bought by the railroad companies last year. 

While the oaks, and particularly the white oaks, have 
always been the preferred woods for cross-ties and still 
form a large proportion of the total, the increasing prices 
demanded for satisfactory oak ties are forcing the com- 
panies to look more and more for substitutes. Many of 
these, when treated, give a longer service than can be se- 
cured from untreated oak ties. Among the woods which 
have been most largely treated so far are the yellow pines, 
particularly loblolly pine, Douglas fir, western pine and 
lodge-pole pine. 

This year's statistics add to the list two kinds of cross- 
ties which previously had not been reported in sufficient 
quantity to justify listing them separately. These are gum 
and beech. The purchases of gum ties in 190S exceeded 
260,000, while but slightly more than 15,000 of them were 
reported in the previous year. Of beech ties, the pur- 
chases in 1908 amounted to nearly 193,000, against but 
little more than 51,000 in 1907. These are woods which 
are distinctly not suitable for cross-ties unless they are 
given preservative treatment. Their increased use, there- 
fore, is one of the many results of the progress of wood 
preservation in the United States. For many years beech 
has been one of the principal cross-tie woods in Europe, 
where its value when given chemical treatment was long 
ago recognized. It is not uncommon for European roads 
to secure from 20 to 30 years' service from beech cross- 
tics. Untreated, they would not last long enough to war- 
rant their use at all. 

4 6 


[Vol. XXXIV. No. I. 


(From Our Regular Correspondent.) 

The fourteenth annual convention of the Incorporated 
Municipal Electrical Association was opened in Manchester 
by a reception and conversazione at the Town Hall by the 
Lord Mayor on the evening of June 21. On June 22 the 
presidential address was delivered by S. L. Pearce. This 
was followed by a paper on "Cheap Units" by A. Sinclair, 
Swansea, and after the discussion the members and friends 
were entertained at luncheon at the Town Hall by the elec- 
tricity committee. In the afternoon the delegates were con- 
ducted to the generating stations. On June 23 the dele- 
gates were taken by special train to Liverpool, where the 
association was welcomed at St. George's Hall by Sir 
Charles Petrie. The following papers were read at Liver- 
pool: "The Influence of Metallic Filament Lamps on the 
Electrical Industry and on Street Lighting," by E. E. Hoad- 
ley, Maidstone, and "Modern Cable Systems," by E. M. 
Hollingsworth, St. Helens. After luncheon the various gen- 
erating stations in Liverpool were visited and the royal 
mail steamship Mauretania was inspected. The meeting on 
June 24 was held at the Municipal School of Technology 
in Manchester, and the following papers were read: "Steam 
Turbines from the User's Point of View," by A. S. Black- 
man, Sunderland, and "Notes on Condensing and Water 
Cooling Plants," by E. Lunn, Huddersfield. On the after- 
noon of June 24 the works of the British Westinghouse 
Company at Trafford Park were visited. June 25 was given 
over largely to a business session, at which a president was 
elected and new members admitted. On the afternoon of 
June 25, however, delegates and visitors were afforded an 
opportunity to visit the station of the Lancashire Electric 
Power Company, Radcliffe, and the various electrical manu- 
facturing plants in the vicinity, and many persons availed 
themselves of the courtesy thus extended, to their personal 

The managers' section of the Municipal Tramways Asso- 
ciation held a successful conference in Newcastle in June. 
Sir Joseph Ellis, chairman of the tramways committee, 
accorded the managers a hearty welcome. Ernest Hatton 
described the Newcastle Tramways in a paper, and Mr. 
McElroy, Manchester, read a paper on the charges for 
energy for traction purposes. A paper on the medical ex- 
amination of motormen and conductors was read by Mr. 
Hamilton, Leeds. Other subjects, such as time meters, 
maintenance of track and the use of transfer tickets were 
considered in papers delivered by Mr. Mozley, Burnley; 
Mr. Rogerson, Halifax, and Mr. Ellis, Cardiff. 

The through service of tram cars between Leeds and 
Bradford has now been established. It will be remembered 
that the two corporations have been experimenting for some 
time with the object of through service in view. The gage 
of the Leeds system is 4 ft. 8 l / 2 in., but the gage of the 
Bradford system is only 4 ft. More than a year ago Mr. 
Spencer, of the Bradford system, invented a sliding sleeve, 
which, when fitted to the axles, enabled cars to pass from 
one system to the other over a stretch of track of tapering 
gage, and two cars so equipped have been in operation for 
a year. 

After various improvements a number of cars were 
equipped with the sliding sleeve and put into permanent 
operation, the Lord Mayor of Leeds driving the first 
decorated car over the boundary into Bradford and the 
Lord Mayor of Bradford driving a decorated car in the 
opposite direction. The fare for the entire journey is to 
be 6d, and, judging by the traffic for the first week, the 
service is going to prove successful. 

At a recent meeting of the City Council of York the re- 
port of the tramways committee recommending the ac- 
ceptance of the tender of Dick, Kerr & Company to con- 
struct and equip the tramway system at a cost of £78,000 
was definitely adopted. The time specified in the contract 
for the construction is 12 months, but arrangements have 
been made with the contractors by which that time is to 
be reduced 'to six months. Certain amendments were 
moved, but finally the report was adopted as a whole, and 
the work will be immediately commenced. With the excep- 
tion of Oxford and one or two other places, there would 
appear to be very little more new work of this kind to be 
done in England. 

Mr. Mallins, the general manager of the Liverpool Tram- 
ways, is having every car on the Liverpool system disin- 
fected twice a day. Hitherto each car has been disinfected 
at night, but during the hot weather Mr. Mallins proposes to 
have each car thoroughly disinfected in the middle of the 
day as well. 

Mr. Mallins has each car swept carefully and the floor 
sprayed with a small quantity of chloride of mercury. The 
operation only occupies a moment or two, and as there is 

no obnoxious odor, it should result in a distinct benefit to 
the^ hygiene of the city at large. 

The City Council of Leeds has recently adopted the report 
of the sub-committee which visited the Continent to con- 
sider the trackless trolley. This report recommends that 
one of the systems inspected should be given a trial, and 
the route to Farnley has been selected for the experiment. 
It is, therefore, extremely probable that Leeds will show the 
way in England for an experiment of this nature. As the 
subject has received considerable attention in Great Britain 
during the last year the experiment will be watched with 

Northampton was the most recent city to send a depu- 
tation to the Continent, and it is understood that this 
deputation has also returned well impressed with the prac- 
ticability of a trackless trolley tramway in outlying 
Northampton. The Edinburgh tramway committee, on the 
other hand, after considering a report of a deputation which 
it sent to the Continent to study the trackless trolley, has 
come to the conclusion that there are not sufficient data to 
warrant an expression on the subject, as the installation of 
the system would involve considerable increase in the cost 
of maintenance of roads and might prove a source of danger 
to the public using the highways. 

The preamble of the bill of the Central London Railway, 
which has been applying to Parliament for an extension of 
its "twopenny tube" at its eastern end from the Bank to 
Liverpool Street, has been amended, as a much more logical 
terminus has been proved by the Parliamentary Committee, 
and it is likely that this work will be proceeded with at once. 
It is interesting to note also that at the inquiry the engineer 
of the Central London Railway gave some information 
about the proposed short subway to connect the Central 
London station at the British Museum with the Holborn 
station of the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton 
tube. It is intended to have a traveling staircase to bridge 
the two hundred or three hundred yards between the plat- 

As stated recently, the North East London Railway has 
revived its scheme for constructing a tube from the Monu- 
ment in the city to Waltham Abbey in the northeastern 
suburbs. The company was incorporated in 1905, but per- 
mission has never been granted by Parliament for financial 
reasons. The scheme, however, is being kept alive, and an 
extension of time for adequately financing the plan has been 

The City of Glasgow, which has always been looked up 
to as the representative city for municipally operated tram- 
ways, shows, during the last fiscal year, a decrease of £18,- 
000 in the gross receipts of its tramway lines. It is argued, 
somewhat naturally, by other cities, that this has been 
caused to a certain extent by the extensive use of halfpenny 
fares in Glasgow. It would appear, however, that this had 
nothing to do with the case, and that the decrease is simply 
based upon the condition of poor trade in that northern 
city, where the shipbuilding industry in particular has been 
extremely slack. The effect of depression in trade on almost 
every tramway in Great Britain has been very pronounced 
during the last year, and Glasgow does not seem to have 
suffered much more seriously than other cities. 

Andrew Nance, general manager of the Belfast Tram- 
ways, has just presented his annual report. Mr. Nance 
states that out of about 80 corporations 24 show an expendi- 
ture of yd. per car mile run, the highest rate shown being 
954d. There is a net profit, after deducting all fixed charges, 
of more than £37,000, and the receipts actually show an in- 
crease of £1,000 over those of the previous year, and work 
out at 9.12 of a penny per car mile run, which compares 
very favorably with preceding years. 

In his Royal Institute lectures Professor Dalby has 
pointed out that the conversion of suburban systems to 
electrical working is equivalent to an increase in the size 
of the stations, claiming that for a journey of 100 miles, at 
50 miles an hour, the steam locomotive is commercially 
more satisfactory, while electric traction should be used if 
the scheduled speed were doubled. 

The London County Council has passed the estimates 
submitted by its highways committee for a further expendi- 
ture of £1,800,000 for further tramway developments in the 
current financial year. The total capital expended and 
authorized is now put at £12,750,000, the expenditure to 
March, 1909, being £9,484,000, leaving approximately £3,- 
250,000 for future expenditure. These figures are exclusive 
of the price of the portion of the London United Tramways 
system which the Council has decided to buy, and also of 
the expenditure for the construction of the lines for which 
Parliamentary sanction is being sought. The above is the 
estimates of the Moderates in the Council. The only criti- 
cism offered by the Progressive party was that still more 
money ought to be spent and that the money ought to be 
spent more rapidly. A. C. S. 

July 3, 1909.] 



News of Electric Railways 

Cleveland Traction Situation 

On June 21 the City Council considered the Tayler ordi- 
nance and finally voted it down. All the adherents of the 
Mayor voted with him to defeat the ordinance. Council- 
men Homer and Walz refused to vote, stating that the 
Tayler ordinance had not received just consideration. 

Acting under a suspension of rules, the City Council on 
the evening of. June 24 gave Herman J. Schmidt rights on 
13 routes as extensions of the Payne Avenue grant, which 
has not yet been voted upon by the residents of the city. 
The extension ordinance received the solid support of the 
administration Councilmen, including Mr. McLain, a Re- 
publican, but was opposed on the floor by Dr. Walz, who 
introduced the Tayler ordinance, and four Republicans, all 
of whom cast their votes against the Schmidt grant. 

Councilmen Horner and Kramer attacked the ordinance 
on the ground that it is invalid, in that it provides for 
extensions of a route on which the franchise has not been 
approved by the people, and which is, in fact, not an ordi- 
nance until such approval is secured, once a petition is 
properly signed asking for a referendum vote. Councilman 
Walz asserted that the ordinance failed to embody the safe- 
guards for the people that are contained in the Tayler 
ordinance and that it is entirely inadequate in its pro- 
visions for city supervision over service and operation. Mr. 
Walz pointed out the omission of many conditions 
that were insisted upon in any ordinance that might be 
passed in the interest of the Cleveland Railway, and asked 
why the administration granted favors in one case that 
were denied in another. These so-called extension grants 
include all but three of the main lines now occupied by the 
Cleveland Railway on the East Side and those on the West 
Side not included in the grants made to the original 3-cent 
companies. They include a provision to the effect that 
transfers shall be given to all other low-fare lines. 

At a meeting of citizens of Cleveland in the library of the 
Chamber of Commerce Building on June 21 a committee 
of 100 was named to oppose the Schmidt franchises in the 
referendum election. Homer McDaniel, who was made 
chairman of the meeting, was selected as chairman of an 
executive committee of seven to conduct the campaign. 
The committee proposes to hold meetings all over the city, 
beginning about July r. Chairman McDaniel spent the 
week beginning June 21 considering the personnel of the 
committee of seven that will have direct charge of the cam- 
paign against the Schmidt ordinance. 

Speaking in a tent located in the heart of the original 
3-cent fare district on the West Side on the evening of 
June 23, Mayor Johnson declared that he could prove from 
the figures in the receivers' hands that 3-cent fares had paid, 
and he challenged any one to debate the question with him. 
He has written Chairman McDaniel of the citizens' com- 
mittee, asking that his men take part in public debates in 
his tent. Mr. McDaniel has replied that he cannot commit 
himself until his committee of seven is named and has time 
to consider the matter. At one of his meetings M. J. 
Gallagher, a member of the committee, stated that if the 
Mayor's challenge is refused he will resign. 

1. P. Lamson, president of the Lamson & Sessions Com- 
pany, has written a letter to the Chamber of Commerce, in 
which he asks that all business men so arrange their affairs 
as to be in the city on the date of the referendum election, 
Aug. 3, and that their vacation schedules, whether they are 
in favor of or opposed to the Schmidt grants, be so fixed 
that their employees may have an opportunity to vote. 

On June 26 the city was flooded with circulars in which 
this question was asked: "What do you think of business 
houses which insist that you shall pay 5 cents carfare when 
you are now riding for 3 cents?" Then followed a list of 
firms on the West Side and on the East Side which are 
represented on the Chamber of Commerce committee of 
100. The fact that these firms are represented on the Cham- 
ber of Commerce committee was noted again after the list 
of firms. The circular was concluded with this advice: 
"Think it over! This is considered by the merchants as an 
attempt by the Mayor at boycott, especially since many of 
the members of the citizens' committee of 100 were called 
up by telephone beforehand and asked if they were going 
to remain on the committee, and if they did not think it 
would hurt their business if they did." The members of the 
commit tec named in this circular and Others said that the 
accusation that they favor a 5-ccnl fare is false; but that 
they do favor the best service that can be given for a fare 
that will cover the cost and yield a lair return on the in- 

Transit Affairs in New York 

Application was made on June 25 to the Board of Esti- 
mate by the Public Service Commission for permission 
to advertise for bids for new subway routes. These new 
lines are, with some minor changes, those planned by the 
Bradley-Gaffney-Steers Company. The commission asked 
to be allowed to advertise for bids for construction alone, 
for equipment and operation in case of construction alone, 
and for construction, equipment and operation and also 
to advertise for offers for the equipment and operation 
of the Brooklyn loop lines and the Fourth Avenue line, 
which are to be constructed by the city. The Bradley- 
Gaffney-Steers Company has made these routes part of 
its proposed system and is ready to contract with the city 
for equipping and operating them. 

Under the suggestions made by the commission in its 
communication to the Board of Estimate it will be possible 
to let contracts for building sections of the road or for 
the entire system as mapped out by the company. It would 
also be possible under this provision for the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company to compete for the Lexington 
Avenue section alone, a route for which it is desirous of 
getting a franchise in order to extend the present subway 
up the East Side of the city. The commission declared: 

"It is to be noted that in considering the proposition of 
'construction alone' this may be undertaken by either mu- 
nicipal funds or by special assessment in whole or in part. 
Under the present law contracts for equipment and opera- 
tion will be under the indeterminate plan as outlined above. 
Contracts for construction, equipment and operation also 
will be under the indeterminate plan, ownership of the road 
being vested in the city. Provision will be made for so- 
liciting bids for and letting an entire system or any part 
thereof to a successful bidder with appropriate provisions 
in the contracts for operating the various routes in con- 
junction with each other and for the apportionment of 
charges and rentals. These are matters which it is im- 
possible to work out at the present time, but must be de- 
veloped and perfected during the preparation of the con- 
tracts. As soon as the commission is advised of your 
wishes in the premises the drafting of the invitations and 
the form of contracts can be commenced. If the commis- 
sion can receive such advices at an early day the work of 
preparing the contracts will be undertaken." 

The matter has been referred to a select committee of 
the board consisting of Comptroller Metz, President Mc- 
Gowan of the Board of Aldermen and Borough Presidents 
Ahearn, Coler and Haffen. 

Mayor McClellan has approved the franchise of the Hud- 
son & Manhattan Railroad passed by the Board of Esti- 
mate recently, this being the final step toward authorizing 
the extension of the road from Sixth Avenue and Thirty- 
fourth Street to the Grand Central Station. W. G. Mc- 
Adoo, president of the company, has stated that work will 
be begun as soon as possible and that trains will be run- 
ning to the Grand Central Station by 191 1. 

In a report submitted to Bridge Commissioner Steven- 
son, Assistant Engineer Lane of the department, who has 
charge of the traffic on the Brooklyn Bridge, says that the 
number of trolley cars and trucks crossing the bridge dur- 
ing May was greater than in any other month since it was 
built. The daily average of trolley cars from 5 to 6 p. m. 
was 324, as against 267 for 1907. 

Judge Lacombe, of the United States Circuit Court, has 
granted the application of the receivers of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway to amend the original order as to their ad- 
ministration of the road. By the judge's ruling, the receiv- 
ers will supplement their present system of accounting by 
making such additions or changes as may be agreed upon 
in writing by all parties interested and approved by the 
court, and all questions as to the manner and form of keep- 
ing their books, on behalf of conflicting interests, are re- 
served for further determination by the court. 

The Public Service Commission will apply to the Board 
of Estimate for $350,000 to build a new subway station on 
the Broadway branch near 190th Street. There is at pres- 
ent no station between 181st Street and Dyckman Street, 
and the population of the district is growing fast. 

The Public Service Commission has announced an 
opinion by Commissioner Maltbie in which the commission 
disapproves the style of wheelguard in use by the Second 
Avenue Railroad and the Fifty-ninth Street line of the 
Central Park, North & East River Railroad. Commissioner 
Maltbie recommends that the cars be equipped with auto- 
matic trip whcelguards such as are now in use on the lines 
of the Third Avenue Railroad. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

Association Meetings 

Central Electric Railway Association, Detroit, Mich., 
Aug. 26. 

Central Electric Accounting Conference, Indianapolis, 
Ind., Sept. 11. 

American Street & Interurban Railway Association and 
affiliated associations, Denver, Col., week commencing 
Oct. 4. 

Colorado Light, Power & Railway Association, Denver, 
Col., during the week of Oct. 11-16. 

Municipal Ownership Defeated in San Francisco. — On 

page 999 of the issue of the Electric Railway Journal 
of May 29, 1909, mention was made of the passage in San 
Francisco of an ordinance to submit to the voters of the 
city a bond issue of $1,950,000 to cover the cost of recon- 
structing the Geary Street, Park & Ocean Railroad and 
extending the line to the Cliff as a municipal enterprise. 
The question was voted upon on June 24, and the proposal 
was defeated. The franchise of the Geary Street, Park & 
Ocean Railroad expired in 1906. 

Suspension of Judgment Asked in St. Louis Case. — Mo- 
tions by attorneys for the United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., 
to transfer the Barrie case, recently affirmed by the Appel- 
late Court, to the Supreme Court of Missouri, and for a 
rehearing, have been overruled by the St. Louis Court of 
Appeals. A motion has been made, however, for suspen- 
sion of judgment pending the decision of the Missouri 
Supreme Court in other cases involving similar points. In 
the case of David Barrie against the United Railways, 
Judge Reynolds held the United Railways Company liable 
for judgments and claims against the St. Louis Transit 
Company, which it absorbed. 

Date Set for the Opening of Lower Hudson River Tunnel. 
— William G. McAdoo, president of the Hudson & Man- 
hattan Railroad, has announced that the company will 
formally open its tunnel between Jersey City and Cortlandt 
Street, New York, on July 19. Special trains for invited 
guests will be run at 10 a. m., and the line will be opened 
to the public at 3 p. m. Preparations are being made fit- 
tingly to celebrate the event in Jersey City, and a program 
is being arranged to include the participation of Governor 
Hughes of New York, Governor Fort of New Jersey, Mayor 
McClellan of New York, Mayor Wittpenn of Jersey City, 
William G. McAdoo, president, and other officers of the 
company in the ceremonies. 

Indiana Tax Board Reduces Taxable Value of Electric 
Railroads. — The Indiana Tax Board has notified the elec- 
tric railways of the State of the assessed value of their 
properties for taxation. Beginning July 6, 12 days will 
be allowed for hearing appeals for a change or modifica- 
tion of the assessments. The board has assessed the elec- 
tric railway property on a valuation of $21,663,001, as 
against $21,666,768 for 1908. The value of the improve- 
ments on electric railways for 1909 is estimated at $994,189. 
while that for 1908 was placed at $934,565, making a net 
gain in the value of improvements over 1908 of $59,624. 
This includes the construction of nearly 10 miles of road 
by the Evansville Terminal Railway and 12 miles by the 
Goshen, South Bend & Chicago Railway. The following 
companies reported increases in mileage: Chicago, Lake 
Shore & South Bend Railway, 59.43 miles; Chicago, South 
Bend & Northern Indiana, 26.17 miles; Evansville & South- 
ern Indiana, 4.3 miles; Indiana Union Traction Company, 
2.21 miles; St. Joseph Traction Company, 1.08 miles; Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 1.12 
miles; Indianapolis Street Railway, .41 mile. 

Use of Boston Common for Subways Questioned. — A 
brief has been filed with the full bench of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Massachusetts by the plaintiffs in the 
case of E. D. Codman and others against the Boston 
Transit Commission, relative to the use of Boston Common 
in connection with the construction of the Boston terminus 
of the Cambridge subway. It is argued that the use of 
the Common "impairs" its service to the inhabitants of the 
city and that the question is one of constitutionality. The 
case may ultimately go to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. In reply the Boston Elevated Railway has 
filed a brief which states that the plaintiffs cannot be heard 
on the question, since the Common is not their property. 
The City of Boston owns the Common subject to legislative 
control, which has often been exercised. The Common 
cannot be exempt from the exercise of the right of emi- 
nent domain. Land devoted to or taken from one public 
use may be appropriated by the Legislature for another. 
A brief is also filed by Corporation Counsel Babson for the 
Boston Transit Commission and one by Contractor Mc- 
Govern, in favor of the proceedings. A feature of the case 
is an effort by the plaintiffs to secure the location of the 

Cambridge subway terminus at Scollay Square instead of 
at Park Street. The full bench, will review the case with 
the expectation of an early decision. 

Electrical Engineering at Cornell University. — At Cor- 
nell University this year the degree of mechanical engineer 
was conferred on more than 225 candidates, including about 
75 who have specialized in electrical engineering. Two 
years ago the electrical course was improved by the addi- 
tion of a junior laboratory course. The present class is 
the first to graduate with this complete course, namely, 
eight hours of required electrical work in the junior year 
and 20 hours in the senior year. This complete course 
comprises (1) a junior laboratory course with one experi- 
ment per week throughout the year; (2) a senior laboratory 
course with two experiments and one recitation per week 
throughout the year; (3) a junior recitation course on the 
elements of electrical engineering with two recitations per 
week throughout the year; (4) a senior recitation course 
on the theory of electric curcuits and machines with two 
recitations per week throughout the year, and (5) a senior 
problem course with two computing periods per week 
throughout the year. Last year these were (1) design of 
electrical machinery; (2) electric power generation and 
distribution; (3) telephone engineering; (4) wireless teleg- 
raphy, and (5) elementary and advanced electric railways. 

Government Suit Against New Haven Railroad Dismissed. 
—On June 24 the Attorney-General of the United States 
directed the dismissal of the Government's suit against the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the Bos- 
ton & Maine Railroad for violating the anti-trust law. In 
explanation of his action the Attorney-General issued a 
statement in which he said: "In view of the fact that the 
suit of the United States now pending against the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the Boston & 
Maine Railroad for a violation of the anti-trust act rests 
almost entirely upon a claim that these companies had 
already consolidated by means of stock ownership, and 
since the community most directly affected is the State of 
Massachusetts, whose laws now expressly authorize such 
consolidation, the Attorney-General has determined to dis- 
miss the Government's action. In that action the further 
complaint was made that the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad had acquired a number of electric rail- 
ways in Massachusetts and adjoining States, and that this 
was a combination in restraint of inter-State commerce. 
Since the Government's suit was determined upon, however, 
the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, in a case 
involving the right of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad to acquire electric railways in Massachusetts, 
has decided that the railroad has no such power, and the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has been part- 
ing with such electric railway properties. Upon this ques- 
tion the Attorney-General is convinced that, whatever may 
have been the merit of the claim when the suit was begun, 
there is not now in this case any such element of com- 
petition in inter-State commerce by reason of such owner- 
ship of electric railways as justifies further prosecution." 

St. Louis League of Electrical Interests. — Capt. Robert 
McCulloch. president and general manager of the United 
Railways, St. Louis, Mo., was elected president of the 
St. Louis League of Electrical Interests at its permanent 
organization a few days ago and Walter Robbins, assistant 
general manager of the Wagner Electric Company, was 
chosen secretary. The executive committee is composed 
of S. A. Hobson, H. H. Humphrey, and F. E. Newbury. 
The meeting was attended by 180 representatives of elec- 
trical interests of St. Louis, including consulting engineers, 
public service corporations, electrical jobbers, electrical 
contractors and electrical manufacturers. Nine members 
of the St. Louis Electrical Club, which was organized 17 
years ago, were made members of the new organization. 
They are Capt. Robert McCulloch, George Rosenthal, H. 
H. Humphrey, F. K. Beardsley, J. F. Gerleman, W. N. 
Mathews, A. S. Partridge, W. A. Layman and E. H. Abadie. 
Following his election as president, Capt. McCulloch an- 
nounced that the hall of the United Railways, at Park and 
Grand Avenues would be made available as a meeting place 
for the club. An executive committee of five members will 
be appointed by President McCulloch. The objects of the 
new league are to encourage cooperation among electrical 
interests of St. Louis; to increase interest among those 
engaged in the commercial, legal, patent, professional and 
financial sides of electrical work; to establish a means by 
which public questions affecting the welfare of St. Louis 
may receive consideration by all the electrical interests of 
the city; to increase the recognition of the electrical in- 
dustry commensurate with its importance; to form a body 
free from the imputation of devotion to special interests 
and to provide educational and social features for its mem- 
bers. The meeting was addressed by Capt. McCulloch, 
Secretary Robbins, C. A. Houts, F. N. Jewett and others. 

July 3, 1909.] 




Massachusetts.— The Massachusetts Legislature of 1909 
adjourned on June 19 with the passage of about 540 acts 
and 145 resolves, about a score of which are of interest to 
electric railways. One of the most important acts passed 
was an amendment to the law authorizing a street railway 
to increase its capital stock or issue bonds. This law re- 
laxes slightly the stringent conditions under which com- 
panies have, heretofore labored in trying to raise money in 
Massachusetts for the reasonable and proper conduct of 
their affairs, and improves the possibilities in the way of 
financing betterments. A specific case of legislation intended 
to surround an operating company with easier conditions of 
financing is illustrated by the law passed to give the Con- 
necticut Valley Street Railway Company the right to issue, 
subject to the approval of the Railroad Commission, bonds 
or notes payable at periods of not over 12 months for the 
purpose of refunding the present funded debt and paying 
other obligations up to the amount of $750,000. In passing 
this law the Legislature thereby recognized some of the 
difficulties which attend the raising of funds by lines oper- 
ated in thinly populated districts, and showed its willing- 
ness reasonably to encourage those in charge of the main- 
tenance of the facilities in the region named. A law was 
passed to change the date when stockholders in railroads 
and street railways may subscribe for new stock, amending 
the previous law by permitting the directors to set the date 
at which each stockholder shall be given written notice of 
the amount of the increase proposed, the number of shares 
or fractions to which the stockholder is entitled to sub- 
scribe, the price and time limit upon the subscription. 

The general law relating to the location of street rail- 
ways was amended by permitting the company desiring a 
location to wait a maximum of 60 instead of 30 days before 
accepting a grant of a location or an alteration in a route 
already granted. The acceptance of such a location previ- 
ously depended upon the vote of the president or a majority 
of the directors of the company. The 1909 amendment 
allows the acceptance to be "executed in accordance with 
the by-laws or a vote of the directors," giving a little 
broader latitude in the legality of acceptances of locations. 
Another section in the 1909 amendment provides that any 
requirement in the general laws of action to be taken or 
instruments to be signed by the president, directors or the 
majority of the directors of a street railway relative to the 
grants, extensions, alterations and revocations of location, 
abolition of grade crossings and rights in State highways 
shall be sufficiently and legally complied with if such action 
is taken by a vote, and if such instrument is executed in 
accordance with, and by the person or persons designated 
in, a vote of the directors at a meeting duly and properly 
held at which a quorum is present. 

In connection with the determination of the taxable value 
of corporate franchises as legally provided for, an amend- 
ment was passed to the effect that "underground conduits, 
wires and pipes laid in public streets, and poles, under- 
ground conduits and pipes, together with the wires thereon 
or therein, laid in or erected upon private property, or in a 
railroad location, by any corporation except street railway 
companies, the value of whose poles, underground con- 
duits and pipes, together with the wires" * * * "for the 
purposes of taxation, shall, like their rails and rights of 
way, be included in and not deducted from the value of 
their corporate franchises." In the case of a street railway 
company, whether or not chartered under the laws of 
Massachusetts, the tax commissioner is required to deduct 
from the franchise value as determined so much of the 
value of the company's capital stock as is proportional to 
the length of that part of its line that lies outside the State, 
if any does; and also the value of its real estate, machinery 
and poles, underground conduits, pipes and wires, subject 
to local taxation within the State. The inclusion of the 
poles in the items to be deducted is a definite relaxation of 
the burdens of taxation, so far as this particular portion of 
the physical plant is concerned in its relation to the com- 
pany's franchise. A general law was passed authorizing all 
street railway, electric railroad and elevated railway com- 
panies within the State to transport military supplies over 
their respective lines subject to the regulation of the Rail- 
road Commission. Another general law was passed en- 
larging the powers of the Railroad Commission so that if 
the board is of the opinion that stations or waiting rooms 
should be relocated it shall in writing inform the company 
of the improvements or changes which it considers neces- 
sary to recommend. 

A number of special acts and resolves were passed, one 
of the most important being a resolve that the Boston 
Transit Commission and the Massachusetts Railroad Com- 
mission, sitting jointly, shall investigate and report to the 
Legislature in January, 1910, whether or not, in their 
opinion, it is advisable, expedient and in the public interest: 

(First) To amend the Boston Elevated-West End consoli- 
dation law of 1908 by providing for a distribution of any of 
the assets of the West End Street Railway among its stock- 
holders, or by changing the terms and conditions of the first 
and second preferred stock to be issued by the Boston 
Elevated Railway. (Second) To authorize the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway to acquire and hold the stock and securities 
of other street or electric railroads; and (third) to authorize 
the Boston Elevated Railway to extend its elevated 
structure from Sullivan Square to Medford. In connection 
with the proposed consolidation of the Boston Elevated and 
the West End systems a resolve was also passed to extend 
the time in which it can take place to Dec. 31, 1910. 

Another matter of importance to be reported upon 
by the joint board at the request of the Legislature is 
the question of future subways, tunnels and elevated rail- 
way lines in Boston. About a dozen petitions and bills 
were introduced at the last session, asking for the construc- 
tion of new rapid transit routes of various degrees of merit, 
ranging from projects which are the logical outcome of 
previous development to schemes of extraordinary concep- 
tion and expense. All these measures were brought before 
the committee on metropolitan affairs and heard at greater 
or less length, so far as time permitted, with the outcome 
that the committee recommended and the General Court 
passed a resolve requiring an investigation and report 
in January, 1910, by the joint board as to the advisability 
of the projects. It was felt that more would be gained by 
studying these transit problems of Boston in a group than 
singly, and for this reason the Legislature also passed a 
resolve directing the joint board to investigate and report 
in January, 1910, upon the advisability of permitting the 
Boston & Eastern Electric Railroad to build a tunnel under 
Boston Harbor and certain subway lines in connection with 
it. A number of measures of minor import were passed, 
including an act to allow the Old Colony Street Railway 
Company to use the tracks of the Fore River Shipbuilding 
Company in Quincy, and an act authorizing the General 
Electric Company to use a portion of the tracks of the 
Pittsfield Electric Street Railway. The East Boston Rail- 
road was authorized to use electricity as a motive power, 
if it so desires, and the term of the Boston Transit Com- 
mission was extended until July, 1911. 

Among the bills which either did not pass or which were 
referred to the next General Court, one of the most impor- 
tant was the bill authorizing the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad to hold the stock of the Berkshire Street 
Railway Company. A measure which was given leave to 
withdraw was a bill to relieve street railways of the burdens 
of the so-called "excise tax" by providing that every com- 
pany should be required, in lieu of any present stipulations 
and conditions, to keep in repair so much of the surface 
material of streets, highways and bridges as is included in 
the portion occupied by its tracks, and in unpaved streets 
a strip 18 in. wide on each side of the track was to have 
been added. Several bills relating to the Boston Elevated 
Railway were given leave to withdraw. One was a measure 
requiring the company to give night transfers on its sys- 
tem at Adams Square or Hanover Street, Boston, and an- 
other was a bill to provide for exits from the elevated struc- 
ture at short distances apart. A third bill which failed to 
pass was a measure permitting the Old Colony Street Rail- 
way to lease its lines in Hyde Park and Dedham to the 
Boston Elevated Railway. A bill to allow the City Council 
of Boston to exact an excise tax as a condition upon the 
granting of franchises to any public or semi-public cor- 
poration was killed. The bill of the Boston, Lowell & 
Lawrence Electric Railroad to secure the right to build ele- 
vated and subway structures in Lowell, Lawrence, Somcr- 
ville and Boston failed to pass, as did the bill to change 
the Boston terminus of the Cambridge subway from Park 
Street to Scollay Square. A bill to create a public-service 
commission to take over the work of the Boston Transit 
Commission and the temporary Metropolitan Improvements 
Commission was defeated. Another bill which failed was 
one imposing a fine or imprisonment upon any seeker for 
a position with a public-service corporation making false 
statements upon a written application. The bill of Mayor 
Hibbard, of Boston, providing that a street railway may be 
assessed three-quarters instead of half the cost of street 
widening in cases where the widening has been done within 
two years of or on account of a track location obtained 
there failed to pass. A bill to extend the time limit from 
one to two years for bringing a suit for damages in case 
of the death of a passenger or non-employee through the 
negligence of a railroad or street railway was killed. Three 
other bills which were short-lived required street railway 
companies to equip their cars with lifting jacks, fenders 
and hot-sand apparatus. The bill to define further Hie pur- 
poses of issuing stock and bonds by street railways was 
referred to the next Legislature. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. f. 

Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Market 

June 29, 1909. 

The recovery in the stock market, which has been in 
progress during the week, continued to-day and there was 
an increase in the volume of trading. Since the beginning 
of the present upward movement the majority of the list 
has recovered more than half of the losses sustained dur- 
ing the reaction of a fortnight ago. Even Amalgamated 
Copper, in spite of the adverse statistical position of the 
copper metal market, has recovered the greater part of its 
loss. Traction shares have been unusually active. Both 
issues of Interborough-Metropolitan have been traded in 
liberally and the preferred has recorded several points ad- 
vance. Third Avenue, while it, too, has been quite active, 
has receded a few points on the announcement of a re- 
organization plan involving an assessment of $25 per share. 

The bond market continues to be strong — large issues 
whenever offered being quickly over-subscribed — and the 
money market shows no signs of stiffening. Quotations 
to-day were: Call, 1% to 2 per cent; 90 days, 2*4 to 2% 
per cent. 

Other Markets 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit continues to be the most 
active traction issue in the 'market of that city, but the price 
has been very well sustained. Union Traction has also been 
active with quotations unchanged. 

In the Chicago market, there has been little trading in 
tractions. Even Kansas City Railway & Light, which has 
heretofore been fairly active, has been out of the market. 
But few lots of City Railway issues have been offered. 

Massachusetts Electric shares have been practically the 
only tractions which have commanded any interest in the 
Boston market during the past week. Prices have recorded 
only fractional changes. 

In the Baltimore market, in addition to the continued 
activity in United Railways bonds, there have been some 
transactions in the stock during the past week. The prices 
have ranged from n$i to 1254. 

Quotations of various traction securities as compared 
with last week follow: 

June 22. June 29. 

American Railways Company a45% a4$¥i 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) a43 39^4 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) a88 a88 

Boston Elevated Railway 128 129 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies *i6 *i6 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) *7i *7i 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common) 10 10 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (preferred) as6 as6 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 77 l A T3V2 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 1st ref. conv. 4s 8634 87^2 

Capital Traction Company, Washington a\34A ai35 

Chicago City Railway aigo ai90 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common) *4 *4 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred) *I4 *I4 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 1 aio9 aio9 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 2 a-3(> 3 A a3§ 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 3 a28 a28 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 4s aio aio 

Cleveland Electric Railway *78 *78 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey syS'A a78^4 

Consolidated Trac. Co. of N. J. 5 per cent bonds 106A aio6'/ 2 

Detroit United Railway a(>2Yi af>2 

General Electric Company 160 161 34 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) a93 ag3 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 88 87 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 16% i6$i 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 45% 50^ 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (4j4s) 78!4 79% 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common) a49 a49 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) a8434 a8434 

Manhattan Railway i43 7 A ai47 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) a ai3!4 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) a68 71 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) : ai7 ai7 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) a$2 aso 

Metropolitan Street Railway a27 a26 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) *iio *iio 

North American Company 83 Ji 82% 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a23 a23 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (prefened) a6g'/2 a6g^4 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) 42}4 a42}4 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) a44 a43 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 29*4 a28 r 4 

Philadelphia Traction Company 91 a9i}4 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent col. notes aiooA aiooA 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs a89 aS&yi 

Seattle Electric Company (common) *I09 *II2 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) 102 *I02 

South Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago a55^2 assVi 

Toledo Railways & Light Company a9 aS l A 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York 26A 2i34 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) 104A I03 5 A 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia 53}i a52j4 

United Railways Inv. Co., San Francisco (common) 3834 339 

United Railways Inv. Co., San Francisco (common) 3834 a39 

United Railways Inv. Co.. San Francisco (preferred) a§2 as&A 

Washington Railway & Electric Company (common) a43 S42 Z A 

Washington Railway & Electric Company (preferred) ago'A ago5<£ 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) 92 92'A 

West End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) 10.5 54 104 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 83^ 85 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Company (1st pref.) ai24 i2i x A 

aAsked. *Last sale. 

Third Avenue Railroad Submits Reorganization Plan 

The committee representing the holders of bonds issued 
under the first consolidated mortgage of the Third Avenue 
Railroad, New York, dated May 15, 1900, has submitted to 
the Public Service Corporation of the First District of New 
York for consideration a plan for the reorganization of the 
company which provides briefly that the company shall issue 
immediately $16,516,600 of refunding mortgage bonds, $32,- 
000,000 of adjustment mortgage 5 per cent accumulative 
bonds and $20,000,000 of stock, the two main purposes being 
to provide upward of $7,000,000 of new money and to give 
the old security holders new securities. 

The plan of reorganization as filed with the commission 
shows that the property covered by the consolidated mort- 
gage of the Third Avenue Railroad is to be purchased by 
the bondholders' committee at a foreclosure sale (unless 
they should decide to proceed without foreclosure and sale) 
and a new company is to be organized under the laws of 
New York, by which the following securities shall be issued 
when approved by the Public Service Commission: $40,000,- 
000 of first refunding mortgage 50-year 4 per cent gold 
bonds, to carry interest from July 1, 1909; $32,000,000 ac- 
cumulative adjustment mortgage gold bonds, to carry inter- 
est from July I, 1909, and $20,000,000 of stock, as previously 

Of the refunding bonds, which are to be redeemable at 105 
per cent and accrued interest on and after July 1, 1914, on 
three months' notice, $5,000,000 is to be delivered to an 
underwriting syndicate to be formed by the committee, and 
of which the members, of the committee may become mem- 
bers; $10,516,800 is to be issued to holders of the present 
consolidated bonds of the Third Avenue Railroad, being 
8 per cent for unpaid interest and 20 per cent on account 
of principal; $11,445,000 is to be reserved to take up the 
underlying bonds; $1,000,000 is to be issued forthwith to 
provide for necessary extension, and $12,038,200 is to be reT 
served for future extensions or improvements, under restric- 
tions to be defined in the mortgage. 

The adjustment bonds are to be cumulative and be en- 
titled to elect a majority of directors until the full interest, 
including accumulations, has been received for five consecu- 
tive years, and are to be redeemable in whole, but not in 
part, at par and accrued interest on any interest date on 
three months' notice by the company. Of the total amount 
$30,048,000 is to be issued to holders of the present consoli- 
dated bonds of the Third Avenue Railroad, being 80 per 
cent of the principal thereof; $1,000,000 is to be delivered to 
the syndicate and $952,000 is to be reserved to take care of 
certain issues of subsidiary companies, any balance to re- 
main in the treasury of the new company. 

The new stock amounting to $20,000,000 is to, be delivered 
to the syndicate and offered to the present stockholders of 
the company who deposit their stock and consent to this 
plan and pay $25 per share, in an amount equal in each case 
to 125 per cent of their present holdings. 

The summary and conclusion of the plan of reorganiza- 
tion as submitted to the Public Service Commission 

"The present Third Avenue Railroad consolidated 4 per 
cent bonds will receive 8 per cent in refunding bonds of the 
new company for the unpaid interest and, on account of 
principal, 20 per cent in refunding bonds of the new com- 
pany, and 80 per cent in adjustment bonds of the new com- 
pany. The present stockholders will receive on the pay- 
ment of $25 per share 125 per cent of their present holdings 
in stock of the new company. The syndicate will receive 
$5,000,000 of new bonds, $1,000,000 of adjustment bonds and 
$20,000,000 of stock, which stock it will offer to the share- 
holders upon payment by them of $25 per share, and in addi- 
tion provide the committee with sufficient cash to pay the 
reorganization expenses and the other cash requirements, 
making a total of $7,500,000. 

"In submitting this plan the- committee has sought to 
make a sound and, so far as may be, permanent organiza- 
tion. Twice within a generation the progress of science has 
necessitated the entire reconstruction of the Third Avenue 
Railroad- — first by installation of - the cable system, and sec- 
ond by electrification, and that process may possibly here- 
after be repeated. Property of this class is also specially 
sensitive to the exercise of taxing powers, and_ it may at 
any time be imperilled by State regulation, and, in addition, 
we have to face the popular delusion that while in all other 
departments of life the purchasing power of a nickel has 
during the last generation nearly been cut in two, and the 
price of everything proportionately raised, the people should 
still have transportation at prices which prevailed in 1870. 
These are considerations which expose street railway prop- 
erties to unusual vicissitudes which demand that the fixed 
charges shall be as light as possible and explain the drastic 
character of the foregoing plan." 

July 3, 1909.] 



Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad, Chicago, 111. — 

Another bill of foreclosure has been filed by the bond- 
holders of the Wisconsin division of the road, ancillary to 
the one filed in Milwaukee. The bills will be considered to- 

Dallas (Tex.) Interurban Electric Railway. — Attorney- 
General Davidson, acting on behalf of the State of Texas, 
has filed suit in the district court at Austin against the 
Dallas Interurban Electric Railway for the appointment of 
a receiver and for the forfeiture of the charter of the com- 
pany on the ground of insolvency. 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York, N. Y. — Judge 
Lacombe of the United States Circuit Court has denied the 
application of the Guaranty Trust Company, New York, for 
permission to appeal to the United States Supreme Court 
from the decree of foreclosure and sale of the Metropolitan 
Street Railway, made on March 18, 1909. 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 
La. — The New Orleans Railway & Light Company has 
listed on the New York Stock Exchange an additional 
$3,866,000 of its general mortgage 4V2 per cent bonds, due 
r 935- This is part of an authorized issue of $30,000,000, and 
a total of $17,509,000 has now been listed on the exchange. 
Of the additional issue, the proceeds of $1,532,000 have been 
devoted to reduction of the company's current liabilities 
and $323,000 to retiring a like amount of four issues of 
underlying bonds. Proceeds of $2,011,000 of the bonds 
were devoted to the capital expenditures of the company, 
which since May 1, 1906, are stated to have amounted to 
$3,314,671. Some of the principal items of the latter are: 
Cars and their equipments, $306,971; power stations, $1,721,- 
527; track extensions, $129,596; track improvements, $462,- 
988, and various electric and gas construction. The balance 
sheet of the company as of Dec. 31, 1908, submitted to the 
New York Stock Exchange, shows assets of $67,696,899 and 
liabilities of $67,696,899. 

Rockford & Interurban Railway, Rockford, 111. — The 
Rockford & Interurban Railway, which has been taken over 
by the Union Railway, Gas & Electric Company, has or- 
ganized as follows: H. D. Walbridge, New York, president; 
Emil G. Schmidt, Springfield, 111., vice-president; T. M. 
Ellis, Rockford, 111., general manager; W. H. Lemon, 
Springfield, 111., secretary; W. F. Woodruff, Rockford, 111., 
treasurer; H. D. Walbridge, Emil G. Schmidt, E. W. Clark, 
W. H. Lemon, W. Partridge and T. M. Ellis, directors. 

Seattle (Wash.) Electric Company. — The directors of the 
Seattle Electric Company have declared a semi-annual divi- 
dend of 3 per cent on the common stock of the company, 
payable on July 15, 1909, to stockholders of record on July 
6, 1909. This is an increase from a 5^2 per cent to a 6 per 
cent annual dividend basis. 

Taunton & Pawtucket Street Railway, Taunton, Mass. — 

Aoplication has been made in the Massachusetts Superior 
Court for a receiver for the Taunton & Pawtucket Street 
Railway on a petition filed by the Federal Trust Company, 
Boston, trustee for $200,000 bonds, for default of interest 
in January. 1909. 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, Chicago, 111. — Hayden, 
Miller & Company, Cleveland, Ohio, offer for subscription 
at a price to yield more than 5.3 per cent the unsold portion 
of a block of $1,000,000 of the first and refunding 5 per cent 
bonds of the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, dated July 
1, 1906, and due July 1, 1946, but subject to call in whole or 
in part at 102 and interest on or before, but not after, July 1, 
191 1. The par value of these bonds is $t,ooo, and interest 
is payable January and July at the Citizens' Savings & Trust 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, or the First National Bank, New 
York. The Northern Trust Company, Chicago, is trustee 
of the mortgage. 

Choctaw Railway & Lighting Company, McAlester, Okla. 
— The Colonial Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago, offers for 
subscription at 93 to yield about 5^ per cent the unsold por- 
tion of $150,000 of 5 per cent gold bonds of the Choctaw 
Railway & Lighting Company, dated March 2, 1908, and 
due March 1, 1938, but redeemable after 1913 at 105. Inter- 
est is payable in May and September at the Colonial Trust 
& Savings Bank, Chicago, the National City Bank, New 
York, and the Mercantile Trust Company, St. Louis. The 
McAlester Trust Company is trustee of the mortgage se- 
curing the bonds. The bonds are of the denomination of 
$500 and $1,000. A circular gives the total capital stock of 
the company at $1,000,000, of which $750,000 is common 
stock and $250,000 preferred stock. There is an authorized 
issue of $1,500,000 of bonds, of which $750,000 has been is- 
sued, this including the $150,000 now offered for subscrip- 
tion. The statement of earnings for the six months ending 
December, 1908, shows that the gross receipts of the com- 
pany were $78,613; net earnings, $30,976; bond interest, $18,- 
750, leaving a surplus of $12,226. 

Traffic and Transportation 

Strike in Pittsburgh 

As a result of an order issued to the union employees 
of the Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways Company at 11 p. m. on 
June 26, they refused to take out their cars on June 27, and 
for two days comparatively few cars were run in Pittsburgh. 
The men said that an agreement made with them in April, 
1909, looking to the readjustment of runs and other mat- 
ters had not been lived up to by the company and demand- 
ed that several employees who had recently been discharged 
for infraction of the company's rules should be reinstated. 
The company refused flatly to accede to these demands, and 
the position of the company in the matter is clearly indi- 
cated in the following statement which it addressed to 
its employees on June 26: 

"Gentlemen — Referring to the present contention be- 
tween you and the company, we are amazed at the stand you 
have taken, considering the nature of the grievances. We 
maintain that we have not failed to abide by the working 
rules of April, 1909. 

"Section No. 1, regarding which you complain, reads: 
'The hours of service will be made as nearly as possible 
equal on the basis of a maximum of 11 hours and a mini- 
mum of 8 hours, with 10 per cent leeway. In case the 
superintendent of transportation can arrange the schedule 
on the basis of a maximum of 10 hours and a minimum of 
8 hours, and completing all swing runs within 14 hours, 
the same shall be done. On this date, April 27, 1909, there 
are 1165 runs, of which 213 are tripper runs of less than 8 
hours. It is believed by the company that fully 50 per cent 
of these short tripper runs can be lengthened by extending 
the time for completing such runs to 16 hours and the com- 
pany will use its best endeavors to so improve these runs 
within 30 days. All men shall have reasonable time to 

"The company promised to use its best efforts to lengthen 
these slu.rt runs and has macie considerable progress in 
this diiection, notwithstanding the fact that additional cars 
have been put in service to comply with the recommenda- 
tions of the State Railroad Commission for the rush hours, 
and to provide for the change in traffic conditions from the 
winter to summer schedules. 

"This question of schedules is a very difficult one, as it 
is often impossible to lengthen one man's run without 
shortening the run of some other man, and since April last 
the superintendent of transportation personally has been 
most of the time engaged in working out schedules, and 
has also had his schedule force doubled in order to arrange 
the runs in such a manner that they would be pleasing to 
you. Your representatives have been asked for suggestions 
— a few of which they have given. 

"There is at every barn of the company a box in which 
irer are requested to place suggestions for the betterment 
of the service, and any man who is dissatisfied with his run 
has the privilege of suggesting a remedy, which will gladly 
be adopted if it does not prove detrimental to the service 
or an inconvenience to the public. 

"As to Sunday runs, referred to in section No. 10, it is 
true that they are longer than week-day runs, the idea 
being that as it takes fewer men to operate the schedule 
with iong runs, it is possible to allow more men to be 
off on Sunday. 

"As to your complaints regarding the treatment of the 
three men: First, this is a case of 18-months' standing and 
had never been brought to the attention of the higher 
officials of the company until about two or three weeks ago. 
Surely the complaint could not have been so very serious 
or it would not have lain dormant so long a time. 

"Second, this ca§e is one in which a man lost six days 
as a punishment for a refusal to assist in raising a blockade 
which was inconveniencing the public. There is considerable 
evidence on both sides of this controversy, and since the 
man had already been reinstated it was only a question of 
the time he had lost. The company desired to sift the 
evidence to the bottom, but when pressed by the repre- 
sentatives of the men for an immediate decision the officials 
of the company could not do otherwise upon the evidence 
before them than uphold the division superintendent who 
entered the complaint. The fact that the man was from 
another division, and that he was unknown to the division 
superintendent other than by the number on his cap, would 
seem to be sufficient proof that the division superintendent 
had good reasons for reporting him, since he could not 
have been prejudiced in the matter. 

"Third, this case is one in which a man was discharged 
for entering, while in company uniform, a public drinking 
place and drinking intoxicants in the form of beer and 
whisky in the presence of one of the inspectors of the 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

company. This discharge is covered by the following 
rule: 'For the betterment of the service and the safety of 
the public, it will from this day be the policy of this com- 
pany to not retain in its employ men who use intoxicating 
liquors or cigarettes, or are in the habit of gambling. While 
it is the privilege of each individual to eat, drink and smoke 
what he pleases, it becomes the duty of this management 
to have in the service only men of sober and temperate 
habits, physically and mentally able to perform the duties 
to which they may be assigned.' 

"A copy of this rule was handed or mailed to each in- 
dividual motorman or conductor at the time of its adoption 
two years ago, the rule being adopted for the safety of the 
public as well as for the benefit of the men. For these 
reasons it is incumbent on the company that the rule be 
strictly enforced. The plea made as to length of service of 
the particular party violating the rule only intensifies the 
gravity of the offense. 

"We feel that our action in the above case is just, and 
that any reasonable board of arbitration would so decide." 

James D. Callery, president of the company, subsequently 
issued a formal statement to the press in which he said 
that everything had been done by the company that was 
possible to satisfy and conciliate the committee representing 
the motormen and conductors. At the conference on June 
25, between the committee and the officials of the company, 
Mr. Callery said that the members of the committee them- 
selves suggested and wrote out a form of arbitration to 
which the officials of the company willingly assented. The 
conference between the company and the representatives 
of the men was then adjourned until 9 a. m. on June 26, 
when the agreement was to have been signed, but the 
representatives of the men did not call until 7 p. m., and 
at that time they positively refused to arbitrate matters 
in accordance with the plan which they themselves had 
suggested at the conference on the previous day. In view 
of this fact, the company announced that beginning on 
Tuesday, June 29, it would be prepared to operate practi- 
cally the full complement of cars. William O. Magee, 
Mayor of Pittsburgh, immediately got into touch with both 
the men and the company in an effort to adjust the diffi- 
culties between them, and it was announced on June 28 
that at 10.30 p. m. he had succeeded in effecting a recon- 
ciliation between the company and its employees, and at 5 
o'clock a. m. on June 29 the men returned to work. 

By the terms of the settlement the number of "short 
runs" are to be reduced 50 per cent; the men withdrew their 
objections to emergency runs; Sunday runs are not to be 
longer than the weekday schedules; a motorman discharged 
on charges of drinking while in uniform is to be reinstated 
pending arbitration ; a conductor suspended on charges of 
refusal to help remove an obstruction to traffic is to be 
paid in full for the time of his suspension, and a conductor 
who lost seniority is to be restored. 

Judicial Opinion Expressed in Evansville Injunction Case 

In making permanent on June 22 the temporary_ in- 
junction secured by the Evansville & Southern Indiana 
Traction Company, Evansville, Ind., restraining its former 
employees from interfering with the orderly management 
of the company, as noted in the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 26, 1909, page 11 78, C. A. De Bruler, judge of the 
Vanderburgh Circuit Court, discussed some very interest- 
ing points, among them the question of whether or not a 
man's business should be considered property, a subject 
which is also considered in an article by President Taft 
in the June issue of McClure's Magazine. The opinion of 
the judge is that the purpose of the strikers and their 
sympathizers is to ruin the business of the plaintiff. He 
said that while the several acts of the strikers and their 
sympathizers might singly be lawful, when taken together 
they are unlawful because of the end in view. The opinion 
may also be said to be notable because of the position 
which the judge assumed in saying that "the defendants are 
not working in the interest of any rival railroad, but are 
seeking, as they themselves proclaimed from the witness 
stand, to destroy the business of the plaintiff, which is as 
much property as houses or land." The opinion is con- 
cluded as follows: 

"It remains to be considered whether the various acts of 
the defendants in inducing the public not to ride on the 
cars, which have been established by the testimony, and in 
good part admitted, and which have been very effective, 
are unlawful and ought to be enjoined. On this subject I 
cannot at all agree with authorities which seem to hold 
that an act lawful in itself, when considered independently 
and without any relation to an unlawful purpose, cannot 
become unlawful because of the unlawful animus which in- 
spires it. I believe it to be true that where the object to be 
attained by a series of acts is distinctly unlawful, that all 

such acts are themselves unlawful, although when separately 
considered as independent acts having no relation to the 
unlawful purpose they may be entirely innocent. 

"Now, in this case, the purpose of the defendants in the 
performance of all the acts complained of, by which in vari- 
ous forms people are induced not to ride on the cars, is not 
only not denied, but is boldly, emphatically avowed. It is 
simply the financial ruin of the plaintiff unless the plaintiff 
will agree to certain conditions demanded by the defend- 
ants. That this purpose is distinctly unlawful, I cannot 
see how any reasonable man can doubt. This is not at all 
a case of legitimate competition in trade. Within certain 
well-defined limits a merchant may lawfully advertise that 
he will sell his goods at a cheaper rate than his rival in 
trade, and he may solicit the public by any sort of legiti- 
mate argument or persuasion not to trade with his com- 
petitor, although he may know that his efforts in this di- 
rection will result in the financial ruin of the other person. 
Even in this case, however, he may easily transgress the 
law and render himself liable to an action. 

"In this case, however, there is no question of compe- 
tition. The defendants are not working in the interests 
of any rival railroad line, but are seeking, as they them- 
selves proclaimed from the witness stand, to destroy the 
business of the plaintiff, which is as much property as 
houses or land, in order to force the plaintiff to accept 
their terms of employment. It is claimed by the defend- 
ants that this is the right of free speech; in my judgment 
it is an utter perversion of that right. No rights are abso- 
lute, and every right, including that of free speech, must be 
exercised within the limits that it does injure another. I 
am thoroughly satisfied from the evidence, and from the 
avowals of the defendants themselves, that they have con- 
spired to ruin the plaintiff's business by driving it by loss 
of revenue to financial ruin, without legal excuse or justifi- 
cation, and that every act done in furtherance of that un- 
lawful purpose is itself unlawful because of the purpose 
which inspired it, although the act itself, considered inde- 
pendently and as unrelated to the conspiracy, might be 
wholly innocent and lawful. 

"It must not be forgotten that the plaintiff is a public 
service corporation, and that it is bound by its franchise to 
run its cars on schedule time, and that the public ought to 
be allowed to travel on the cars without fear of molestation. 
It must be remembered also that even mere inducement or 
persuasion not to travel on the cars may, and usually does, 
convey veiled threats, or an insinuation that it is not safe 
to do so. For these reasons I think that justice can be 
accomplished in this case by overruling defendant's motion 
to dissolve the restraining order and sustaining the motion 
for a temporary injunction in accordance with the terms 
of the restraining order, without modification." 

New Rule Adopted to Govern Excursion Rates in Indiana 

William J. Wood, chairman of the Railroad Commission 
of Indiana, recently made the following recommendation 
to the commission regarding excursion rates, which was 
ratified by the commission on June 16: 

"To the Railroad Commission of Indiana: I beg leave 
to report that the secretary and the tariff clerk having 
called to my attention certain tariffs and to what appears 
to be a continual violation of Subdivision C, Section 13 of 
the Railroad Commission Act, I called a conference of some 
of the carriers interested, and after being fully advised I 
beg leave to report that where excursion rates are made, 
as they are constantly made in this State, publishing rates 
from one point to another point in the State without pro- 
tecting the same or lower rates at intermediate points, there 
seems to be a clear violation of Subdivision C, Section 13 
of the Railroad Commission Act, which provides: 'It shall 
be unjust discrimination for any carrier subject hereto to 
charge or receive any greater compensation in the aggre- 
gate for the transportation of like kinds of property or 
passengers for a shorter than for a longer distance over 
the same line in the same direction, the shorter distance 
being included in the longer.' 

"It will be noted that there are several provisos and 
exceptions, but it is clear that where excursion rates are 
made generally as stated above, none of them comes within 
these provisos or exceptions. However, as the provisions 
of the State giving the commission power, upon applica- 
tion of the carriers, to authorize such carriers to charge less 
for the longer than for the shorter distance, is silent with 
respect as to how and when such application shall be 
made or authority given, and since the statute gives the 
commission power to prescribe rules for conducting the 
business and proceedings of the commission, I recommend 
that our Rule No. 5 be amended by adding thereto the fol- 
lowing: 'Provided that this rule (No. 5) shall not apply to 

July 3, 1909.] 



cases where the carriers desire to make excursion rates, 
less than regular rates, from one point to another point or 
points, and which are not to apply to intermediate shorter 
distances, but in such cases the filing of the rate sheet of 
such rates by the carrier with the commission shall be 
deemed to be an application by the carrier and authority by 
the commission to charge a less rate between such points 
for a longer than for a shorter distance,' unless the com- 
mission shall give notice objecting to or prohibiting such 

Rule 5 as originally adopted by the commission follows: 
"A. Before hearing a petition to be allowed to charge 
less for the long than for short hauls as provided by the 
laws of Indiana, the commission will publish a notice of 
the pendency of the petition in some newspaper in the 
vicinity where the permit is to operate. Such notice will 
be published but a single time, not less than 10 days be- 
fore the hearing. The expense of publication shall be paid 
by the petitioner. Any party interested in the petition may 
appear in person or by counsel and resist the same." 

Accident Report in Pennsylvania for Quarter 

The Railroad Commission of Pennsylvania has issued the 
following report of accidents to children on street railways 
in that State for the quarter ended March 31, 1909: 

Age... 1 to 5. 5 to 7. 7109. 9 to 12. 12 to 15. Total. 

K'd. Inj. K'd. Inj. K'd. Inj. K'd. Inj. K'd. Inj. K'd. Inj. 

Male.. 16 1 10 15 1 12 1 10 5 43 

Female 14 03 02 02 02 113 

Total.. 2 10 1 13 17 1 14 1 12 6 56 

The commission has also issued the following compara- 
tive statement of accidents for the quarter ended March 
31, 1909: 

, January, 1908 , , January, 1909 * 

Killed. Injured. Total. Killed. Injured. Total. 

Employees 10 524 534 28 517 545 

Passengers 2 38 40 1 63 64 

Trespassers 26 23 49 54 58 112 

Others 1 19 20 6 40 46 

, February, 1908 * , February, 1909 , 

Killed. Injured. Total. Killed. Injured. Total. 

Employees 15 574 589 14 395 409 

Passengers 2 47 49 1 39 40 

Trespassers 30 13 43 47 5° 97 

Others 8 23 31 5 13 18 

, March, 1908 ^ , March, 1909 , 

Killed. Injured. Total. Killed. Injured. Total. 

Employees 12 512 524 32 457 489 

Passengers 2 38 40 3 51 54 

Trespassers 27 33 60 43 54 97 

Others 10 9 19 2 26 28 

Total 145 1853 1998 236 1763 1999 

Recommendations Regarding Service in Kansas City 

The Public Utilities Commission of Kansas City, Mo., 
after carefully considering the subject of service furnished 
in Kansas City by the Kansas City Railway & Light Com- 
pany, has issued a report, of which the following is the sub- 
stance : 

"First — The Kansas City Railway & Light Company has 
substantially complied with the request to run more cars 
per hour on the lines designated, but seating capacity is 
diminished. While the increases have not been exactly as 
requested, the requirement has been substantially lived up 
to so far as number of cars per hour is concerned, but not 
as to seating capacity. Carrying capacity has been decreased 
owing to two facts: Some of the new pay-as-you-enter cars 
have smaller seating capacity than the cars they replace, and 
trailers were practically abandoned during the cold weather 
and had not been resumed on May 5 and 7, the dates of 

"Second — The increased number of cars put on has not 
increased traffic congestion so as to interfere with the 

"Third — The additional cars have improved the frequency 
of the service, which is now much beyond the requirements 
of the peace agreement. 

"Fourth — It is recommended that the service be regulated 
by special ordinance from time to time, as with the growth 
of the city any ordinance will be speedily outgrown. The 
company has met the request for new cars and has shown 
a disposition to increase service when required by putting 
on certain cars on lines where no request was made. It 
should be borne in mind that in comparing the results of 
May, 1909, with those of August, 1908, comparison is made 
between a date when there was no park traffic and a date 
when this was at its heaviest. 

"Fifth — It is recommended that the company be requested 
not only to continue the increased cars in use, but to further 

increase seating capacity, which can best be effected by the 
use of trailers. It is recommended that trailers be increased 
on all lines where this can be done without danger to an 
extent of 50 per cent of cars run between the hours of 5 
p. m. and 7 p. m., and 33 1-3 per cent between the hours of 
6 a. m. and 8 a. m." 

Accident at Wilmington. — In a collision between two cars 
on the Claymont line of the Wilmington (Del.) City Rail- 
way on June 24 more than 30 persons were injured. 

Sunday Cars in Edmonton. — The ratepayers of Edmon- 
ton, Alberta, Canada, have voted to operate the Edmonton 
Radial Railway on Sunday. The line connects Edmonton 
and Strathcona and is a municipal undertaking. 

Whistles and Arc Headlights in South Bend. — The City 
Council of South Bend, Ind., has passed an ordinance pro- 
hibiting the sounding of whistles on interurban cars in 
South Bend, and has also passed an ordinance requiring 
electric railways operating in South Bend to dim the arc 
headlights of their cars within the city. 

Accidents in Philadelphia. — The Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid 
Transit Company reports that out of 120,000,000 passengers 
carried in Philadelphia in the quarter ended March 31, 
1909, only one was killed and 116 hurt. Carrying about 
half as many passengers as all the traction companies of 
the State, only 21 per cent of the fatalities of all kinds 
occurred on the lines of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company — eight out of a total of 37. Of the total of 763 
injured on all lines, 230 accidents occurred on the lines of 
the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. 

Harrisburg Company Answers Request for Fare Reduc- 
tion. — In answer to the petition of residents of Rockville, 
Lucknow and Feldheim for a reduction of fare on the Fort 
Hunter line of the Central Pennsylvania Traction Com- 
pany from 10 cents to 5 cents, the ofncia-ls of the company 
state that the line has never been self-sustaining; that the 
company has not paid its stockholders dividends for years, 
and point to the returns annually made to the city by the 
company on the basis of 3 per cent of the gross receipts, 
which showed a decrease from $17,568.15 in 1907 to $17,- 
307.59 in 1908. 

Warning Against Accident Faker. — B. B. Davis, secretary 
of the American Street & Interurban Railway Claim 
Agents' Association, has warned all claim agents to watch 
for George Ferkel, 35 years old, a tinner by occupation, 
who claims Salem, W. Va., as his home. Ferkel is said to 
have collected $20 from the Cincinnati Traction Company 
on June 5, alleging injury to an old hernia due to sudden 
starting of a car. On June 21 he made a similar claim 
against the East St. Louis & Suburban Railway. He was 
arrested and placed in jail in East St. Louis, charged with 
attempting to obtain money under false pretenses. 

Indiana Commission Recommends Posting of Red Cross 
Rules. — The Railroad Commission of Indiana has requested 
that the placards of the American Red Cross Society which 
contain rules to be observed to avoid accidents be posted 
in all steam railroad and electric railway waiting rooms in 
Indiana. The rules of the society follow: "Never cross a 
railroad at grade crossing before making sure that no trains 
are approaching. Never stand on the platform of a_ car 
which is in motion. Never jump from a car which is in 
motion. Never cross a track in front of a standing train 
before making sure that there is no danger from some 
other train, or cause. Never disregard the cautionary rules 
for safety posted at stations, crossings, etc. Never forget 
that carelessness on your part concerning these precautions 
endangers your own life and the happiness and welfare of 
those near and dear to you.' 

Instructing Chicago Trainmen in the Law of Negligence. 
— An important step in the education of trainmen has been 
taken by the Chicago (111.) Railways in issuing a primer 
which gives the gist of a wide variety of court decisions 
relating to the law of negligence in stfeet railway cases. 
This book is the work of Twyman O. Abbott, who has 
succeeded in presenting the subject in 115 paragraphs, most 
of which contain only from 50 to 75 words. The primer 
has been distributed to all the conductors and motormen of 
the company and is also given to students for car positions. 
Among the subjects treated are the following: Negligence 
in Law; Contributory Negligence; Gross Negligence; Proxi- 
mate Cause; Right to Use of Highway; Distinction Between 
Car and Other Vehicles; Rights of Public on Highway; 
Effect of Failure to Keep Sharp Lookout; Duty to Sound 
Warnings Not Affected by Custom; Improper Starting and 
Stopping of Cars; Overloading and Overcrowding; News- 
boys; Transfer; and Rights of Children on the Highway. 

Adoption of Standard Classification of Accounts Ordered 
in Vermont. — As the result of the hearing before the Pub- 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

lie Service Commission of Vermont at Montpelier on May 
28 to permit the electric railways of the State to show 
cause why a general order should not be issued by the 
commission to take effect July 1, 1909, requiring the elec- 
tric railways in Vermont to adopt the uniform system of 
accounts prescribed by the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion on June 1, 1908, the Public Service Commission of 
Vermont issued the following order under date of June 
16, 1909: "Beginning with July 1, 1909, and thereafter until 
further order of this commission, each of the corporations 
operating electric railways within this State is hereby 
ordered to adopt and use the uniform system of accounts 
prescribed for electric railways by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission on June 1, 1908, and which is fully described 
in the classifications then issued by said commission, which 
are described in the notice above recited, and a copy of 
which has been furnished by this commission to each of 
said corporations." 

Hearing on Methuen Fares. — The Massachusetts Railroad 
Commission gave a hearing on June 25 on the petition of 
the Selectmen of Methuen asking for a reduction in the 
fare from 10 cents to 5 cents on the Lawrence-Dracut line 
of the Boston & Northern Street Railway between the 
Broadway-Essex Street transfer station in Lawrence and 
the Methuen-Dracut town line. Selectmen Rushton, Harris 
and Hardy represented the town and Bentley W. Warren 
the company. The principal issue was the existence of a 
fare limit at the entrance of the company's private right- 
of-way about 7000 ft. east of the Methuen-Dracut line. The 
petitioners contended that the limit should be extended to 
the above municipal line. Mr. Warren stated that the com- 
pany cannot afford to carry passengers any further on the 
Methuen-Dracut line for 5 cents than at present, as the 
fare covers a ride of about 4.25 miles, a rate of 1.25 cents 
per mile. The issue is simply the charging of a fare suffi- 
cient to pay all the costs of operation and a reasonable re- 
turn on the investment. The district between the Dracut- 
Methuen line and the beginning of the private right-of-way 
east of it is populated mainly by campers who, as a rule, 
live in the territory only in the summer. If the fare were 
reduced the tendency would be to cut the fare between 
Lowell and Lawrence from 15 cents to 10 cents, cutting 
down the revenue 50 per cent. The 15-cent fare between 
Lowell and Lawrence applies to any part of each city in 
relation to the other. The petitioners desire to cut out a 
complete fare zone in the through service. Chairman Hall 
stated that in this case the issue is the reasonableness of 
the fare with the whole traveling public's interests in mind, 
taking into account the influence of the disputed zone in the 
through fare between Lowell and Lawrence. The com- 
mission has taken the case under advisement. 

"Look Out for the Little Ones." — Under this heading the 
United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., is 
running accident bulletin No. 11 in the daily newspapers in 
Baltimore. The bulletin follows: "Modern conditions and 
the great growth in population of the city make quick com- 
munication between the suburbs and the various sections 
of the city essential and it is the business of a rapid transit 
company to supply this need. Last year the street cars 
of Baltimore carried approximately 550,000 people and 
traveled about 75,000 miles a day through the city and 
suburbs, and it is evident that it is impossible to avoid 
some accidents in transporting so many people such a 
distance through crowded thoroughfares. Accidents are 
bound to happen, as the price modern civilization pays for 
rapid transit, but especially in hot weather, when the streets 
are crowded, there are more apt to occur those very dis- 
tressing accidents to young, thoughtless children, who run 
suddenly on the track, and it is the purpose of this bulletin 
to try to point out some way of avoiding this particular 
kind of accident. We want to do all we can to lessen the 
danger of injury to people on the street, and we feel that 
the best results can only be obtained by hearty cooperation 
on the part of Baltimore fathers and mothers with our 
efforts to avoid accidents of a kind so distressing to every- 
body, and we think that the following suggestions, if fol- 
lowed, will have a very good effect: (1) Teach the children 
to have a healthy fear of the car tracks and always to avoid 
them. (2) Whenever possible see that some older member 
of the family has a watchful eye on them. (3) As a sure 
preventive, have your children play on streets where there 
are no car tracks. There are plenty of such streets and 
they furnish an infinitely safer playground. Our motor- 
men are not heartless machines on the front platforms, 
but are for the most part married men, with children of 
their own, and they all exert every effort to avoid injury; 
what we ask of the Baltimore parents is to cooperate with 
us in attempting to avoid accidents, and to use all the care 
possible beforehand in order to prevent something that 
would be a cause of regret to all concerned." 

Personal Mention 

Mr. Joseph Pequegnat has been elected secretary of the 
Cuelph (Ont.) Radial Railway to succeed Mr. Robert 

Mr. John A. Rivers has been appointed superintendent 
of the Los Angeles & Mt. Washington Incline Railway, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Mr. Charles F. Whitlock has been appointed auditor of 
the Johnson City (Tenn.) Traction Company to succeed 
Mr. Virgil Slaughter. 

Mr. Raymond E. Preble has been elected treasurer of 
the Salisbury & Spencer Railway, Salisbury, Mich., to suc- 
ceed Mr. Dwight Smith. 

Mr. D. G. Trayers has been elected president of the Nor- 
wood, Canton & Sharon Street Railway, Sharon, Mass., to 
succeed Mr. William O. Faxon. 

Mr. A. K. MacCarthy has been appointed general man- 
ager and purchasing agent of the Levis County Railway, 
Levis, Que., to succeed Mr. H. H. Morse. 

Mr. Byron Trimble has been elected secretary of the 
Pittsburgh, McKeesport & Greensburg Railway, Greens- 
burg, Pa., to succeed Mr. C. W. Scheck. 

Mr. Harlan Sperry has been appointed chief engineer of 
the Warren, Cortland & Jefferson Traction Company, Cort- 
land, N. Y., to succeed Mr. George H. Switzer. 

Mr. D. J. Collins has been elected secretary of the Roan- 
oke Railway & Electric Company, Roanoke, Va., to succeed 
Mr. F. H. Shelton, who retains the office of treasurer. 

Mr. N. C. Richards has been appointed general manager 
of the Yakima Valley Transportation Company, North 
Yakima, Wash., to succeed Mr. George S. Rankin, resigned. 

Mr. A. A. Crawford has been appointed chief engineer, 
electrical engineer and master mechanic of the Youngstown 
& Ohio River Railroad, Leetonia, Ohio, to succeed Mr. A. 
McManemy as engineer and Mr. Sidney Selby as master 

Mr. John Rock, Jr., has been elected secretary of the 
Grafton (W. Va.) Street Railway to succeed Mr. T. A. 
Devensy, and Mr. L. C. Louden has been appointed master 
mechanic of the company to succeed Mr. J. W. King. 

Mr. D. F. McGee has been elected secretary of the 
Astoria (Ore.) Electric Company, and Mr. A. E. Smith has 
been elected treasurer of the company to succeed Mr. C. N. 
Huggins, who formerly acted as secretary and treasurer. 

Mr. I. L. Oppenheimer, superintendent of the Ohio River 
Electric Railway & Power Company, Pomeroy. Ohio, has 
been appointed general superintendent of the Lexington 
& Interurban Railway, Lexington, Ky., to succeed to the 
duties performed by Mr. John B. Crawford as general man- 
ager of that company. 

Mr. A. A. Churchill has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Jersey Central Traction Company, Keyport, N. J., to 
succeed Mr. A. S. Flatland, who resigned some time ago. 
Mr. Churchill was connected with the Salem Light & Trac- 
tion Company, Salem, Ore., for a number of years and later 
was connected with the Oregon Water Power & Railway 
Company, Portland, Ore. 

Mr. W. R. Putnam has been appointed superintendent 
and park manager of the Menominee & Marinette Light & 
Traction Company, Marinette, Wis. Mr. Putnam was 
graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1897. After 
two years of banking experience, he accepted a position as 
manager of the Red Wing Gas & Electric Company, Red 
Wing, Minn., and remained with this company and its 
successors, the Red Wing Gas, Light & Power Company, 
from May 1, 1899, until recently, when he accepted the ap- 
pointment of superintendent of the Menominee & Marinette 
Light & Traction Company, in charge of its gas, electric 
and street railway departments. 

Mr. James B. Noyes has been appointed a member of the 
Boston Transit Commission by Mayor Hibbard, of Boston, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Thomas J. Gar- 
gan. Mr. Noyes is about 40 years of age. He was born 
in Canton, Mass.. and was educated at the Canton High 
School, Chauncy Hall School and Harvard. He served four 
years as secretary to Congressman Elijah A. Morse, and 
for a short time was connected with the Boston Herald. 
For a number of years he has been a member of the firm 
of Curtis & Cameron, publishers of the Copley prints. On 
March 18, 1908, Mr. Noyes was appointed by Mayor Hib- 
bard to succeed Mr. Charles Logue as a Schoolhouse Com- 

Mr. John Harrington, whose appointment as superinten- 
dent of Division 7 of the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway 

July 3, 1909.] 



was noted on page 1180 of the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 26, 1909, to succeed John J. Horgan, deceased, has 
been connected with the Boston Elevated Railway and the 
West End Street Railway, Boston, since 1886, in which 
year he entered the employ of the latter company as ,a con- 
ductor. In 1893 Mr. Harrington was appointed starter at 
the North Cambridge station, and in 1895 he was made 
chief inspector of the Cambridge division, a position which 
in rank is next to that of superintendent. Mr. Harrington, 
although he has been connected with the company nearly 
25 years, is only 44 years old. 

Mr. F. M. Lott has been appointed inspector of the rolling 
stock for the Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneap- 
olis, Minn. Mr. Lott has for many years been connected 
with the street car and the electric railway industries. He 
entered the employ of the electrical department of the J. G. 
Brill Company in 1892 and remained with that company 
until 1898, when he was appointed to take charge of the elec- 
trical department of the Jackson & Sharp Car Company, 
Wilmington, Del. When the Jackson & Sharp Car Com- 
pany and American Car & Foundry Company were consol- 
idated in 1901 Mr. Lott re-entered the employ of J. G. Brill 
Company as assistant to Mr. T. D. Shipper, electrical en- 
gineer of the company. In 1905 Mr. Lott was appointed 
chief wireman of the southern division of the Public Service 
Corporation at Camden, N. J., but resigned from this com- 
pany in 1908 to become master mechanic of the Green Bay 
(Wis.) Traction Company. 

Mr. John B. Crawford, general manager of the Lexington 
& Interurban Railway, Lexington, Ky., has been appointed 
general superintendent of the Fort Wayne & Wabash 
Valley Traction Company, Fort Wayne, Ind. Mr. Craw- 
ford was general manager of the Lexington & Interurban 
Railway for a year and a half, and before that was super- 
intendent of transportation of the Fort Wayne & Wabash 
Valley Traction Company. He is 33 years of age and has 
been connected with railway work for about 15 years. Mr. 
Crawford's first street railway work was in Hartford, Conn., 
in connection with the electrification of the Hartford Street 
Railway. Subsequently he took the electrical course in 
the testing department of the General Electric Company 
and then entered the power field as assistant superinten- 
dent of the Conductor Power Company, which was engaged 
in constructing a transmission line for power and lighting 
service on the Pacific Coast at the time Mr. Crawford en- 
tered its employ. Returning to the East, Mr. Crawford 
accepted the position of general superintendent of the 
Groton & Stonington Street Railroad, New London, Conn., 
from which he resigned to become connected with the Fort 
Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company. 

Mr. B. R. Stephens, who recently resigned as general 
traffic manager of the Illinois Traction System, Champaign, 
111., was tendered a banquet by 45 members of the traffic 
department of the company at the Leland Hotel, Spring- 
field, 111., on the evening of June 24, and was presented a 
loving cup as a memento from his associates. Among 
those present were the following: Mr. William B. McKin- 
ley, Champaign; Mr. A. S. Hagen, Lincoln; Mr. C. M. 
Otwelland and Mr. F. H. Colver, Carlinville; Mr. F. H. 
Richmond, Mr. J. S. Wellman, v Mr. B. E. Tabler, Mr. K. J. 
McCorkle and Mr. S. McFarland, East St. Louis; Mr. Fred 
Swanson, Champaign; Mr. E. Williamson, Auburn; Mr. A. 
R. Drennan and Mr. F. B. Hawse, Bloomington; Mr. E. E. 
Hoyt, Clinton; Mr. C. C. Hurin, Decatur, Mr. R. S. Drum, 
Girard; Mr. H. F. Leverenz, Staunton; Mr. S. K. Holland 
and Mr. John Cady, Peoria, and Mr. S. J. Kelly, Mr. V. C. 
Gourley, Mr. H. H. Hanselman, Mr. C. H. Castle, Mr., A. 
R. Willard, Mr. Edward McKee, Mr. A. F. McCoy, Mr. B. 
R. Ongley, Mr. G. F. Ostermeier, Mr. Elliott Reddick, Mr. 
J. H. Ryan, Mr. R. R. Scott, Mr. G. J. Stelte, Mr. J. D. 
White, Mr. R. E. Wright, Mr. J. Williamson, Mr. R. Wil- 
liamson, Mr. F. E. Webster, Mr. T. T. Thompson and Mr. 
-M. W. Thompson, Springfield, and Mr. B. R. Stephens, the 
guest of honor. 

Mr. W. E. Barlow was recently appointed master me- 
chanic of the Easton (Pa.) Transit Company to succeed 
Mr. Charles F. Roberts. Mr. Barlow was born at Gabon, 
Ohio, Oct. 22, 1873, and attended the public school there 
until January, 1888, when his parents moved to Philadel- 
phia. He then entered the Philadelphia Manual Training 
School and was graduated from that institution in 1892. In 
1894 he was graduated from the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy and in March, 1896, was graduated from the elec- 
trical department of the Drexel Institute of Science. He en- 
tered the employ of the Philadelphia & West Chester Trac- 
tion Company on April I, 1896, as the electrician in charge 
of cars and lines, and was later promoted to master me- 
chanic and in 1898 was appointed assistant superintendent 
of the company. In February, 1900, Mr. Barlow accepted 
the position of general superintendent and master mechanic 
of the Lewiston & Recdsville Electric Railway, Lcwiston, 

Pa., but resigned from that company on July 1, 1903, on 
account of ill health. He was employed from 1903 to 1905 
in the line and cable department of the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company under Mr. F. H. Lincoln. For a year Mr. 
Barlow was associated with his brother, Dr. Lewis E. Bar- 
low, as a druggist, and from 1906 until quite recently he had 
charge of the electrical construction for the Keller-Pike 
Company, electrical engineers and contractors, Philadelphia. 


James B. McCance, treasurer of the Southern Michigan 
Railway, South Bend, Ind., is dead. Mr. McCance became 
connected with the Southern Michigan Railway at the time 
of the reorganization of the Northern Indiana Railway in 
1899, and served at first as head of the clerical forces of the 
two companies. A year later he was made auditor and 
treasurer of the companies and retained these positions 
until the separation of the two companies in January, 1907, 
when he was appointed treasurer of the Southern Michigan 
Railway. Mr. McCance was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1867. 

Patrick H. Dolan, superintendent of the Pittsfield (Mass.) 
Electric Street Railway, and a director of that company 
and also a director of the Berkshire Loan & Trust Com- 
pany, Pittsfield, died at the home of his brother, Mr. Peter 
C. Dolan, president of the Pittsfield Electric Street Rail- 
way, on June 25. Mr. Dolan was born in Ireland, but was 
educated in the public schools of Simsbury, Conn., where 
his parents removed. When a very young man he took 
a position in a fuse factory in Simsbury and was employed 
there until he was 19 years of age. With his brother, Mr. 
Peter C. Dolan, Patrick H. Dolan then went to New 
Britain, where the two brothers bought the Bassett House 
and the livery stable run in connection with that hotel. 
They rented horses to the New Britain Street Railway and 
when that company failed they purchased the road and 
equipped it with electricity. In 1893 they sold the property 
and disposed of their other interests in New Britain. Sub- 
sequently, they purchased the controlling interest in the 
Pittsfield Street Railway, which at the time was a horse 
line about 2.y 2 miles long. This road they reorganized and 
extended, and now there are about 21 miles of track. 

Charles C. Reynolds, general manager of the Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind., died at his home in Indianapolis on June 26 from a 
stroke of paralysis which was followed by pneumonia. Mr. 
Reynolds was born in Vernon, Ind., on May 1, 1859. He 
left school at the age of 16 and entered railroad service 
as a telegraph operator on the St. Louis division of the 
Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland & St. Louis Railroad. Sub- 
sequently, he was appointed train dispatcher of this com- 
pany and later was made trainmaster of the St. Louis di- 
vision. In January, 1890, Mr. Reynolds resigned from the 
Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland & St. Louis Railroad to be- 
come superintendent of the Erie Railroad, a position which 
he held for 12 years. Mr. Reynolds' first experience in 
electric railway work was as manager of the Illinois Valley 
Traction Company. His record of a little more than a year 
with this company secured for him the appointment of 
general manager of the Indianapolis & Northwestern Trac- 
tion Company, Lebanon, Ind., which had just completed a 
line between Indianapolis and Lafayette. Mr. Reynolds 
remained with this company as manager until 1906, when it 
and five other lines were merged as the Terre Haute, In- 
dianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, with Mr. Reynolds 
as manager. Mr. Reynolds' electric railway and steam railroad 
connections brought him into close touch with business in- 
terests in Indiana and the Central West, and he was held 
in high esteem by his business associates and by many with 
whom he came into contact only casually in performing his 
duties. He is survived by a widow and six children. 

The New Hampshire Electric Railways, Haverhill, Mass., 
which took over the Haverhill & Amesbury Street Railway 
on June 1, 1909, voluntarily increased the wages of the em- 
ployees of the Haverhill & Amesbury division of the New 
Hampshire Electric Railways on July 1, 1909, from 
20 cents and 22 cents an hour to the following scale to 
make the rate conform with that on other divisions of the 
system: Class No. 1, men who have been in the service of 
the company less than one year, 20 cents per hour; class 
No. 2, men who have been in the service of the company 
one year and less than two years, 21 cents per hour; class 
No. 3, men who have been in the service of the company 
two years and less than four years, 22 cents per hour; class 
No. 4, men who have been in the service of the company 
four years and less than seven years, 23 cents per hour; 
class No. 5, men who have been in the service of the com- 
pany seven years and less than ten years, 24 cents per 
hour; class No. 6, men who have been in the service of 
the company ten years and over, 25 cents per hour. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. t 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously 


Suburban Railway, Phoenix, Ariz. — Incorporated to build 
an electric railway in Phoenix. Headquarters, Phoenix. 
Capital stock, $500,000. Directors: C. B. King, B. A. Fow- 
ler, J. W. Dorris, Geo. M. Halm and E. J. Bennitt. [E. R. 
J., May 8, '09.] 

Gainesville Railway & Power Company, Gainesville, Ga. — 
Application has been made for articles of incorporation for 
this company, which recently purchased the property of the 
Gainesville Electric Railway. The street railway in Gaines- 
ville consists of about 8 miles of track. Headquarters, 
Gainesville. Capital stock, $150,000. Incorporators: A. G. 
Sharp, Atlanta; W. A. Carlisle, W. H. Slack, H. H. Dean, 
J. W. Smith, Z. T. Castleberry, Gainesville. 

♦Chicago, Aurora & DeKalb Railroad, Aurora, 111. — In- 
corporated to build an electric railway from Aurora to 
DeKalb. Headquarters, Aurora. Capital stock, $950,000. 
Incorporators: J. H. Bliss, Sugar Grove; F. W. Ravlin, 
Kaneville; E. L. Lyon, F. M. Killian and J. C. Murphy, 

*DeKalb & Western Railway, DeKalb, 111. — Incorporated 
to build an electric railway from Chicago to Rock Island. 
Capital stock, $25,000. Incorporators: Newton Taylor, El- 
gin; J. F. Pearce, L. D. Grier, Frederick Krengel and 
Osman F. Cole, Chicago. 

*Cincinnati, Louisville & Indianapolis Electric Railroad, 
Aurora, Ind. — Incorporated to build street and interurban 
railways in and between Greendale, Lawrenceburg, Aurora, 
Risen Sun, Patriot, Florence, Markland, Vevay, Lamb, 
Brooksburg, Kent, Blocher, Madison and Scottsburg. Prin- 
cipal office, Aurora. Capital stock, $100,000. Incorporators: 
Ames B. Shuts, John C. Hooven, C. E. Hooven, W. B. Mayo 
and Wilbur Hargitt. 

♦Kentucky Electric Railway, Providence, Ky. — Incorpo- 
rated to build an electric railway from Dawson Springs to 
Providence, 20 miles. Headquarters, Providence. Capital 
stock, $10,000. Incorporators: Ben Sisk, Silent Run; B. H. 
Roney, J. T. Edwards, M. E. Edwards, S. Hicks, W. G. 
Roney and M. G. Roney. 

♦Independence, Siletz & Pacific Railway, Salem, Ore. — 
Incorporated to build an electric railway from Simpson 
through Siletz Indian Reservation to the coast. Capital 
stock, $500,000. Incorporators: O. M. Taylor, D. N. Sears 
and H. Hirschberg. 

♦Rochester & Mars Street Railway, Butler, Pa. — Applica- 
tion has been made for a charter for this company to build 
a street railway from the Baltimore & Ohio depot at Mars 
to Rochester, a distance of 23 miles. At Mars connection 
will be made with the Pittsburgh & Butler Street Railway; 
at Ogle, 2 miles west of Mars, with the Pittsburgh, Har- 
mony, Butler & New Castle Railway, and at Rochester with 
the Beaver Valley Traction Company. The final survey has 
been completed, rights of way and franchises have been ob- 
tained and construction contracts will be let soon after the 
charter is issued in July. Incorporators: J. H. Barrett, 
president and chief engineer; W. H. Biggs, treasurer, D. R. 
Torrence, secretary; David Hunter, Jr., and J. G. Downie. 


Los Angeles, Cal. — The Pacific Electric Railway has ap- 
plied to the City Council for a franchise to operate a street 
railway on Sixth Street between Olive Street and Figueroa 

Bloomington, 111. — The City Council has granted to the 
Illinois Traction System, Champaign, a 20-year franchise 
to operate its cars over the lines of the city. 

Peoria, 111. — The City Council has granted to the Peoria 
Railway Terminal Company a 40-year franchise to build a 
street railway on Washington Street. The franchise pro- 
vides that work must be started within 30 days after it is 
accepted. [E. R. J., May 22, '09.] 

Petersburg, 111. — The Springfield, Beardstown & Quincy 
Interurban Railway has been granted a 50-year franchise 
by the City Council. The right of way from Springfield to 
Petersburg has been secured. [E. R. J., Feb. 13, '09.] 

New Orleans, La. — An ordinance has been introduced in 
the City Council directing the Comptroller to advertise for 
the sale in block, at public auction at the City Hall, to the 
highest bidder, a 50-year franchise to construct a double- 
track street railway on Adams Avenue from Julia Street to 
Orleans Boulevard, thence along the right of way of the 

old Spanish Fort Railroad to Spanish Fort. The franchise 
provides that the bidder shall commence construction within 
90 days after the contract for the franchise is signed, and 
that at least one track shall be completed within one year. 

Gardnerville, Nev. — The Board of County Commissioners 
has granted to H. H. Springmeyer and A. Jensen a fran- 
chise to build a street railway from the terminus of the 
Carson Valley branch of the Virginia & Truckee Railroad 
to Gardnerville, a distance of 1 mile. 

Morristown, N. J. — Application has been made to the 
Board of Freeholders by the Morris County Traction Com- 
pany for a two-year extension of its franchise to complete 
the double tracking of its railway between Millburn and 
Maplewood. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

Ronkonkoma, N. Y. — The Town Board has granted a 
franchise to the South Shore Traction Company, Patchogue, 
to construct an electric railway from Ronkonkoma through 
Setauket, Stony Brook, Lake Grove to Port Jefferson. 

Norwood, Ohio. — The Southwestern Ohio Traction Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, has applied to the City Council for a 
franchise to operate an elevated and street railway in Nor- 
wood. The ordinance was referred to the Streets and 
Grades and Street and Steam Railways Committee. John 

E. Bleekman, president. [E. R. J., May 29, '09.] 

♦Kennewick, Wash. — Application for a franchise has been 
made to the City Council by C. A. Lundy, S. C. Emmons 
and G. F. Richardson, Kennewick, to build an electric 
railway from Kennewick through Horse Heaven to the 
Kennewick Highlands. 


♦Vilonia, Ark. — It is reported that J. N. Simpson and 
G. Bush are planning to build an electric railway from 
Conway through Vilonia to Beebe, 14 miles. 

British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver, B. C. — 
This company has awarded the contract for the grading 
of the Fourth Avenue west extension of its line from 
Granville Street to the west city limits, to T. R. Nickson 
& Company. 

Monterey & Del Monte Heights Railway, Monterey, Cal. 

— F. M. Fairchild, 1707J/2 Oak Street, San Francisco, gen- 
eral manager, writes that this company, which is to 
connect Monterey and Seaside with an electric railway 5 
miles in length, will start construction about July 15. The 
supplies are now being purchased. The company will do 
its own construction, except to build the 1200-ft. bridge 
across Lake Del Rey. Three cars will be operated and 
power will be. purchased. Capital stock authorized, $100,- 
000; issued, $25,000. Officers: H. R. O'Bryan, Monterey, 
president; G. W. Phelps, Pacific Building, San Francisco, 
vice-president; S. W. Mask, Monterey, secretary; A. G. 
Metz, Monterey, treasurer. [E. R. J., May 29, '09.] 

United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal. — This company 
proposes to build an extension on Cortland Avenue and 
through the Bernal Heights district from Mission to Fol- 
som Streets, about 1 mile in length. 

Lewiston (Idaho) Terminal Company. — It is said that 
this company has begun laying tracks in Lewiston for an 
electric railway. The line will be 1 mile in length and 
will be used as a terminal for other lines entering Lewiston. 
The track, which is being installed by the Warren Con- 
struction Company, will be laid with 90-lb. rails. [E. R. J., 
May 8, '09] 

Belleville, 111. — It is stated that subscriptions to the 
amount of $30,000 have been secured by E. L. Thomas and 
D. C. Thomas, promoters of the proposed electric railway 
between Belleville and Mascoutah. A company to be known 
as the Belleville-Mascoutah Traction Company will be in- 
corporated and preliminary arrangements will be made at 
once, preparatory to beginning construction. [E. R. J., 
May 29, '09.] 

DeKalb-Midland Railway, Chicago, 111.— John W. Mc- 
Queen, secretary, advises that this company will commence 
construction in about 30 days on its proposed electric rail- 
way between DeKalb, Elva, Waterman, Somonauk and 
Sandwick, 28 miles. Franchises from DeKalb, Sandwick, 
Somonauk and Waterman are for 50 years, with freight- 
carrying privileges. It has not yet been decided whether 
the company will generate or purchase power to operate the 
proposed railway. Capital stock, $150,000; issued, $100,000. 
Principal office, 134 Monroe Street, Chicago. Officers: John 

F. Pearce, Chicago, president; W. G. Wilcox, vice-presi- 
dent; John W. McQueen, Elgin, secretary; Herbert J. Bur- 
dick, Y. M. C. A. Building, Elgin, treasurer; O. F. Cole, 131 
La Salle Street, Chicago, chief engineer. [E. R. J., April 
17, '09.] 

Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Traction Company, Bluffton, 
Ind. — L. C. Justus announces that this company will start, 

July 3, 1909.] 



within a few days, construction on its proposed railway 
between Bluffton, Ind., and Celina, Ohio. Work will be 
started simultaneously at both ends of the route and it is 
expected to be completed within a year. [E. R. J., May 
22, '09.] 

*Fort Wayne, Ind. — It is stated that the surveys for the 
proposed electric railway from Fort Wayne to Bryan, Ohio, 
41 miles, have been completed and that much of the right 
of way has been secured. Plans are under way for organ- 
izing a company to build the line. Edgar A. Tennis, Fort 
Wayne, promoter. 

Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company, 
New Albany, Ind. — It is stated that this company will soon 
build a branch from Scottsburg to Madison, Ind., where it 
will connect with another railway to Vevay, Aurora, Law- 
renceburg, Ind., and Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Valparaiso & Northern Railway, Valparaiso, Ind. — This 
company has increased its capital stock to $250,000. It pro- 
poses to construct an interurban railway to connect Val- 
paraiso, Chesterton and Gary. Lewis E. Woodward, sec- 
retary. [E. R. J., Oct. 3, '08.] 

Des Moines, Winterset & Creston Electric Railway, Des 
Moines, la. — It is reported that the company has let the 
contract for the building of its proposed electric railway 
between Creston and Des Moines to Judd & Ross. [E. R. 
J., May 1, '09.] 

Wichita Railroad & Light Company, Wichita, Kan. — This 
company writes that it expects to build 4 miles of railway 
in Wichita. W. R. Morrison, general superintendent. 

Lexington & Interurban Railway, Lexington, Ky. — This 
company has awarded the contract for grading its extension 
from Lexington to Nicholasville, 12 miles, to J. W. Oliver, 
Knoxville, Tenn. The contract amounts to approximately 
$150,000, and will require excavation and fill of about 100,000 
yds. of earth. The work must be completed by Nov. 15. 

Kentucky & Ohio River Interurban Railroad, Paducah, 

Ky. — This company, which projected an interurban electric 
railway from Paducah to Cairo, 111., is now contemplating 
an extension in Henderson, Ky., and a line to Memphis, 
Tenn. At a meeting of the directors recently, it was 
decided to reorganize in July and incorporate for $5,000,000. 
The company eventually intends to cross the river at Hen- 
derson and make connections with railroads at Evansville, 
Ind. The company has in object freight business more 
than passenger traffic. The Strang gasoline motor car will 
be used. [E. R. J., May 22, '09.] 

Boston & Northern Street Railway, Boston, Mass. — This 
company has awarded to Michael McDonald, Boston, the 
contract for all the work up to the sub-grading preparatory 
for track laying on its proposed extension from Stoneham 
to Spot Pond. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. — 
This company has closed a contract with the Lorain Steel 
Company, Ohio, for the electric welding with steel bars of 
5000 rail joints. The work has already started and con- 
siderable has been accomplished. 

Kansas City & Southeastern Traction Company, Kansas 
City, Mo. — The survey of the electric railway which this 
company proposes to build from Kansas City to Jefferson 
City has been completed as far as Lone Jack. About half 
a mile of rock work, preliminary to track-laying, has been 
done near Raytown and also near Little Blue station. It 
is expected that the railway will be built ultimately to 
Jefferson City. Chas. A. S. Sims, president. [E. R. J., 
March 6, '09.] 

Lehigh Valley Transit Company, Allentown, Pa. — At a 

meeting of the directors of this company arrangements 
were made to spend $1,000,000 for improving its railway 
system in Allentown. R. P. Stevens, president, was au- 
thorized to order equipment for the proposed belt line 
requested by the City Council, on which construction has 
been started. 

Duquesne & Dravosburg Street Railway, Duquesne, Pa. — 

It is stated that this company will soon begin the con- 
struction of its 3-mile railway from Duquesne to Drav- 
osburg. Officers: Fred W. Scott, Duquesne, president; 
J. C. Cato, Aliquippa, vice-president; T. F. Van Kirk, Cora- 
opolis, secretary, and A. J. Krill, Aliquippa, treasurer. [E. 
R. J., May 22, '09.] 

Philadelphia Suburban Traction Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa. — W. J. Cooley advises that this company has been 
formed for the purpose of building a broad-gage electric 
railway from Hatboro, through Davisville, to Southampton, 
3J/2 miles. It has not yet been decided when construction 
will be started. Capital stock, authorized, $25,000; issued, 
$7,000. Headquarters, 1328 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 
Officers: W. E. Watts, Williamstown, N. J., president; 
John L. Grogan, Philadelphia, vice-president; W. J. Cooley, 

Philadelphia, secretary; H. C. Case, Newton, treasurer; 
J. E. Bonnell, Philadelphia, general manager; W. A. Mer- 
rick, Newton, chief engineer. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

Mountain Railway, Chattanooga, Tenn. — This company 
is having surveys and plans prepared by the Cushman-Fair- 
leigh Engineering Company, Chattanooga, for building an 
incline railway from the property of M. H. Ward at Moun- 
tain Junction to a point near the Lookout Mountain House. 
D. J. Duncan, Chattanooga, is the promoter. [E. R. J., 
March 27, '09.] 

Columbia & Walla Walla Traction Company, Dayton, 
Wash. — Two surveying parties will be put in the field within 
a few weeks by this company to relocate the route and set 
grade stakes for its proposed electric railway from Dayton to 
Wallula. One of the engineering corps will commence 
work near Dayton and the other near Walla Walla. The 
old survey made three years ago by the company will be 
changed materially. It is said that 5000 hp is available at 
the site of the power plant on the Tukanon River. An- 
nouncement is made that before the expiration of the 90 
days' option limit offered by the company, the entire in- 
terests of the old company will be turned over to new 
promoters. Two months of the option remain, but the 
transfer will be made as soon as M. S. Parker, Spokane, 
who, with E. M. Symonds, is in charge of the preliminary 
work now being done at the power site of the Tukanon, at 
Dayton, Waitsburg and Walla Walla, has completed it. 
[E. R. J., April 10, '09.] 

Connell Northern Railway, Tacoma, Wash. — H. C. Nutt 
writes that this company has been organized for the pur- 
pose of building a steam railroad between Connell and 
Adrian, and will be owned and operated by the Northern 
Pacific Railway. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

Vancouver (Wash.) Traction Company. — Arrangements 
have been made with this company to extend its electric 
railway to Orchards, a bonus of $10,000 having been practi- 
cally raised by the citizens, and work will begin at once. 
An extension to La Center is also to be built but action 
on it has not reached definite form as to actual construction. 

Washington-Oregon Traction Company, Walla Walla, 
Wash. — This company proposes to build an electric rail- 
way from Walla Walla, Wash., to Pendleton, Ore., a dis- 
tance of 50 miles. It will run through Vinson, Weston, 
Athena and Adams. The average grade between Walla 
Walla and Pendleton is a little less than 2 per cent. The 
maximum curves will be of 10 deg. There will be a 300-ft. 
bridge over Umatilla River, a 200-ft. bridge over Walla 
Walla River and a few shorter spans over smaller streams. 
The land has been surveyed from Walla Walla to Pendleton 
and is being surveyed for an extension from Pendleton to 
Umatilla, a distance of 45 miles. Grading will be begun in 
September, 1909. A hydro-electric power plant will be 
constructed. W. S. Matthias, general manager of the com- 
pany, 607 East Main Street, Walla Walla, Wash., to whom 
the Electric Railway Journal is indebted for the above in- 
formation, also writes that the company is now prepared 
to receive bids for the following material: 5500 tons 70-lb. 
steel rails, 940 tons 60-lb. steel rails, spikes, angle bars, 
locknuts, bolts, switches, frogs and cross-rail bonds, 145,- 
000 cross ties, 75 miles wire fencing, 55 miles overhead 
trolley wire, 50 miles 4 2/0 feeders, 50 miles transmission 
line, 50 miles telephone wire, 4000 ft. 24-in. tile, 1200 ft. 36- 
in. tile, 10 flat cars, 1 work car, 1 steam locomotive (oil 
burner preferred), poles for 60 miles of road. [E. R. J., 
June 19, '09.] 

Bay Shore Street Railway, Green Bay, Wis. — This com- 
pany has completed its railway to Bay View. Fred A. Rahr 
and Frank E. Murphy are said to be interested in this 
company. [E. R. J., Dec. 19, '08.] 

Milwaukee Western Electric Railway, Milwaukee, Wis. — 
This company has announced that it has completed surveys 
for its line and that construction work will be begun within 
the next three months. The general engineering and pro- 
visions, such as overhead or third-rail construction, kind and 
voltage of current to be used are now under consideration. 
The company will build an electric railway in a general 
northwesterly direction from Milwaukee to Beaver Dam, 
Wis., having a total length of main line and branch of ap- 
proximately 68 miles. It will pass through the villages and 
towns of Butler, Templeton, Sussex, Merton, North Lake, 
Alderley, Neosho, Hustisford and Juneau. A branch line 
extending in a southern direction through Pewaukee to 
Waukesha, will connect with the main line at Sussex. A 
general contract for the construction of this railway has 
been awarded to the Chapman Company, Chicago, 111. Val 
Zimmerman, Jr., president. Headquarters, Majestic Build- 
ing, Milwaukee. C. A. Chapman, Inc., 204 Dearborn Street, 
Chicago, 111., engineer. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. — This company has opened its extension 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

from Milwaukee to Waterford, 29 miles southwest of Mil- 

Connecticut Company, Willimantic, Conn. — This com- 
pany has prepared plans for a new car house which it pro- 
poses to build at a point between Willimantic and South 
Coventry. The structure will be 120 ft. x 35 ft. The base- 
ment will be especially fitted up for the accommodation of 
the employees. [E. R. J., June 26, '09.] 

City & Suburban Railway, Brunswick, Ga. — The contracts 
for engines and generators of the power house of this 
company have been awarded to the Allis-Chalmers Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, Wis. The Westinghouse Electric Com- 
pany, Pittsburgh, Pa., will supply all other equipment. The 
power house has been completed and the boilers are in 

Columbus (Ga.) Railroad. — This company has ordered the 
Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation to carry out 
reconstruction on the city mills plant, to provide a station 
capacity of 600-kw, 2300-volt, alternating current and 200- 
kw railway direct current. The work will include the re- 
placing of two wheels and installation of a new 2-phase 
alternator with auxiliaries. 

Savannah Electric Company, Savannah, Ga.— This com- 
pany has contracted with the Stone & Webster Engineer- 
ing Corporation for the installation of a new 1000-kw tur- 
bine and auxiliaries in the Indian Street station. 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway & Light Company, 
Cedar Rapids, la. — This company is having plans for ex- 
tensive additions to its power plant drawn by H. M. 
Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111. The boiler room of 
the station will be completely remodeled and boilers hav- 
ing a capacity of 1400 hp will be installed. These boilers 
will probably be equipped with automatic stokers and the 
necessary pumps and other fittings will also be needed. It 
is probable also that a coal and ash-handling apparatus 
will be built. A new steel stack, 10 ft. inside diameter, will 
be built. The plans also provide for the addition of three 
2000-kw turbo-generators in the engine room. The present 
engine-room equipment consists of a 1500-kw Allis-Chal- 
mers turbo-generator, an 800-hp Fulton engine driving a 
Bullock generator, and a 400-hp Buckeye engine driving a 
Westinghouse generator. William G. Dows, president and 
general manager. 

Lexington & Interurban Railways, Lexington, Ky. — It is 
stated that this company expects to soon begin the con- 
struction of a power house at Valley View. The plant is 
expected to cost approximately $250,000. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. 
— This company has contracted with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company for the building of 2 
3000-kw, 3-phase rotary converters, and 16 1100-kva single- 
phase transformers. It is stated that one of these sets is 
for substation No. 6 and the other for substation No. 7. 

Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio. — This company has 
purchased recently one 1000-kw Westinghouse low-pressure 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, Philadelphia, Pa. — 

This company will make improvements to its power sta- 
tion at Thirty-third Street and Market Street which will 
involve an outlay of $225,000. Beside other equipment a 
6000-kw Westinghouse exhaust steam turbine will be in- 
stalled in the station. An extension will be made to the 
power house on North Delaware Avenue. This improve- 
ment will cost, it is estimated, $100,000. 

Memphis (Tenn.) Street Railway. — This company is con- 
sidering the building of an extension to its power house 
and installation of an engine, generators, etc. 

Washington-Oregon Traction Company, Walla Walla, 
Wash. — W. S. Matthias, general manager of this company, 
whose address is 607 East Main Street, Walla Walla, Wash., 
has written the Electric Railway Journal that the Wash- 
ington-Oregon Traction Company, which proposes to build 
an electric railway between Walla Walla and Pendleton, 
Ore., as noted on page 57 of this issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal, is in the market for the following appa- 
ratus: Steel pipe (quantity and dimensions not given), 3 
2400 hp impulse water wheels, 3 1200-kw, 3-phase, oo-cycle 
volt generators with exciters, 9 400-kw raising transformers, 
switch-board lightning arresters, 20 miles of transmission 
line, 3 200-kw transformers, 1 300-kw transformer and all 
other necessary equipment. 

Kenosha (Wis.) Electric Railway. — This company ad- 
vises that it expects to build a powerhouse 50 ft. x 35 ft. 
It has recently purchased 1 300-kw Allis-Chalmers turbo- 
generator, 1 200-kw Westinghouse motor generator, 3 125- 
kva Westinghouse transformers and 180 metallic-flame arc 

Manufactures & Supplies 


Cheyenne (Wyo.) Electric Railway is having one city car 
built by the Danville Car Company. 

Texarkana Gas & Electric Company, Texarkana, Tex., 

is in the market for three new single-truck cars. 

Ralston Electric Railway & Power Company, Ralston, Neb., 

has purchased one second-hand 20-ft. motor car. 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways has ordered two baggage and 
express cars from the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company. 

William B. Michel, 140 Cedar Street, New York, is in the 

market for 40 4-yd. two-way dump cars, narrow gage. 

Argenta (Ark.) Street Railway has purchased one second- 
hand car from the Little Rock Railway & Electric Com- 

Sioux Falls (S. D.) Traction System has purchased one 
18-ft. motor car from the Dorner Railway Equipment Com- 
pany, Chicago. 

Cairo & St. Louis Railway, Cairo, 111., a road under con- 
struction has placed an order for three cars with the Dan- 
ville Car Company. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., 

contrary to the previous report in the Electric Railway 
Journal, will not purchase any new rolling stock. 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, New Haven, 

Conn., has ordered two electric freight locomotives from the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

Kanauga Traction Company, Gallipolis, Ohio, has pur- 
chased three 21-ft. motor cars and two open trailers from 
the Dorner Railway Equipment Company, Chicago. 

Colfax Springs (Iowa) Railway has purchased one 20-ft 
car mounted on Brill 21-E trucks and equipped with 
Westinghouse No. 49 motors from the Dorner Railway 
Equipment Company. 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., 

has ordered 10 city cars from the Cincinnati Car Com- 
pany. This order was reported in the Electric Railway 
Journal of May 22, 1909. 

Cienfuegos, Palmira & Cruces Railroad, Cienfuegos, Cuba, 

is in the market for two new 30-passenger gasoline motor 
cars and four second-hand flat cars for construction pur- 
poses. This equipment will be purchased by T. N. Motley 
& Company, 50 Church Street, New York. 

Wheeling (W. Va.) Traction Company advises that it has 
so drawn the specifications for the eight cars mentioned in 
the Electric Railway Journal of May 29, 1909, that in 
case it decides to adopt the pay-as-you-enter system the 
new rolling stock can be readily converted at little expense. 

Washington-Oregon Traction Company, Walla Walla, 
Wash., a proposed road, contemplates purchasing four pas- 
senger motor cars, two trailers, two 50-ton electric loco- 
motives and 100 box cars for service when its line is com- 
pleted. It is also in the market for 10-flat and one work car 
besides an oil-burning locomotive for construction purposes. 

Long Island Railroad, Long Island City, N. Y., has or- 
dered 120 all-steel motor and trail cars for service between 
Long Island City and the Pennsylvania terminal, New 
York, under the East River, from the American Car '& 
Foundry Company. Mention of the contemplated purchase 
of these cars was made in the Electric Railway Journal of 
April 10, 1909. 

Boston & Northern Street Railway, Boston, Mass., has 

ordered one Barber car of the latest improved type from the 
Barber Car Company, York, Pa. The company has also 
ordered type O-50 trucks from the Standard Motor Truck 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., for the 42 cars purchased from the 
Laconia Car Company, as mentioned in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of June 26, 1909. 

Gallatin Valley Electric Railway, Bozeman, Mont., has 
purchased through Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Com- 
pany a double-truck semi-convertible passenger, baggage 
and smoking car for Sept. 1, 1909, delivery. The car will 
be 51 ft. 2 in. over vestibules and have a body length of 
41 ft. 8 in. Westinghouse air brakes, Brill folding vestibule 
doors and mutually operating sliding doors were specified. 
Other details are: Curtain Supply Company curtain fixtures, 
Dedenda gongs, Peacock brakes, four Westinghouse 307 
motors, Nichols-Lintern sanders, Brill seats and Brill No. 
27-E-2 trucks. 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway, Cleveland, 

Ohio, has purchased three 56-ft. interurban passenger cars, 
one 56-ft. parlor car and three 50-ft. express cars, all of 

July 3, 1909.] 



which will be mounted on Baldwin class 84-30 trucks. 
The cars will be finished in mahogany, full empire 
ceiling, Hale & Kilburn No. 110-CE and No. 199-EE 
seats upholstered in plush and leather, inlaid linoleum 
floors, Edwards sash fixtures and Pantasote curtains. The 
parlor car will have a lavatory in addition to the toilet room. 
Westinghouse No. 112 motors and air brakes were also 
specified. Mention of this contemplated purchase was made 
in the Electric Railway Journal of April 17, 1909. 

Pittsburgh & Kansas City Railway, Pittsburgh, Kans., 
has drawn up the following specifications for the 4 closed 
cars reported in the Electric Railway Journal of May 15, 
1909, as having been ordered from the American Car Com- 

Weight 18,000 lb. Curtain fix. ... Curtain S. Co. 

Length of body 28 ft. Curtain material .. .Pantasote 

Length over vestibule, 40 ft. Gongs Dedenda 

Width over sills.. 7 ft. 11 in. Hand brakes Brill 

Width at belt 8 ft. 4 in. Heaters Consolidated 

Body wood Journal boxes Brill 

Underframe wood Seating material 

Air brakes . . Westinghouse Rattan and mahogany 

Couplers Van Dorn Trucks, type, Brill No. 27-G1 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, has 
ordered 100 additional all-steel cars, making a total of 350 
for subway and elevated service. The equipment was di- 
vided between the General Electric Company and Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company. It has con- 
tracted with the General Electric Company for 380 200-hp 
motors for the equipment of 190 new steel cars for the sub- 
way; also for 190 control equipments for the same cars. 
In addition, the General Electric Company will supply 40 
equipments of control for elevated motor cars, 60 trailer 
equipments for the subway and 40 trailer equipments for the 
elevated. The Interborough Company also bought from the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 120 
125-hp motors for the equipment of 60 elevated cars and 20 
equipments of control for these cars. 

Simmern Automatic Railway Signal Company, Los 
Angeles, Cal., has removed its offices from Los Angeles, 
Cal., and is now located at 1109 Crocker Building, San Fran- 

Standard Underground Cable Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 

announces that its San Francisco office address is now in 
the First National Bank Building. 

A. Bement, Chicago, 111., consulting engineer, has secured 
the services of R. L. Baker, who was recently connected 
with the department of experimental engineering of the 
University of Wisconsin. 

McKeen Motor Car Company, Omaha, Neb., has received 
orders from the following steam railroads for gasoline 
motor cars:_St. Joseph & Grand Island Railroad, Bellingham 
Bay & British Columbia Railroad and the Erie Railroad. 

Frank Ridlon Company, Boston, Mass., furnished the 
lighting equipment, consisting of one ioo-kw d.c. and one 
125-hp a.c. motor, together with the wiring, lamps, fixtures 
and decorative effects, for the production of "Joan of Arc" 
given in the Harvard Stadium June 22 by Maude Adams. 

Stover Motor Car Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
been organized with headquarters at 1201 Harrison Build- 
ing, Philadelphia, with a capital of $200,000 to take over 
the Stover Motor Car Company, Freeport, 111. The com- 
pany will have factories at Wilmington, Del., and Freeport, 

Western Electric Company, New York, has recently ap- 
pointed J. A. Currie as its representative in the railroad de- 
partment in the Middle West, with headquarters at the com- 
pany's factory in Cleveland, 2163 East Thirty-ninth Street. 
Mr. Currie has been connected with electric railway interests 
for a number of years, attending to the construction and 
purchasing end and has a wide acquaintance among railway 

Rooke Automatic Register Company, Providence, R. I., 

has equipped with its registers all the double-deck gasoline 
busses which the Fifth Avenue Coach Company, New York, 
is now operating over the Queensboro Bridge between 
Manhattan and Queens. These vehicles are similar to those 
in use on Fifth Avenue, New York, on which the Rooke 
system has been employed for nearly two years with com- 
plete satisfaction. 

Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, 
Wis., announces that it has purchased the plant, business 
and patents of the J. L. Schureman Company, Chicago, 111. 
The manufacture of Schureman controlling apparatus will be 
continued, and all agreements and contracts made by the 
J. L. Schureman Company will be carried out by its suc- 
cessor. The services of S. M. McFedries, general manager 
of the Schureman Company, have been retained by the 

Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Company, and he will re- 
main in active charge of the manufacture and sale of Schure- 
man apparatus. J. L. Schureman retires from the business. 
Until further notice customers of the Schureman Company 
should direct orders and inquiries to the old address, J. L. 
Schureman Company, 70 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago. 


Buckeye Engine Company, Salem, Ohio, has issued a 
new booklet on its electric blue-printing machine. 

Griffin Car Wheel Company, Chicago, 111., has printed a 
folder showing various sections, profiles and sizes of its 
chilled-iron car wheels. 

Carnegie Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has just pre- 
pared a pamphlet on steel wheels giving specifications, 
profiles and tables of diameters and circumferences. 

Hess-Bright Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
has sent out a new price list on radial, thrust and adapter 
bearings. On a number of sizes there have been substantial 
reductions in price made. 

Peter Smith Heating Company, Detroit, Mich., has 
brought out an illustrated catalog on its hot-water heating 
system for electric railway cars. Many types are illus- 
trated for both city and interurban service. 

British Thomson-Houston Company, Ltd., Rugby, Eng- 
land, has issued a new catalog describing Curtis exhaust 
and mixed pressure turbo-generators. These turbines are 
of the horizontal type and are built in all sizes from 200 
kw upward. 

Warren Webster & Company, Camden, N. J., have issued 
Part VIII of their general catalog of steam specialties in 
which are described several systems of steam heating, feed- 
water heaters, steam separators and numerous smaller 

Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works, Chicago, 111., have 
published a small pamphlet entitled, "Lubrication vs._ Fric- 
tion," in which the process of manufacture and testing of 
the high-grade oils and lubricants made and sold by this 
company is described. 

J. P. Devine Company, Buffalo, N. Y., has printed a 
pamphlet describing the Passburg vacuum drying and im- 
pregnating method for field and armature coils and trans- 
formers. It has also printed a catalog on the apparatus 
required for this work. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has just 
issued the following bulletins: No. 4664 on direct-connected, 
engine-driven railway generators, from 5 for 550 volts to 
600 volts; No. 4666, type "H" transformers; No. 4668, on 
the GE-216-A railway motor; No. 4670, gaskets and bell 
mouths for conduit wiring. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has printed some 
circulars of information on the Tomlinson automatic radial 
car coupler, type A, form 5, size No. 1. This coupler has 
been designed to meet the demand for a smaller and less 
expensive device than the type A, form 2, No. 2, for city 
work where the loads are not excessive. The new coupler 
is recommended for all city work where trailers are hauled 
and is suitable for the most severe curves and grades. The 
head of this coupler differs from type A, No. 2, in being 
smaller and lighter and also in having somewhat shallower 
serrations and a wide, flat face. The object in having a 
wide, flat face is to permit intercoupling with other types. 
The coupler head and draft gear are combined into one unit, 
the head being cast with a long stem into which the tail- 
piece is fastened. The coupler is made in one length only, 
namely, 4 ft. 6 in. from the face of the hook to the center of 
the tail pin hole. 


Trolley Wayfinder. Boston, Mass.: The New England 
Street Railway Club, 1909; the New England News Com- 
pany, Boston, wholesale agents. Illustrated. Price, 10 

• cents. 

The New England Street Railway Club has issued its offi- 
cial street railway guide for 1909, a most complete directory 
of trolley tours throughout New England. Some 21 trips 
from Boston are given, as are also innumerable trips be- 
tween places of historic and scenic interest throughout New 
England generally. An alphabetical list of towns directs the 
user to tables for specific instruction as to route, rate of 
fare and distance between towns. Twenty-one railways 
publish maps of their entire lines, and many others publish 
maps pointing out the chief attractions of their roads. The 
Trolley Wayfinder is well established, and on account of 
the care exercised in its preparation has increased In mi 
year to year in popularity until it has come to be looked 
upon by many trolley tourists in New England as indis- 




[Vol. XXXIV. No. i. 

Notice: — These statistics will be carefully revised from month to month, upon information received from the companies direct, or from official sources. The table should 
be used in connection with our Financial Supplement, "American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating reports to the ends of the various financial 
years. Similar statistics in regard to roads not reporting are solicited by the editors. *Including Taxes. fDeficit. JTaxes and Insurance. 



AKRON, 0. 
Northern Ohio Tr. & 
Light Co. 

Qa. Ry. & Elec. Co. 

WASH., Whatcom 
Co. Ry. & Lt. Co. 

Binghamton St. Ry. 

Illinois Tr. System. 

Charleston Con. Ry 
Gas & Elec. Co. 

Cleveland, Paines. 
ville & Eastern'R. R 

Dallas Electric Cop 

Duluth St. Ry. 

ILL. East St. Louis 
& Suburban Ry. 

El Paso Elec. Co 

Fairmont & Clarks 
burg Tr. Co. 

Ft. Wayne & Wa 
bash Valley Tr. Co. 

TEX. Northern Tex> 
as Elec. Co. 

Elec. Co. 

MICH. Grand Rap. 
ids Railway. 

Central Penn. Trac 

Houghton County 
Tr. Co. 

FLA. Jacksonville 
Elec. Co. 

Kansas City Ry. & 
Lt. Co. 

im., May '09 
1 " " '08 

im., May 


im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 
1 " 

4 " " 

4 " 

im., May 
1 " 

3 " 
3 ' 

im., May 
1 " 

5 " 
5 " 

im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 
1 " 

4 " 

4 " 

im„ May 
1 " 

5 " 
5 " 

im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 

4 " " 
4 " 

im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 

im„ May 

1 " " 
5 " 
5 " 

im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 






°9 31,552 

08 29,495 

09 371, 9°6 
08 363,568 

100, J 


1,362,? " 



09 105,658 
08 ioi.f 






128,0 " 










Less Op- 










































300,783 241,593 
267,657! 224,815 
3,355,220 2,584,338 
2,926,3301 2,694,061 


101, 733 

36,. ~ 


1 2,646 
















f 1,112 






Lexington & Inter- 
urban Rys. 

Milwaukee Elec.Ry. 
& Lt. Co. 

Milwaukee Lt., Ht. 
& Trac. Co. 

Montreal St. Ry. 

Norfolk & Ports- 
mouth Trac. Co. 

im., Apr. 





OKLAHOMA, OKLA. im., Apr. 
Oklahoma Ry. 1 " 

Paducah Traction & 
10, 4S4| I Light Co. 





























Pensacola Electric 1 " 

Co. 12" 









PA. American Rys. 

Brockton & Plym- 
outh St. Ry. Co. 

Portland Ry., Lt. & 
Pwr. Co. 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt., 
Heat & Pwr. Co. 

United Railways Co, 
of St. Louis. ' 

CAL. United Rail- 
roads of San Fran- 

Savannah Elec. Co. 

Seattle Elec. Co. 

im., May 





im., Apr. 

im., Apr. 


Springfield Ry. & Lt 

Co. 4 

Puget Sound Elec. 
Ry. Co. 

Tampa Elec. Co. 

im., May 

im., May 

TOLEDO, O. im., May 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. 
Co. I S 








346,908 161,683 

326,376 165,717 

1,688,095 850,090 

1,560,230 842,010 


°9 329,339 

08 313,679 

°9 2,437,056 

08 2,341,552 













09I 1,842,035 

08 1,706,532 

09 77,i87 
08 72,447 
°9 377,824 
08 340,713 


1 77,920 


09 975,544 *597,240 
08 920,765 *59I,543 
09I 4,427,546 *2, 830, 577 

08 4,248,217 *2, 795, 239 

09! 620,626 345,527 

08! 568,656 359,520 

09 2,337,252 1,391,271 
08 2,128,346 1,478,893 

47,488 30,802 

46,091' 29,214 

601,671 370,767 

603,222 409,605 



76,006 38,508 

67,665 36,192 

340,349 164,149 

310,515 150,006 



46,432 28,634 

44,501 30,959 

570,137 363,376 

534,066 380,213 

213,155 126,611 

199,054' 109,444 

1,086,240! 621,109 

1,031,381 574,930 


Less Op- 

















1 6a, 2 86 













1 25,026 









Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XXXIV. 


No. 2 

Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, President. J. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-president. 

A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-president. C. E. Whittlesey, Sec. and Treas. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. Rodney Hitt, Associate Editor. 

Frederic Nicholas, Associate Editor. t/'y' 


NEW YORK, 239 West Thirty-ninth Street. 

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London: Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand. 

Cable Address, Stryjourn, New York; Stryjourn, London — Lieber's Code. 
Entered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 
Copyright, 1909, by the McGraw Publishing Company. 


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BACK COPIES. — For back copies of the Electric Railway Journal, 
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should be addressed to the McGraw Publishing Company. No copies of 
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prior to January, 1907, are kept on sale except in bound volumes. 

DATE ON WRAPPER shows the month at the end of which the 
subscription expires. The sending of remittances for renewal prior to 
that date will be much appreciated by the publishers. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9000 
copies arc printed. 

Take One Fare at a Time 

The practice of collecting more than one fare at a time 
when change has to be made should not be encouraged. 
Where the pay-as-you-entcr system for collection of fares 
has not been introduced it is found that conductors, in their 
rounds of open cars, frequently accept fares from several 
passengers without stopping to make change when de- 
nominations larger than 5 cents are tendered. Bank tellers 
and cashiers in stores deal separately witli persons in 
transactions involving the passage of money. While the 
act of making change for a street railway fare, because 

of the invariable unit rates, is simpler than that of cash- 
ing a check or taking care of receipts for differetst 
amounts, it has the same importance and risk as any other 
transaction where cash is involved ; the chance for dis- 
pute is present if any complication arises. Conductors 
who form the habit of accepting more than one fare at a 
time when change has to be made have been observed to 
ask the passengers the denomination tendered, and also 
to rrffcx the change of two passengers. In the former case 
the conductor subjects himself or the company to the pos- 
sibility of loss, and in the latter the passengers may be 
annoyed or angered. A number of companies recognize 
iwffie desirability of avoiding any dispute on the subject of 
fares by requiring the conductor, when obliged to give 
change, to state the amount of money received from the 
passenger and the amount returned to him, and also to 
collect all fares separately, and not in bunches. In fact, 
this practice has proved so satisfactory that rules to 
do this have tentatively been embodied by the committee 
on city rules in the proposed code of standard ruies to be 
considered at Denver next October. 

Painters and Paint Making 

The art of the master painter, like that of many another 
skilled workman, has undergone many changes in the past 
decade. Just as the introduction of automatic machines 
has revolutionized nearly all manufacturing methods, so 
has the development of scientific paint making completely 
altered the character of the painter's trade. In the old 
days the master painter manufactured largely his own paint 
from the raw material. His head was full of secret formu- 
las picked up here and there in the course of his long ex- 
perience. The more secretive he was and the more he 
changed and manipulated his ingredients to suit imaginary 
differences in conditions, the more valuable employee he 
was considered. The preparation of his materials was of 
more importance than their application. If a certain secret 
mixture of oils and driers and pigments did not give satis- 
factory service, there was always some vague but sufficient 
excuse. Some of these old-time painters were skilful and 
efficient, considering the means at their disposal for mixing 
paints, but others worked by rule of thumb and trusted to 
luck and the ignorance of their superior officers. 

Modern paint making methods have relegated the shop 
paint grinder and the mixing barrel to the background, 
and have brought about the passing of the old-time master 
painter. The efficient painter of to-day takes the paints 
issued to him, ready to apply, and puts them on the wood 
strictly according to instructions issued by the manufac- 
turer of the paints. He is skilled with his hands, and need 
have no knowledge of what the paint contains or how it is 
mixed. The old prejudice against ready mixed paints is 
rapidly disappearing. ( rood paints are necessarily sold 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

largely on reputation, and there is nothing for the paint 
maker to gain in selling loaded or watered paint. The 
large manufacturer can buy oils and pigments cheaper and 
of better quality than can the small consumer. Precise 
factory methods insure uniformity of color and quality, and 
a new formula is not tried out on a car as a first experi- 
ment. The tendency in the paint business is to supply ma- 
terials as nearly ready to apply as packing and shipping 
will permit, leaving to the painter the single responsibility 
of putting them on the cars. 

Enforcing Permanent Instructions 

System is the foundation of the successful organization 
of shop and office forces. The heads of departments have 
too many other important duties to permit them to follow 
up, day by day, the routine work of every subordinate. It 
is necessary to outline the individual duties of each em- 
ployee, and it is also essential that all employees be guided 
by general instructions promulgated for permanent use. 
In every office there are numerous standard methods and 
practices which are supposed to be followed, but it fre- 
quently happens that they are disregarded, through ig- 
norance or neglect. The importance of having every em- 
ployee follow the general instructions covering these stan- 
dards, as well as special individual instructions, is apparent. 
It should be the duty, therefore, of heads of departments to 
define as clearly the general duties of all of the employees 
under them as they define their special duties. In the 
transportation department the bulletin board serves the 
purpose of calling the attention of the trainmen to stand- 
ing orders. The men are supposed to consult the bulletin 
board each day before taking out their cars. Neglect to 
do this is not considered an excuse for failure to obey 
these standing orders as long as they are posted on the 
board. The same plan lends itself to the promulgation of 
general and permanent instructions in the shops and in the 
office. Each subordinate who is given any responsibility 
should receive and receipt for a copy of each sheet of 
standing instructions issued from time to time, and at regu- 
lar periods should be required to sign a statement that he 
has read within a week all of the instructions and rules 
then in force. In this way the responsibility for violation 
of any of the rules or regulations can be placed directly. 
Of perhaps more importance is the incentive created for 
the men to actually study the instructions at frequent in- 
tervals, so that they will be refreshed in their minds. 

Open Cars and Pleasure Riding 

In many sections of the country the open car has always 
possessed a popularity for pleasure riding with the public 
which has not been attained by any other type of equip- 
ment. The objections of the open car from a traffic stand- 
point are serious. It takes longer to load an open car than 
it does for a closed car or semi-convertible car. The use 
of the open car demands a double equipment of rolling 
stock, and the presence of a running board introduces an 
undeniable source of danger. Nevertheless, there is a 
fascination, more pronounced in some sections of the coun- 
try than in others, but still quite general, about riding in 
an open car, and as long as there is such a demand the 
car will have a money value. 

Undoubtedly, the popularity of the open car is due 
largely to the fact that it affords the least possible ob- 
struction to the movement of fresh air through the car. 
This gives a sense of freedom to the passenger be- 
cause the car is not closed in front or on the sides. The 
sensation in riding is much more like that experienced in 
an automobile than in traveling in a car which is closed. 
From an operating standpoint, also, the open car has cer- 
tain undeniable advantages, and these, with the demand 
for the car on the part of the public, have led to its reten- 
tion, in spite of the competition of the modern semi-con- 
vertible car. If the latter, with its desirable features of 
minimizing accidents and investment in climates where 
there is changeable weather, is to supplant the open car, 
the good points of its rival should be studied, and as many 
of them as possible should be incorporated. Finally, if 
there are any meritorious features which can be introduced 
in the semi-convertible and not in the open car they should 
lie adopted. 

In considering this matter one should bear in mind that 
the greater part of the passenger traffic of the open car 
comes from pleasure travel, a very large factor in which 
is easy riding. Special attention should therefore be given 
to the trucks and their under attachments in the semi- 
convertible car. It is possible, too, that the use of screen 
doors instead of glass would improve the distribution of 
fresh air in circulation. It may even in time be necessary 
to use a grating construction of the side panels, although 
the principal difficulty in the semi-convertible appears to 
be due to the tendency of the vestibules to form air pockets. 
In some semi-convertible cars the doors of which are op- 
erated by compressed air a considerable portion of the car 
length is necessarily solid when the doors are of glass and 
slide toward the center of the car body in opening. Where 
possible, it would be well to open this portion of the car, 
and, presumably, some way might be found, in the season 
of pleasure travel, to attach temporary curtains to such 
openings for use in cases of storm. The problem is ad- 
mittedly difficult, but it seems clear that if the semi-con- 
vertible car is to obtain its full share of pleasure riding, 
it will have to be brought closer to the standards of at- 
mospheric circulation which have always made the open 
bench car so popular. 

Some Reasons for Going to Denver 

Discussion of the merits of Denver as a city for the 
convention of the American Street & Interurban Railway 
Association occupies so prominent a place in the current 
affairs of the companies that it may be well to epitomize 
some of the reasons why it is of measurable advantage 
for an official to attend a meeting of this character once 
a year. It will be assumed that the company which has 
under consideration as a proper business question the sub- 
ject of the expense of a trip to Denver for its officials is 
well managed and progressive. Its officials in all depart- 
ments are assumed to be those of a character that will 
seek improvement in methods and criticism of existing 
practice if anything better can be learned from the prac- 
tice of other roads. 

A man of systematic business habits, if attending a con- 
vention, will get well acquainted with a few people, meet 

July io, 1909.] 



a number of others, go to all the sessions of the various 
associations which the arrangement of their times of meet- 
ing will permit, and will inspect the exhibits thoroughly. 
By so doing he brings a new point of view into his own 
work. He gets away from the routine of his office or 
shop, and from that fact alone is able to consider problems 
in a way which is not always possible during close applica- 
tion to official duties. 

The advantage of personal acquaintance between two live 
men, occupying similar positions in different companies that 
are not competitive, is so plain that mere reference to it may 
be sufficient. From his own experience every man who 
thinks about the problems he has to solve will testify to the 
value of the ideas which he has received at some time in his 
life by discussion with others. Now, these ideas may result 
eventually as much to the benefit of the man himself as to 
the company that employs him, but the company is likely, 
in any event, to get its fair share of all that is learned. If 
the man is made a better railway operator, engineer, ac- 
countant, executive, or is equipped to fill the duties per- 
taining to any other department better, which will be the 
fact if full advantage is taken of all the opportunities pre- 
sented at an important convention of this nature, the in- 
dustry as a whole is benefited. If the officials do not make 
progress in their methods the system will not progress, 
and if it does not it will fail to keep up with the increas- 
ing traffic needs of every developing community in this 
country. These facts are incontrovertible, whether the 
convention is held in a city near or remote. 

Denver, it is true, is somewhat farther distant from the 
cities on the Atlantic seaboard than any other place which 
has been previously selected for a meeting of the Amer- 
ican Street & Interurban Railway Association. It is not, 
however, very much farther in point of time, as it can be 
reached from New York in from 48 to 60 hours, depending 
upon the trains taken and the connections made. This is 
only about 30 hours longer than if the convention was held 
in Chicago. In other words, if a person left New York at 
3 130 p. m. on Friday he could be in Denver at 3 p. m. on 
Sunday. The railroad fare will, of course, be somewhat 
more than if the convention was to be held in the Middle 
West, but the railroads are making special rates to Denver 
this year and the fare, in excess of that which would have 
to be paid to attend a convention in, say, Columbus or St. 
Louis, will not be a very large percentage of the total 
convention expenses of a delegate in one of these nearer 

On the other hand, all of the advantages which have 
been cited for attendance at a National railway con- 
vention are presented at Denver, and many others in 
addition. The farther away one goes from his own city 
the greater the difference in operating conditions are apt 
to be, and the more one will be able to learn by inspecting 
them. Especial attention has been given in Denver to 
certain features of operation, such as the general design of 
rolling stock and protection against lightning, and a week, 
or even three or four days, spent in that city should be 
extremely profitable to the operating superintendent, the en- 
gineer or any person connected with any of (he various 
departments of a railway company, independent of the gain 
derived from attending the convention itself. 

The Coney Island & Brooklyn Decision 

One of the long-expected decisions in regard to the 
proper fare to be charged between Brooklyn and Coney 
Island, that relating to the Coney Island & Brooklyn Rail- 
road Company, has just been handed down by the Public 
Service Commission, First District. That relating to the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has not yet been an- 
nounced. The position of the Coney Island & Brooklyn 
Railroad was peculiar, because it formerly had two rates 
of fare between Coney Island and Brooklyn, charging 10 
cents on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays and 5 cents on 
other days of the week. This fare was in force from 1902 
until Aug. 31, 1908, when the company, after 30 days' 
notice, advanced its fares on all days to 10 cents. 

The legal status of the situation can be briefly summed 
up by saying that some time before this advance in fare 
two complaints were lodged with the Public Service Com- 
mission, claiming that the 10-cent charge on Saturdays, 
Sundays and holidays was "unjust, unreasonable and un- 
lawful." The commission has been engaged during the past 
18 months in hearing testimony on and considering these 
claims. In the meantime the Legislature passed an act re- 
quiring both companies to reduce their fare to 5 cents, but 
this act was vetoed by Governor Hughes, because the sub- 
ject was under consideration by the commission. 

The decision delivered by Commissioner Bassett is pub- 
lished elsewhere in this issue, and is probably the most 
important relating to electric railway companies which has 
thus far been delivered by the commission. We shall not at- 
tempt to analyze the argument, because the position of thp 
commission is fully outlined in the decision itself, but it 
might be well to call attention to a few of the salient points. 

In the first place, the commission holds that an electric 
railway company is responsible for the maintenance of its 
property in good condition, not only now, but in past years, 
and declares that if a part of the funds which should have 
been used for such maintenance of the property has been 
paid out to the stockholders in dividends they should suffer, 
and not the public. The second point is that the commis- 
sion will not order a reduction of fares if the earnings of 
the company after maintaining the property in good con- 
dition will not also provide a proper return to the stock- 
holders. Commissioner Bassett does not state what he 
considers a proper return, but he does say that the com- 
mission will decline to reduce fares when the net earnings, 
after depreciation charges have been met, are not more 
than 6 to 6 r /> per cent of the physical value of the prop- 
erty, not including any allowance for franchises, good will, 
going concern or development charges. The third point 
indicated in the decision is that the commission will decide 
questions of this kind largely upon evidence obtained after 
the public hearings are closed, without giving the company 
an opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses. 

The question of fares on week days was not involved in 
the complaint received by the commission, and it declined 
to pass upon it, although Commissioner Bassett expresses 
an opinion that such an increase is unreasonable and un- 
justifiable and of slight profit to the company, but that the 
company has a legal right to make such a charge. On the 
question of the 10-cent fare on Saturdays, Sundays and 
holidays the commission decided in favor of the company. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 


The standardization of the trucks and car bodies operated 
on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company's surface lines has 
been accompanied by the introduction of various miscellane- 
ous improvements tending to increase the reliability of the 
service and to decrease the maintenance. The following 
paragraphs will discuss such alterations as may be of inter- 
est to other companies. 


When standardization of the surface equipment com- 
menced in July, 1906, there were about 15 truck designs 


Fig. 1 — Truck and Car Alterations — 21-in. Rolled Steel Pony 
Wheel for Maximum Traction Trucks 

in use. Since then the Peckham No. 6, Peckham No. 9, 
Brill No. 21-E and half a dozen other trucks have been 
eliminated, leaving the present distribution as follows: 
Peckham No. 25 and Baldwin No. 185 (of like construc- 
tion) on convertible cars; Peckham No. 14-D-5 on 200 
semi-convertible cars ; Brill No. 22-E maximum traction on 
250 semi-convertible cars, 513 double-truck closed cars, and 
750 double-truck open cars ; DuPont trucks for 77 single- 
truck closed cars and 163 single-truck open cars. Detailed 
descriptions of the latest surface and elevated trucks 
adopted by the company will be presented in another arti- 
cle, which will contain the specifications under which these 
trucks were built. 

In the actual truck framing very few changes have been 

even gone so far as to draw up a design for a rolled-steel 
pony wheel, as shown in the accompanying drawing, Fig. i. 
The first rolled-steel wheels were tried as early as 1905. 
The company's experience has proved the solid wheel to be 
cheaper on a mileage basis and decidedly safer through 
the elimination of broken flanges. The costs of rolled- 
steel and cast-iron driver and pony wheels compare as 

Rolled Rolled Cast Rolled Cast 

Material steel steel iron steel iron 

Diam., inches. . 34 33 33 21 20 

Cost per 10,000 

miles $1.1508 $1.04 $1.1628 $0.62 $0.6914 

Mileage 120,000 120,000 35,000 90,000 35,000 

The cost of the 21-in. rolled-steel pony wheel and of 
the 34-in. wheel is based on experience with 33-in. rolled- 
steel wheels. The 34-in. wheels are used as drivers on 
maximum traction trucks and the 33-in. wheels for the 
four-motor cars. Fig. 2 shows the profile record used 

A 1 N 




Fig. 4 — Truck and Car Alterations — Journal Box for Brill 
Maximum Traction Truck 

when rolled-steel wheels are checked upon delivery. This 
wheel profile is lettered in accordance with columns on the 
record blank, Fig. 3, thus serving as a convenient guide 
for the inspector. 

Only two axle diameters are now used on the surface 
cars. The latest type of semi-convertible car represented 
by class 2500 and the double-truck four-motor equipments 
have 4%-in. axles, but all other cars have 4-in. axles. The 
axles of most elevated motor cars except 36 cars with 
Baldwin trucks are 6 in. at the motor bearing, 6 7/16 in. 



























Figs. 2 and 3 — Truck and Car Alterations — 

required. Perhaps the only one which need be mentioned 
is the use of the tie-bars on the Brill maximum traction 
trucks and a new design of compression pin casting. 


The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has been using 
Schoen-Carnegie rolled-steel wheels for its elevated and 
surface M.C.B. trucks. It has now decided to use the same 
wheels for the drivers of maximum traction trucks and has 

Profile and Record Blank for Wheel Inspection 

at the wheel seat and 6}4 in. at the gear seat. The motor 
axles of the Baldwin trucks are 5^2 in. at the motor axle 
bearing, 6yi in. at the wheel seat and 7 in. at the gear seat. 
The axles of the 100 new class 1400 cars at 6y 2 in. at 
the motor bearing, 7^4 in. at tne wheel seat and 7 13/16 in. 
at the gear seat. The axles of trail trucks of motor cars 
are 5 in. in the center, 6 in. at the wheel seat and 6*4 in- 
inside the wheel hub. The axles on trail cars are 5^ in. 

July io, 1909.] 



at the wheel seat and taper from 5^ in. to 4^ in. at the 


For surface cars the company has decided to use the 
journal box standards of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Engineering Association except on maximum trac- 

to waste lubrication. This box is made dustproof by a 
1/16-in. lead gasket between the cover and box. The cover 
is secured to the box by two tapered bolts and lock nuts. 

The journal box standards in elevated service are as 
follows: Elevated trailers, 3^ x 6%-in. plain boxes with 
end-thrust stop wedges ; trailer and motor trucks of motor 





h — H 





Fig. 5 — Truck and Car Alterations — Standard Brake Rigging of Double Truck (Open) Surface Passenger Cars 

tion trucks where the axles are not suitable. The original 
Brill boxes furnished with the maximum traction trucks 
are being replaced by boxes designed by the railway com- 
pany which are similar to those used on its Peckham 
14-D-5 trucks. The Brill box had a large space reserved 
in the bottom for wick lubrication and was provided with 

cars with 414-in. x 8-in. M.C.B. journal boxes except the 
motor trucks of Class 1400, which have 5-in. x 9-in. jour- 


Double car-body brake levers have replaced the old 
brake rigging which consisted of a single lever and chain. 

Table of Stresses. at 5'J.l # 

Rods & Levers 



Tensile Stress 
Lbii. pur S'|. 1 1). 


Shearing Stress 
Lbs. per So. In. 

















— E 

,„) 15860 














Forward Truck 

Leverage Ratio 
Forward Truck^l : 287. r» 

Total Leverage Uutio=.l to 5115.4 

Leverage Ratio 
liear Truck = l : 247.9 

Car Nob, 


Lb. required ou Braku 
Htmdle tn k'iv.' Shoo 
Prosauro of OQjS of 
Total Weight of Car 


69. 1 

ELctric lly. Journal 

Fig. 6 — Truck and Car Alterations — Brake Leverage Diagram of Type O-45 Maximum Traction Truck for Cars 

Weighing 35,200 lb. 

a steel ring dust guard. The wick did not prove an effi- 
cient lubricator and has been replaced by the company's 
standard oily waste. The steel ring dust guard was objec- 
tionable as it cut into the axle and has therefore been 
superseded by a wooden guard. The journal boxes on the 

Of course, if the single-truck rod broke, the car was crip- 
pled for all braking purposes. Under the present condi- 
tions the destruction of one truck rod still permits the 
braking of the other truck. 

Brake leverage diagrams and tables of stresses in rods, 

four-motor equipments have also been changed from wick levers and pins have been calculated and recorded in blue- 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

print form for all classes of cars. Fig. 6. shows one of 
these records as prepared for the cars numbered 2500-2599, 
which are mounted on Standard O-45 maximum traction 


Two of the principal alterations in the brake rigging of 
the Peckham No. 25 truck shown in Fig. 7 are an increase 

r 1 


s V\ 

Hill o( Material 

No. Pes.. 




per Irk. 



iJrjke Link Hanger 

M ill. Iron 



•> t. Sleeve 


• 1 ** Bearing 

4 - 


« *• Block 



*' Shoe Head 

Cu«l Sleel 



Brake Shoe 


Lever J:. v. 

SMI. lloo 



Channel W ;i3ln.r 



Y Plug 



Connector Washer 

Cu*l Iron 





Live Lever 

airf'j 3)j" X 1" 

" II. SI.-..I 



Dead " 

2554" i 3"* 1" 



Live \ Dead Lever Conn. 

■HVi !« 



" Lever Guide 

U8"x 2 z If" 

U rol. Iroi 



Dead •* Bracket 

2G"x St| J , V 



Brake Beam 

ti"i 4"i li'x 4'10"L 




" •' Reinforcement Piute 

8"s 30" 


Livo Levea Connector 

2D"x 2"x W. 


Brake Shoe lvc\ 

H 'x K" 

-..II l-U'. 1 



Release Spring Bracket 

13'x «<•', 5«" 



Live & Dead Lever Bushing 

i 'Long, "11 




•' Lever Clevin 

i r)ia - * &V'» V'» -V 






Live I,c\cr Guide Holt 

H x 2 ' 

U I,u, 



Dead " Bracket Bolt 

=S"x 8H 



. 'i » Eye Pin 

K x 9" 



Li\ i- ■ ■ Cl'/vU itol( 




11 & Dead Lever " 

l"x SK 



Brake Lever Jaw " %i"x2" 



" Link T Bolt 

x lGSfj" Upset 

B.B. [run 



ILihL'er Lolt 

J4". 2 4 Jj'x 

u,„i [,„, 

12- ;, :i "i I: 


" Shoo Head Bolt 

3 a « 


'■ Rel. Spring Short 

if" W 


• • M 11 it Long 



IMoaae SpriiiL- ((racket Bolt 

?j"x 2H" 



Krake Link Bearing Rivet 




LIyo i: Dead Lever Conn. Rivet 

H I ,"lt.U. 


A A 

Drake Beam Rivets 






Release Spring 

Develupcil Length B t 1 y /3L'" [Sjirg. Sic. 






Cotter Brake llanner 

T Bolt X 2 ' 



» Dead Lever E 

e Fin VlS X 1J4 


Brake Lever Bolts 3 10 X 1'^ 

Fig. 7 — Truck and Car Alterations — Brake Rigging 

trucks. The average weight of these cars is 35,200 lb. 
(empty). It will be noted from the table that with a brake 

Electric Ry. Journal 

Assembly of the Peckham No. 25 Passenger Truck 

in the size and a change in the design of the brake hanger 
T-bolt. These alterations were made because of break- 






1 1 






1 ! ! 


i in 

r— I 







fa 3 < 

>1 g*, 

O "A Q •? fa S 


1908 1909 

Electric Ry. Jui-rnal 

Fig. 9— Truck and Car Alterations— Brake Shoe Costs -Per 
1000 Ton-Miles 

handle pressure of 59 lb. the pressure on the brake shoes 
equals 90 per cent of the weight of the car. The highest 
tensile stress in the brake rigging is 21,790 lb. per sq. in. 

Fig. 10. — Truck and Car Alterations — Vestibule for Double 
Truck Surface Cars 

ages of the old T-bolts, which caused the brake rigging to 
drop in the street. The T-bolt was increased from 1 in. to 
i}i in. It was strengthened by enlarging the bolt at the 

July io, 1909.] 



point where it was fastened to the head and eliminating 
the square corners at the intersection of the head and bolt. 
The head is also made oblong in shape, ij4 i n - x 1 V& m -> 
instead of 1 in. round as before, thus allowing additional 
wear. Changes similar to the foregoing are being made 
on the Taylor hangers, also used on the elevated line, i 

The brake beams originally furnished with the Peckham 
No. 25 trucks were too weak and first gave trouble by 
breaking in the center. This was remedied by the addi- 
tion of a ^-in. x 8-in. steel plate which was riveted to 
the horizontal leg of the original 4-in. x 6-in. x J-4-in. 
angle. There has since been some trouble from the beams 
breaking near the ends where the leg of the angle is cut 
away for the brake shoes. This is now taken care of when 
installing new brake-shoe heads by substituting a brake 
beam which is 1 in. wider and gives ample strength at that 
point. The Taylor brake hangers were so located that they 
fouled the gear cases when the brake shoes were worn and 
the wheels low. The location is 
now being shifted toward the 
side of the truck. Incidentally, 
this change admits using an in- 
terchangeable brake beam with 
the Peckham No. 100 freight 
truck. At the present time all 
motors on Peckham No. 25 and 
No. 100 trucks are rigidly sus- 
pended to the angle iron of the 
truck frame, but they will even- 
tually be arranged for spring 

All this truck change-over 
work is being done on a main- 
tenance basis. When one brake 
beam breaks the other three are 
also removed, but are used on 
other cars instead of being 
scrapped. In this way the 
change-over is made without ex- 
cessive expense. 


Fig. 8 shows the details of 
the brake-beam stop or anti- 
chattering device as made for 
the pony and driving ends of 
Brill maximum traction trucks. 
The old stop casting, which had 
a smooth back and a long cen- 
ter hole, through which it was 
bolted to the truck bar, used to 
give trouble by sliding up and 
away from the brake beam. This 

Journal of Oct. 24, 1908, a resume only will be given here 
for the sake of completeness. The figures on life and cost, 
however, cover periods later than those given in the earlier 
article. , 

Standardization of brake shoes was first considered in 
1903 when there were 27 types on the surface and 13 on 
the elevafed lines. By changes in the brake rigging, par- 
ticularly on utility cars, the surface patterns have been 
reduced to 22 and the elevated patterns to 4. Eventually 
there will be but two patterns, one for 33-in. and 34-in. 
wheels and one for 20-in. ponies These two standards 
are in accordance with the recommendations of the Ameri- 
can Street & Interurban Railway Engineering Association 
for ' wheels with narrow treads. They are made by the 
American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company as patterns 
M-512 and M-582, respectively. New heads to take these 
shoes have been designed throughout. 

As a considerable number of the old patterns are still 





Material pemjks 



MALL. (RON ^Vah' 



MALL. IRON F°fi E| ™V<S 


8RAKE~b"eam" STOP " 



3 ^'piA. X 4"B0LT 


3 /4 DIA. X aVa BOLT 



S /i'DIA. 2 1 '4BOLT 









Fig. 8— Truck and Car Alterations— Details of Brake Beam Stop for Maximum Traction 


has been overcome in 
the new casting by cutting oblique grooves in the back 
to permit height adjustment. A wrought-iron shim at the 
bottom provides for wear. Fig. 8 is accompanied by a 
bill of material, from which it will be noted that new bolts 
and washers were not required in making the change. 


The sand box being an important factor has also been 
given attention. The surface cars arc equipped with some 
"Flam" sand boxes, hut the majority arc of the "Reliable" 

BRAKE shoes 

As the brake-shoe standardization practice of the com- 
pany was quite fully described in the Electric Railway 

in service every endeavor is made to get the maximum 
wear from the different brake shoes. Each foreman is fur- 
nished with a blue print showing the attainable wear of 
each type of shoe as proved by experience and it is his 
duty to see that these standards are at least maintained if 
not bettered. This surface railway was the first to keep 
brake-shoe costs on a ton-mile basis, believing that this 
unit offers fairer comparisons than the train-mile. The 
ton-stop unit would be even better if such a comparison 
were practicable under the wide variety of running con- 
ditions involved in city service. The accompanying curve 
sheet, Fig. 9, shows the ton-mile brake-shoe cost records 
lor the period from January, 1907,, to April, 1909. These 
costs do not include credits for scrap. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 


It is rather difficult to present any detailed description 
of the rehabilitation of the surface car bodies because so 
much of the work was simply a thorough overhauling of 
neglected rolling stock. Sagging platforms in particular 
were noticeably frequent. On steel-supported platforms 
this defect was eliminated by reinforcing the channel iron 
knees by riveting an additional plate inside the channel. 
During 1906 the company began to install on all cars 


No. 7 U.S. Sid. 

J — Shfet yteol 

Fig. 11 — Truck and Car Alterations — Standard Step for 
Surface Cars 

semi-inclosed Sjoberg vestibules of the three-light design 
shown in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 10. The vesti- 
bule sash is made with both upper and lower tracks. On 
the later four-motor cars the vestibules are of practically 
the same type, but they are built in the posts extending from 
the crown piece to the bonnet, whereas old car vestibules 
are built up from the dash to the top. 

these details for the convertible car of the 2500 series 
introduced in 1907. This car is 38 ft. 2> 3 A m - overall, 28 ft. 
over the body and is 7 ft. wide overall. The body under- 
framing is of wood and the platforms are carried on 6-in. 
x 3^2-in. x ^-in. outside angles, reinforced at the end 
sill by 5-in. x 3-in. x %-in. angles. Interesting features 
of the floor framing are the sub-end sills placed 9% in. 
from the end sill ; the connection of the cross-sills to the 
side sills by standard angles instead of ordinary bent an- 
gles, and the reinforcement of the side sills by a ^Hs-in. x 
8-in. steel plate. 

The seats in the four-motor convertible cars from the 
3700 type upward were originally rattan-covered. The 
maintenance of these seats is so high, owing to their rapid 
deterioration and even wanton destruction, that it has 
been decided to substitute wooden seats. The slats are 
made of cherry % in. thick x 1 11/16 in. wide. It is figured 
that the cost of a wooden seat and back will be less than 
that for recovering the present seat with rattan. This 
work is being done coincident with truck changes. 


Cast-steel buffer reinforcing castings have been built for 
both the open and closed cars to strengthen the buffers in 
the center. This improvement was made to prevent the 
bending usually caused by striking other vehicles or by 
the binding of draw-bars in the buffer angle iron on curves 
As the buffer height of the open cars is about 12 in. more 
than that of the closed cars the reinforcing casting of the 
former is provided with an apron which prevents it from 
riding over the bumper of a closed car ahead. 


To prevent scorching from electric heaters it was deter- 




n n 

Fig. 12 — Truck and Car Alterations — Underframe of Surface Convertible Passenger Cars, 1907 Type 

The Universal safety tread is the standard for all surface 
cars except the four-motor equipments, which have Stan- 
wood steps. Ijhe length of the step is 2 ft. 9 in. and the 
width is 11 in., including the curve on the step. The tread 
is placed on No. 7 sheet steel and is 23^ in. long and $ l /> 
in. wide overall. The latest surface car underframing and 
platform practice is shown in Fig. 12, which presents 

mined to allow 5 in. between the front of the seat and the 
seat riser panel to which the heater is attached. This has 
been done in both elevated and surface cars. The old cars 
standardized have heat deflectors made of a wooden board 
lined with transite. The new cars have a galvanized-iron 
deflector which it is believed will give better satisfaction 
at a lower cost. This arrangement is illustrated in Fig. 14, 

July io, 1909.] 



which shows in section a side post and seat of the con- 
vertible surface cars first built in 1907. 


Over 550 of the semi-convertible cars have removable 
sash which are held in place by a metal capping extending 
its entire length. This capping is held by screws passing 
through the post with the head on the inside of the post in 
a cup washer. In the older cars a steel bolt was used with 
a plain instead of a flanged washer, but it was found that 
the rusting of the steel gave a bad appearance. In the 
later cars a bronze screw is used and the washer is flanged 
to prevent the screwdrivers from slippingg and scratching 
the wood. This also give a neater appearance as it covers 
up the joint between the washer and the woodwork. The 



Fig. 13 — Truck and Car Alterations — Buffer Reinforcing 
Casting for Surface Cars 

space between the post is 1/32 in. less than the thickness of 
the sash so when the sash capping is installed it will be 
tight against it and prevent rattling. The sash numbers 
are stamped on the post corresponding to numbers on the 

The standard curtain material for the closed semi-con- 
vertible cars is Pantasote pattern J, color 74, with Harts- 
horn tin rollers and Acme open-car cable fixtures. The 
material for closed cars is the same, but the company has 
adopted the No. 88 ring fixture of the Curtain Supply Com- 
pany. This is interchangeable with the Forsyth 86 used 
on most cars and displaces the Burrowcs type. The mate- 
rial for single-truck open cars is duck with Acme open- 

car cable fixture, but for double-truck open cars and the 
118 convertible elevated cars there has been adopted a 
double-coated Pantasote, the inside face color 82 and the 
outside color 74. This double color was adopted because 
on the open cars the shade gets discolored on the inside. 
Pantasote is readily cleaned and recolored. 


Fig. 15 shows the standard arrangement of transfer, 
spitting and similar signs on the bulkhead of open surface 

Fig. 14 — Truck and Car Alterations — Side Post and Seat of 
1907 Type Convertible Surface Car 

cars. The locations of the same signs on closed cars are 
the same except that the "Notice to Passengers" is placed 
in the side molding. These general arrangements were 

Illegal ihc of Transfer Notice 
Bunded uu Ulaa» 

Fig. 15 — Truck and Car Alterations — Diagram of Signs on 
Bulkhead on Open Surface Passenger Cars 

fixed after conference between the superintendents of the 
mechanical and transportation departments and the car ad- 
vertising contractor. 

A sheet steel side destination sign is installed in the 
diagonal corners of every elevated motor car. The por- 
tion underneath this sign has the car number painted in 
white letters on a black background of sanded glass. 

7 o 



The Wisconsin Electric & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion and the Northwestern Electrical Association held a 
joint meeting at the Grand View Hotel, Chain O' Lakes, 
near Waupaca, June 28 and 29, 1909. This summer meet- 
ing was called by the officers of the two associations to fur- 
nish a means of discussing operating topics of interest to 
electric railway and light companies and incidentally to 
give members a chance for a brief outing along with the 
convention. Sixteen electric railway and lighting com- 
panies of Wisconsin were represented. The sessions were 
presided over partly by Clement C. Smith, of Milwaukee, 
president of the Wisconsin Electric & Interurban Railway 
Association, and Ernest Gonzenbach, of Sheboygan, presi- 
dent of the Northwestern Electrical Association. 

One of the important results of the meeting was the 
consolidation of the two associations, which has been 
talked about for some 18 months as being desirable and 
probably inevitable. The sentiment was unanimous in 
favor of this consolidation, inasmuch as both associations 
are now practically limited to the State of Wisconsin. 
Years ago the Northwestern Electrical Association was 
formed to cover a number of States, but by the organizing 
of various State associations in the States surrounding 
Wisconsin the territory has gradually been limited to the 
State of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Electric & Interur- 
ban Railway Association, consisting of electric railway 
and lighting companies in Wisconsin, was organized re- 
cently with the double object of having occasional meetings 
for the discussion of operating topics and for taking up 
various matters in connection with the Wisconsin com- 
mission and Wisconsin legislation. The consolidation of 
the two associations has been hindered somewhat by the 
fact that the Northwestern Electrical Association has not 
technically been limited to the State of Wisconsin. Under 
the new arrangement individual membership in the associ- 
ation without vote, but with all other privileges of the as- 
sociation, is given to all former individual members. In- 
dividual memberships will cost $5 per year. The company 
or Class A members with voting power pay dues at the 
rate of one-tenth of 1 per cent of their gross receipts. 

The question of consolidation of the associations was 
first brought up in an executive committee meeting of the 
Northwestern Electrical Association the afternoon of June 
28. After considerable discussion it was decided to recom- 
mend to the two associations a consolidation to be carried 
out as follows: The name of the association is to be the 
Wisconsin Electrical Association. The membership is to 
consist of companies and individuals as before outlined. 
Various company members of the Wisconsin association 
agreed to subscribe enough to wipe out the debt of the 
Northwestern association, amounting to about $300, thus 
allowing the consolidated association to start with a clean 
slate. Dues are to be paid beginning with Jan. 1, 1910. 
Owing to the incompleteness of records, no attempt will 
be made to collect delinquent dues. All present and former 
members wishing to continue membership shall pay alike, 
beginning with Jan. 1, 1910. 

This plan of the executive committee was presented to 
the association at the morning session June 29 and was 
unanimously adopted by both associations. The executive 
committees of the two associations were then directed to 
draft a constitution and by-laws and nominate officers to 
serve until the annual meeting in January, 1910. At a 
special session held at 2 p. m., June 29, C. C. Smith, speak- 
ing for the joint committee, reported in favor of a con- 

stitution the same as that of the Wisconsin Electric & In- 
terurban Railway Association, with the additional pro- 
visions for membership recommended by the executive 
committee already outlined. The committee placed in 
nomination two tickets, one consisting of the former officers 
of the Wisconsin association and the other of the former 
officers of the Northwestern association. The election re- 
sulted in a mixed ticket from the officers of the two asso- 
ciations, as follows: Ernest Gonzenbach, of Sheboygan, 
was elected president, being formerly president of the 
Northwestern association; Clement C. Smith, of Milwau- 
kee, former president of the Wisconsin association, was 
elected first vice-president; Irving P. Lord, of Waupaca, 
was made second vice-president, and George B. Wheeler, 
of Eau Claire, was made third vice-president. The secre- 
tary and treasurer is John S. Allen, of Lake Geneva, for- 
merly secretary of the Northwestern association. 

This consolidation will result in one good, strong asso- 
ciation for Wisconsin, and will relieve the uncertainty as 
to the future of the Northwestern Electrical Association 
which has been hanging over it for some eight years past. 
Every one was agreed as to the importance of keeping up 
the work of the Wisconsin Electric & Interurban Railway 
Association as regards legislative matters. Lest there be 
some misunderstanding as to just what this work consists 
of, a few words about the association's method of handling 
legislative matters will be in order. It is well known that 
whenever a State legislature convenes numerous bills are 
proposed which are ill advised and likely to do damage 
to the industries which they affect. It is necessary that 
the bad points of these bills be pointed out and brought 
forcibly to the attention of legislative committees or other 
members of the Legislature if the passage of such legisla- 
tion is to be avoided. Under the old methods of handling 
these matters the smaller companies of a State were obliged 
either to ignore such injurious proposed legislation and 
trust to luck that it be not passed or go to considerable 
expense and trouble to present their cases individually. 
The plan now in use in Wisconsin and rather imperfectly 
carried out in some other States also is for the association 
to employ some competent attorney to keep track of pro- 
posed legislation affecting electric railway and lighting 
companies and to present to the committees or to the 
individual legislators reasons why such legislation should 
not pass. The expense of maintaining this service by a 
competent attorney is borne by the various members of 
the association and the cost is much less than if dependence 
were placed in the individual efforts of various companies. 
In many cases the managers of individual companies would 
take chances on the passage of a bill rather than go to the 
expense of a trip to Madison. Under the present arrange- 
ment no such chances need be taken as to obscure meas- 
ures, as the association's attorney watches all legislation 
affecting its members. 


At the first session, which was held Monday morning, 
June 28, E. W. Fairchild, of Milwaukee, the attorney who 
has handled the association's legislative matters for the 
past year, made a report on recent legislation in Wiscon- 
sin affecting public utilities. He said that but little legis- 
lation affecting such utilities had been passed the last ses- 
sion. The reason for this is that the public utility law 
providing for the commission has solved so many of the 
problems which come u'p in connection with public utili- 
ties. Matters are now left to the commission which for- 
merly would have been the subject of bills before the 

July io, 1909.] 



Legislature. He called attention to the large amount of 
work involved in keeping track of proposed legislation. 
Every bill must be read carefully sentence by sentence, 
because some overlooked paragraphs or joker in a bill may 
be of great importance and may be passed by the Legisla- 
ture without full knowledge of its intent. 

Amendments to the Wisconsin public utility law were 
made last session to cover the following points of interest 
to electric railway companies. The time before which 
companies may voluntarily give up their franchises and 
avail themselves of an indeterminate franchise under the 
power of the commission was extended from July r, 1908, 
to Jan. 1, 191 1. On the latter date the question may be 
reopened as to whether all companies shall be forced to 
give up their franchises and take indeterminate permits. 
Mr. Fairchild said that it looked very much as if such 
action would be taken in 191 1. The Wisconsin commis- 
sion is very much in favor of the indeterminate permit 
idea on the grounds that a definite period of expiration of 
the franchise involves uncertainty as to the future of the- 
property and necessitates higher rates than would be 
necessary if the company could continue to do business 
indefinitely on its good behavior. Another change in the 
utility law makes it necessary to have a vote of the people 
in a city or town before any public utility can be pur- 
chased by the municipality. The temperature in cars was 
before required to be kept at 70 deg. under all conditions. 
This has been modified to read 60 to 70 deg. whenever 
reasonably profitable. Waiting rooms are now required on 
interurban roads in towns of 150 population and over. 
In case of injury of a person at a railroad crossing the 
burden of proof of the carelessness of the person injured 
is upon the company. The law now makes prosecution of 
those caught stealing electricity easier than before, be- 
cause it removes the value limitation previously imposed. 
The matter of industrial insurance will doubtless come up 
at the next special session of the Legislature. 

In the discussion which followed Mr. Fairchild was asked 
as to whether there seemed to be any likelihood that the 
present commission law of the State would be repealed, as 
there had been some agitation on that subject. Mr. Fair- 
child replied that he thought such a move extremely im- 
probable. The movement against the commission orig- 
inated in one point which failed to get reduced rates in a 
certain hearing and had made but little progress. The 
Legislature and commission are working in very close 
touch and harmony and the ideas of the commission on 
any subject are taken almost as law by the Legislature. 


R. T. Gunn, general manager of the Eastern Wisconsin 
Railway & Light Company, Fond du Lac, read a paper on 
"Purchase of Coal on Straight Contract or B.t.u. Basis." 

He stated that in generating power by steam the cost 
of coal is about 75 per cent of the entire expense. In 
most properties the one item of fuel is almost as much as 
the combined labor payrolls of the entire property. Mr. 
Gunn after a' year of investigation feels that it is demon- 
strated beyond a doubt that the only proper method of 
making coal purchases is on a heat unit or B.t.u. rating. 
All the larger coal companies, and especially those who 
handle the best grades of fuel, are only too anxious to sell 
on a guarantee of so many heat units per pound of coal 
and are willing to contract and make settlements on 
analyses at the end of each month, the purchaser paying 
the bonus where coal exceeds the guarantee and withhold- 
ing where the coal does not come up to the guarantee. , To 

go more into detail, he gives an example of how this may 
be worked out in practice. In this locality Youghiogheny 
screenings may be bought on a guarantee of 13,000 B.t.u. 
per pound of coal. To determine what the coal will aver- 
age and obtain a fair test, a small sample is saved from 
each day's delivery. These samples are mixed thoroughly 
and at the end of the month analyzed. Care must be taken 
to keep samples in airtight jars. The coal may be wet and 
the analysis should tell the condition of the coal as actually 
received and not after it has been air dried. Local con- 
ditions figure more in buying coal than in any other de- 
partment of the business. Some may find it economy to 
buy cheap and low grades of fuel, while others may find 
economy in the best fuel containing the highest number of 
heat units per pound, although comparatively much higher 
in price per ton. Two examples illustrate this. In one 
power plant which is equipped with B. & W. water-tube 
boilers one boiler is sufficient to carry the load 18 hours 
out of the 24, a second being added over the peak load. 
With low-grade coal containing a large amount of ash 
this would be impossible, as furnaces would have to be 
cleaned during the 18-hour period. This plant, therefore, 
uses the best coal obtainable. When low-grade coals were 
used three boilers were required to carry the peak load and 
two boilers at all times. A saving of $10,000 per annum 
is now being made in this plant by using the higher grade 
fuel. These results have been obtained by making B.t.u. 
tests over a period of several months with different kinds 
of coal. The same company has another plant equipped 
with Jones underfeed stokers which when operating on 
high-grade coal shows only a slight saving over the cheaper 
grades of coal. The human element is one which must 
have more consideration if the best results are to be 
obtained. Firemen can lose or save more money for a 
public utility than any other laborer connected with the 
organization. This accounts in a great many instances for 
the fact that the management does not obtain much better 
results from high-grade than from inferior coals. Pur- 
chasing fuel on a B.t.u. basis stops the practice of deliv- 
ering coal from mines other than that called for in the 
contract, so that the coal is not uniform. The time will 
soon arrive when all fuel will be purchased on its real 
value like any other commodity. 

In presenting his paper Mr. Gunn also emphasized the 
economy to be obtained by forcing boilers to their maxi- 
mum capacity. Part of the saving in the plants he re- 
ferred to is due to this forcing and not allowing boilers 
to run underloaded. 

C. N. Duffy, Milwaukee, said that June 1 the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company entered into a con- 
tract for the purchase of coal on a B.t.u. basis as a result 
of investigations. The company is now obtaining coal of 
a better average heat value than before and at a lower 

Some questions were raised by members as to the value 
of continuous CO., flue gas recorders or indicators as a 
guide for firemen. One member thought them too expen- 
sive for an ordinary plant. Another thought that recording 
steam-pressure gages did almost as well, because they re- 
quired uniform handling of fires. Ernest Gonzenbach, 
however, exploded the idea that a uniform steam pressure 
meant proper handling of fires. He tolcl of his experience 
in the management of a North Carolina plant which pre- 
sented a beautiful steam chart, but where the coal economy 
was poor. The firemen were in the habit of loading the 
furnaces as full of coal as they could he piled and then 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

sitting down to play the banjo. By a reform in firing 
methods the monthly coal bill was cut down from $5,000 
to $2,200. In regard to methods of estimating output for 
figuring coal consumption per kw-hour he called attention 
to the fact that some companies take the total kw-hours 
generated rather than the total kw-hours sent out of the 
station. Deducting the current used in the station to 
assist in the production of energy sometimes made con- 
siderable difference. In the Sheboygan plant the consump- 
tion averages about 5 lb. of coal per kw-hour actually 
sent out. 

J. R. Cravath, Chicago, in answer to a question as to 
the use of the Venturi meter for measuring the water fed 
to boilers, told of the practice of the Rockford (111.) Elec- 
tric Company, which keeps a Venturi meter with a re- 
cording chart in the feed line of the boilers. This records 
continuously the rate of boiler feed and the man in charge 
f>i the fireroom is not allowed to start an additional boiler 
in operation until the meter indicates that the rate of 
water consumption is considerably in excess of the rated 
load of the boilers in service. This keeps the boilers well 
loaded at all times. There is more in heavy loading of 
boilers than at first appears. When a boiler is being forced 
a fireman must of necessity handle his fire so as to get 
a fair degree of economy from the coal in order to keep 
up steam. There is no leeway for the formation of air 
holes in the fire. 

R. T. Gunn spoke very favorably of the use of a Will- 
iams regulator to keep a constant height of water in the 
boiler. This prevents water being allowed to get low and 
other conditions not conducive to economy or safety. 

W. D. Voth, chief engineer, Sheboygan Light, Power 
& Railway Company, gave an outline of the premium plan 
which has been in use for four years in the Sheboygan 
plant with great success. The company inaugurated this 
plan at a time when it was found that fuel oil and mis- 
cellaneous power-house supplies were costing 1.1 cents 
per kw-hour. The power-house force is given a premium 
amounting to 10 per cent of the saving below 1. 1 cents per 
kw-hour. The premium is divided among the men in pro- 
portion to their respective salaries. It is really in the 
nature of a gradual increase of salary, because the larger 
the output and the better the load factor the larger the 
amount available for premium. Mr. Gonzenbach said that 
he thought it better to pay an increase in this way than 
by raising salaries. 

W. E. Haseltine, Ripon, reported having used a simi- 
lar premium plan in the power house successfully. He has 
a combined water and light plant. The output of the plant 
in horse-power-hours is figured both in electricity and in 
water pumped. This was determined for each month of 
the year before the premium plan was begun because the 
relative amounts of electricity and water put out vary 
from month to month. The plan is to give the fireman 
20 per cent of the saving in coal per hp-hour by compari- 
son with the same month of the year before the premium 
plan went into effect. 


R. M. Howard, Green Bay Traction Company, read a 
paper on "Summer Parks," which applied to parks in and 
near cities with a population in the neighborhood of 30,000. 
He said that an amusement park fitted up with good at- 
tractions in the neighborhood of such a city would usually 
attract big crowds for one or two years until the novelty 
wore off, after which there is likely to be a decline. He 
took up a case of such a park and figured out the cost of 

maintenance of the park and the interest and depreciation 
on the extra rolling stock required to handle its peak 
traffic. His figures were very discouraging to any com- 
pany attempting to maintain such a park. 

Mr. Gonzenbach, of Sheboygan, spoke along the same 
lines. He figured that his company is making money by 
keeping its park closed. The park traffic looked good to 
the uninitiated, but really there was a deficit. The fixed 
expenses of maintenance, the extra cars required and the 
accidents which occur in connection with handling such 
crowds were against profits. His experience with baseball 
parks was also discouraging. The traffic was of such a 
short peak-load nature that it yielded little revenue com- 
mensurate with the cost of contributing to the park and 
the extra rolling stock. In the lighting business peak 
loads are avoided because of the small returns that they 
gave on the necessary investment. In the railway business 
the companies seem to have been exerting themselves to 
secure this very peak-load business. 

Irving P. Lord, of Waupaca, told of his experience with 
a baseball park. The baseball enthusiasts of Waupaca 
came to him asking for support for baseball games. His 
company furnished the land for the park and transported 
the players as a contribution to the baseball movement. 
After running in that way a year the baseball people 
wanted further financial help. The venture had not been 
profitable to the company. More people wanted to ride 
home at once at the close of a game than this small road 
had cars to handle, and this caused dissatisfaction and 
criticism of the service. Ball games had been held on 
Sunday. He had found that the weather being equal, 
Sundays without ball games give street railway receipts 
about the same as those on which there are ball games. 
This meant that people were traveling in other directions 
and, furthermore, the crowd which goes out into the coun- 
try or elsewhere on Sunday is a much better one to handle, 
as it is distributed through the day. Electric Park, which 
his company owns, has been concessioned so that the com- 
pany has no expense of maintenance. He thinks that much 
the best way. 

George B. Wheeler, of Eau Claire, expressed himself 
as somewhat concerned with the adverse reports on pleas- 
ure-resort traffic profits given by Messrs. Howard, Gonzen- 
bach and Lord. His company had just started a resort 
under conditions which seemed to him favorable for mak- 
ing it a profitable venture. The ground has been ob- 
tained at a nominal rent. It is situated on an existing 
line of track so that no new track investment is required 
and is between a town of 20,000 on one end of the line and 
10,000 on the other end. About $5,000 has been appro- 
priated to pay the expenses of this traffic for the coming 
season. He did not favor once-a-week amateur baseball, 
but rather a professional ball club with frequent week- 
day games. His company had appropriated $500 per month 
toward baseball. 

Mr. Gonzenbach called attention to the fact that con- 
certs, theaters and baseball games are productive of peak- 
load traffic because of the large number of people which 
must be moved at once. He therefore favored a park with 
continuous attractions of some kind which are not ex- 
pensive to maintain. 

Clement C. Smith stated his experience with the Sterling 
& Dixon (111.) line, where a large amount of money had 
been spent in a park midway between the towns. The 
result was a most dismal failure. The leading attraction 
in that park now is a cage of monkeys. 

July io, 1909.] 



Mr. Howard said that on his company's interurban park 
open-air dances were held twice a week and found to be 
profitable, as the crowd going to these dances could be 
handled on the regular cars. 


Thursday morning Prof. Cyril M. Jansky gave a paper 
and talk on the work which the University of Wisconsin 
is doing to spread scientific information of everyday use 
among those engaged in various industries. The old idea, 
he said, was to cultivate culture simply for culture's sake, 
and that culture was only for gentlemen. The idea of 
making culture serve any useful end would have been 
scorned. The professor then brought out the idea that to 
advance the welfare of a people scientific principles must 
be applied to all things industrial. Scientific knowledge 
must be made to permeate down among the masses. He 
then told of the Wisconsin University extension work 
which is being conducted to help men in various indus- 
tries to learn more about the processes which they handle 
and to become educated in the principles and so become 
more effective and useful members of society and better 
employees of the companies for which they work. These 
courses are carried on by correspondence and by occa- 
sional visits of instructors to places where classes may be 
formed. The general plan is to fit the work to the in- 
dividual in each case, which, of course, involves much 
work by the instructors. The work is carried on by means 
of a State appropriation for the purpose, but a nominal fee 
is charged for tuition because people in general do not 
appreciate things which are free. The work differs from 
ordinary commercial correspondence school work in that 
it is not a commercial or money-making scheme, being sup- 
ported by the State. 

Professor Jansky's remarks were received with much 
interest and appreciation by the managers present, and it 
appeared from the discussion that all prized the oppor- 
tunities which this university extension work offers to 
men in the employ of various companies who wish to be- 
come better posted along various lines of value to them- 
selves and their companies. 

John S. Allen, Lake Geneva, spoke specifically of hav- 
ing a boiler-room man who is looking for just this kind 
of instruction. 

Clement C. Smith suggested that where there is a group 
of properties or network of interurban lines classes might 
be formed to meet at some central point. The question 
was then asked as to the effect on the men of such edu- 
cation and whether it did not soon result in their employ- 
ment by other companies in better positions. The con- 
sensus of opinion and experience seemed to be that men 
who work diligently at correspondence or other courses are 
likely to become too valuable to remain in the same posi- 
tion long, but this was not considered an objection to the 
plan, but rather as a proof of its success. As one member 
put it, "We want the kind of men that are going ahead. 
We do not want men that no other company wants." 

R. T. Guntl said that the employees of this company had 
derived much benefit from a kind of educational meeting 
which is held every two weeks. 

Ernest Gonzcnbach emphasized the point that there is 
really no place on an electric railway system for a purely 
unskilled laborer. Even the least skilled man of the lot 
who is working along the track needs a certain amount of 
special knowledge and the scale of wages should be such 
as to hold these specially good men. Considerable was 
said during the discussion about better education of men 

in the boiler-room. Mr. Gonzenbach thought that better 
educated men were needed in the car shop even more than 
in the boiler-room. 

C. N. Duffy, Milwaukee, expressed much appreciation 
of the address of Professor Jansky of the university work 
of which he is the director. He thought the point should 
be strongly emphasized that the greatest work that the 
university can do is in the education of the unskilled 
laborer. The more men there are who leave operating 
companies because they are too good for the companies 
the better it will be for all of the companies. All that 
had been said about need for better knowledge in the boiler- 
room applied with equal force to the common worker in 
the accounting department. 

In closing Professor Jansky called special attention to 
the university's six weeks' summer school for artisans, in 
which those taking correspondence work can come to the 
university and have the advantages of the regular labora- 
tories and learn laboratory methods. Nearly everything 
can be learned by correspondence except knowledge of 
laboratory methods and apparatus, and this can be obtained 
in the six weeks' summer course. 


Mr. Gonzenbach then gave a talk on the undesirability 
of certain classes of business in both the electric railway 
and electric lighting fields. In connection with electric 
lighting this unprofitable business is, of course, that which 
is on for a short time during the company's heaviest peak 
load, which yields a small yearly revenue, but calls for 
large investment in apparatus and consequently large in- 
terest and depreciation charges. 

The electric light man, he said, had by this time come 
to recognize that purely peak-load business is not desirable. 
In the railway business, however, we have apparently done 
all we can to pile business into peaks. By means of base- 
ball and amusement parks immense crowds were gotten 
together, all of which had to be handled within a short time 
each day or each week and for a few weeks each year, 
and as if that were not enough fares had been reduced to 
get a crowd. Apparently the railway man liked excite- 
ment and he usually got it. The amusement park doubt- 
less amused the natives, but did not amuse the railway man 
at the end of the season. As to park attractions, let them 
be the natural attractions of an attractive piece of land, 
if possible, without expensive maintenance charges. In- 
terurban lines having natural parks obtained from them 
a net gain of traffic without any added cost of operation. 

Something which had set him to thinking some time 
ago was the discovery that 10 to 15 per cent of his interur- 
ban revenue came from a single small community a short 
distance out of town. He is now devising means for 
ultimately securing a continuous settlement of suburbanites 
along the interurban line, getting people who work in the 
city to live in the country. In order to work up this 
suburban-home idea he began to look up available litera- 
ture on suburban topics. He found that none of it was 
suited for the possible suburbanite of small means. He 
therefore had a paper prepared called the "Suburban Out- 
look," which he also arranged to supply to other neighbor- 
ing interurban roads. 

After the conclusion of Mr. Gonzcnbach's address the 
meeting adjourned. 

Separate cars for women, which were tried in the Hud- 
son Tunnels, were withdrawn on July 1, as the experiment 
proved a failure. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 


The high-speed double-track interurban line of the Sche- 
nectady Railway Company connecting Albany and Schenec- 
tady parallels the State highway for about 12 miles. Last 
year the New York Good Roads Commission rebuilt the 
highway and laid a macadam road. In the course of this 
work it was necessary to build seven culverts under the 
roadway to drain the land on each side. The Schenectady 
Railway Company was required to build an equal number 
of connecting culverts under its right of way. The type of 
construction used by the railway company is shown in the 
accompanying engraving. 

The tracks were first shored up by the section gangs, two 
5-in. T-r-ails, 30 ft. long, being placed under each rail. The 
excavation, consisting mostly of sand and some back fill, 
was then started by the construction gang. The foundation 
concrete was a 1-3-6 mixture with 2-in. stone and was 
placed without forms. Small rubble stones, spaced about 
2 ft. apart, were set in concrete to act as binders for the 
side walls. When the foundation had set, the side walls 


Excavation, 62 cu. yd., at 40 cents; 1-3-6 concrete, 26.5 
cu. yd., at $6.50; 1-2-4 concrete, 7.5 cu. yd., at $8; 7-in. 
girder rail, 17 pieces, weighing 2275 lb., at $15 scrap value; 
Clinton wire mesh, 175 sq. ft., at 10 cents. The prices given 
are average prices and include cost of transporting and in- 
stalling in place. The average actual cost of each of the 
culverts was about $290, to which should be added $40 for 
shoring up and replacing tracks and $15 for engineering 
and superintendence, making the total cost approximately 

$345- „ 


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El. 05.70 j 

The report of Joseph P. Burlingame, Railroad Commis- 
sioner of Rhode Island for the year ended Dec. 31, 1908, 
states that the Receipts of some of the street railway com- 
panies showed a decline during the year, while others ex- 
perienced an increase. The financial statistics in the re- 
port relate to the year ended June 30, 1908. 

The 10 corporations reporting had 399 miles of single 
track. The paid-up capital stock was $25,763,485. The 

7,Girdor Eail, 

5' 6"long 

100 Outlet 
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Side Elevation 

End Elevation 

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Electric Ry. Journal 

Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Schenectady Railway Company 

and roof were started, using collapsible forms. The roof 
form was placed in sections and supported in the center on 
posts so that it fitted inside of the side wall forms and also 
acted as a spreader. The concrete in the side walls was a 
1-3-6 mixture, the same as the foundation, and was placed 
with a spaded face. The roof concrete was a 1-2-4 mixture 
with i-in. stone and was reinforced by short lengths of 7-in. 
girder rail spaced as shown on the plan. The roof was fur- 
ther reinforced by Clinton wire mesh which was inter- 
woven between the rails. The small clearance between the 
top of the culvert and the base of the ties made it necessary 
to put in extra heavy reinforcement in the roof and to 
use a rich concrete mixture in order to prevent breakage 
under the shock of 40-ton interurban cars running over the 
structure at high speed. When the concrete was sufficiently 
hard, the forms were removed by knocking out the legs 
from under the roof forms which dropped into the open- 
ing and were then hauled out. By removing the roof 
forms, the spreader for the side wall forms was taken out, 
making it a simple matter to loosen and remove them. The 
exposed parts and as much of the opening as could be 
reached were then finished with neat cement. When the 
back fill was completed, the shoring was removed and the 
tracks resurfaced and aligned by the section gangs. 

The following quantities were used for each culvert: 

results of operations in 1908 compare with those of 1907 
as follows: Total receipts, $5,666,203; increase, $224,135. 
Total expenditures, $4,503,958; increase, $141,820. Net 
earnings, $1,162,245; increase, $82,315. The gross earnings 
were derived from the following sources : Passenger de- 
partment, $4,317,465; increase, $51,412. Freight depart- 
ment, $182,442; increase, $25,090. Rent of roads, express 
privileges, transportation of mails, etc., $1,166,296; in- 
crease, $146,663. The Rhode Island Company, operating 
284 miles of road in the State, contributed $4,217,023. 
Discussing the subject of accidents, the report says: 

How accidents can be prevented is the question that is 
interesting all Railroad Commissions, as well as all the cor- 
porations operating the roads. , 

I believe it would be better if every accident that hap- 
pened was reported, as the publicity thus given would, I 
think, have a tendency to make the public more careful. 
Many accidents happen that are caused by the negligence 
of the traveling public — people rushing across tracks with- 
out looking, attempting to get on or off moving cars — this 
carelessness in many cases leads to accidents that many 
times result seriously, and in some cases fatally. I believe 
that if the public would co-operate with the railroad cor- 
porations and exercise due care, many accidents could be 

The report recommends that more power be given to the 
Railroad Commissioner. 

July io, 1909.] 




Commissioner Bassett, of the Public Service Commission 
of New York, First District, handed down this week a 
decision in the cases of J. Monheimer and Scott MacRey- 
nolds against the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad for 
charging a 10-cent fare on Saturdays, Sundays and holi- 
days between Coney Island and Brooklyn. An abstract of 
the decision follows : 

This proceeding arose upon two separate complaints, 
each of which asserts that the 10-cent fare charged by the 
defendant company on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays 
on each of its Coney Island lines is unjust, unreasonable 
and unlawful. The two complaints were without objection 
consolidated for the purpose of the hearing and progressed 
as one proceeding. At the time of the filing of the com- 
plaints and for some time after the close of the hearings 
in this proceeding the defendant charged a single fare of 

5 cents on each of its Coney Island lines on all week days 
excepting Saturdays and holidays. This 5-cent fare on 
ordinary business days, with the extra fare for other days, 
had prevailed since 1902 and continued in force until Aug. 
31, 1908, when the fare was increased to 10 cents on all 
days of the week. 

The commission has not only received and considered in 
this proceeding all of the facts that the parties cared to 
present, but it has deemed that this case shall embody the 
entire question of Coney Island fares so far as that ques- 
tion pertains to this railroad. To this end the investigations 
of the commission have been carried on for many months, 
and the conclusions reached in this opinion are based upon 
all of the data obtained, the larger part of which were not 
adduced by any of the parties, but were either presented 
by the commission or have been ascertained and analyzed 
by it since the public hearings were closed. 


We shall first consider this case according to the fare 
conditions that existed at the time of the hearings, and 
prior to Aug. 31, 1908. The reason why the difference in 
fare was made on holidays appears to be that on ordinary 
week days this railroad would carry few Coney Island 
passengers in competition with the elevated roads of the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit system if 10 cents fare were 
charged. On Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, however, 
especially in summer, the movement of travel was so great 
that all lines of travel were well patronized. The result 
was that the defendant company obtained a large patronage 
on the crowded days, even at 10 cents fare. 


The defendant company operates six different routes to 
Coney Island either by through car or on transfer, as fol- 
lows : 

(1) From Covert Avenue in the Borough of Queens to 
Coney Island, a distance of 11.53 miles. 

(2) From Delancey Street, Manhattan, 12.38 miles. 

(3) From Grand Street Ferry, Brooklyn, 11. 18 miles. 

(4) From Park Row, Manhattan, 11.278 miles. 

(5) From Fulton Ferry, Brooklyn, 10.51 miles. 

(6) From Hamilton Ferry, Brooklyn, 9.3 miles. 

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, the extra fares 
amounted to $94,724.88, out of a total of $1,612,924.02. The 
net income of the company in 1907, after payment of oper- 
ating expenses, rentals, taxes and fixed charges, was 
$81,044.75. It is apparent that if the extra fares had not 
been collected and the riding had continued the same, the 
company would have been unable to meet the fixed charges. 
No dividends have been paid on the stock of the company 
since Feb. I, 1907. The total passenger receipts from 
June 30, 1906, to April 8, 1907, were $1,229,303.92, while 
from June 30, 1907, to April 8, 1908, they were 
$1,156,155.36, a falling off of $73,148.56 as compared with 
the previous year. 

The Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad Company has 
during recent years had capital stock of $2,000,000 out- 
standing (at present writing $2,980,725) and mortgage 
bonds of $3,500,000 bearing interest at 4 per cent. Its 
route mileage is 13.75 miles. It leases the Brooklyn City 

6 Newtown Railroad Company and pays therefor $100,000 

per annum, being 5 per cent on the mortgage bonds of the 
Brooklyn City & Newtown Railroad Company of $2,000,000. 
The route mileage of the Brooklyn City & Newtown 
Railroad Company is 9.854; that of its proprietary com- 
pany, the DeKalb Avenue & North Beach Railroad Com- 
pany, is 0.532, all construction having been done by the 
proprietor. The combined route mileage is thus 24.136. 
The entire system is double-tracked. Since the Coney 
Island & Brooklyn Railroad Company's consolidated mort- 
gage is a lien on the entire system, and its proceeds are 
applied to any part, the funded debt may best be compared 
with the combined route mileage. The per mile funded 
debt of the system is thus $228,000. 


Notwithstanding payment of interest on the above funded 
debt averaging over $225,000 per mile of route, the com- 
pany for the period between 1902, when the 10-cent fare 
went into effect, and 1907 paid as dividends an average of 
11.43 P er cen t P er annum on its capital stock of $2,000,000. 
If during this period one-third to one-half of the net in- 
come were put aside for proper reserves (as recommended 
by Mr. Ford, the expert of the company), 5.71 per cent to 
7.62 per cent average dividends could have been paid. If 
5 cents fare to Coney Island had been charged instead of 
10 cents, the company could have still paid 3.3 per cent to 
4.4 per cent per annum on its capital stock after providing 
for rentals, interest and depreciation, assuming that no 
profitable increase of traffic had taken place as a result of 
the lower fare. 

Since 1899, when it began to pay substantial dividends, 
it has paid practically its entire surplus earnings to its 
stockholders. The following is a schedule showing divi- 
dends paid and net income. 

Year Net 

ending , Dividends ■ , income for 

June 30. Rate per cent. Amount. the year. 

1899 9.50 $189,190.00 $213,794.52 

1900 10.00 199,800.00 173,067.40 

1901 12.00 239,900.00 360,571.78 

1902 16.00 320,000.00 334,069.54 

1903 16.00 320,000.00 325,972.81 

1904 16.00 320,000.00 308,004.65 

1905 14.00 280,000.00 160,908.36 

1906 8.00 160,000.00 161,494.24 

1907 6.00 120,000.00 81,044.75 

107.50 $2,148,890.00 $2,118,928.05 

The foregoing facts clearly show that the failure of the 
company to put aside a reserve for depreciation and its 
policy of paying the largest possible dividends, regardless 
of the upkeep of the equipment of the railroad, are re- 
sponsible for the condition of the company at the time of 
the hearings. The stockholders having obtained in the 
form of dividends the earnings that should have gone for 
maintenance, should not now object because renewals and 
increased maintenance and interest charges make dividends 
temporarily impossible, nor should this presumably tem- 
porary situation stand in the way of a reduction of fare if 
other considerations would justify such a reduction. 


Several claims were set up by the company to show that 
the 10 cents fare to Coney Island is justified, regardless of 
the conclusions that may be drawn from the large past earn- 
ings of the company. We will take these up in order. 

1. It is claimed that the cost of labor has increased. 
Tables compiled from the sworn reports of the defendant 
show no substantial increase of the cost of labor per unit 
of service. Table XVIII (Commission's Exhibit 25) shows 
the average number of cash passengers per employee (re- 
gardless of nature of employment) from year to year. 
Substituting for the year 1907 the number of cash passen- 
gers, as corrected by the elimination of second fares, we 
find that the average number of passengers per employee 
increased from 27,905 in 1899 to 35,551 in 1907, which 
shows a saving of labor equal to 22 per cent in pro- 
portion to the number of passengers. The highest increase 
of wages, however, mentioned by the defendant's expert 
was from 20 to 23 cents per hour, i.e., 15 per cent. 

2. It is claimed that the Coney Island business must 
earn thrice the fixed charges of ordinary business because 
it is purely a summer business. The bulk of the Coney 
Island traffic, as indicated by the monthly fluctuations of 
the returns from second fares for 1907, was done during 
five summer months, as shown in the accompanying table. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

May $8,962.20 

4 u " e 14.421.33 

J. u 'y ■ 22,996.45 

August 17,460.76 

September 11,525.78 

All other months 13,174.72 

Total, 1907 $88,541.24 

During the months of November, December, January 
and February no second fares were collected on the DeKalb 
and Franklin Avenue lines; on the Hamilton Avenue line 
the collections aggregated $79.49, and on the Smith Street 
line they were likewise very small. It may therefore be 
assumed that the operations of those four months are not 
affected by the Coney Island traffic. The winter traffic 
required the defendant to be ready to furnish 497,901 car- 
miles in December ; the maximum Coney Island traffic in 
the month of July brought the car-mileage up to 756,031 
miles, which is an increase of 52 per cent. How much 
of this increase is due to the normal increase in summer 
over winter is not shown by the evidence, but part would 
be necessitated in any case. Neither does the evidence 
show how many more cars must be supplied in the rush 
hours than at other times of day. It would seem likely 
that the extra cars needed by any city railroad for summer 
and rush hour uses would go far to cover the special needs 
of the Coney Island traffic of this railroad. 

3. It is claimed that the entire Coney Island business 
is conducted at a loss. The monthly income account of the 

ever, that summer business is not synonymous with Coney 
Island business. There is a large Prospect Park traffic in 
summer also. 


The foregoing considerations throw light on what the 
position of the company would have been if its business 
had been more correctly conducted. They demonstrate that 
the Coney Island business is a profitable business handled 
at a rate of 5-cent fare for five days in the week and a 
10-cent fare on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays. Whether 
a regular 5-cent fare would be remunerative to the company 
or would depress its income to a point where a reasonable 
return could no longer be secured upon the investment is 
a question that requires a close analysis of the company's 
operations. The basis for such an analysis is furnished in 
the accompanying table of revenue and expenses, wherein 
the quantities or amounts have been reduced to a car-mile 

The service rendered by a street railway company and 
the amount of its expenses may be measured by the number 
and frequency of the cars that it runs. In other words, 
the total distance traveled by revenue cars in a given pe- 
riod represents the amount of service given, and the unit 
of service is one car-mile. Certain other units of service, 
such as the car-hour, also have their value, but on the 
whole the car-mile affords the most satisfactory basis of 
comparing costs of street railway operation that is now 


Amount in , Income and expenses per car-mile v 

year ended 1907, 1906, 1905, 1904, 1903. 1902, 1902-7, 

June 30, 1907. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. 

Revenues : 

" Cit - V ", J^res. •• $1,518,199.14 22.387 22.940 23.002 24.310 23.918 23.326 23.296 

Second (Coney Island) iares 94,724.88 1.397 1-397 1.406 1.709 1.809 1.242 1-492 

Revenue from carrying mail, etc 800.00 .012 .012 .012 .013 .014 .004 .011 

Total car earnings $1,613,724.02 23.795 24.350 24.420 26.041 25.740 24.572 24.798 

Miscellaneous earnings 7,850.24 .116 .076 .072 .075 .085 .125 .091 

Total revenue from operation $1,621,574.16 23.911 24.426 24.492 26.116 25.825 24.697 24.889 

Expenses : 

Maintenance $246,927.32 3.641 3.429 3-247 • 2.828 2.783 2.715 3. 121 

Operation of power plant 314,332.12 4.635 4.313 4.222 3.983 3-882 2.764 3.987 

Operation of cars 455,646.08 6.719 6.667 7.148 6.814 6.493 6.451 6.719 

General expense 211,942.55 3.125 3.132 3.131 3.300 3.078 2.981 3.126 

Total expenses of operation $1,228 848.07 18.120 17 542 17 748 16.924 16.236 14.911 16.953 

Taxes 58,272.63 .859 .866 .790 1055 1.127 1.071 .9I0 

Total expenses and taxes $1,287,120.70 18.979 18.408 18.538 <7-979 17.363 15.982 17-913 

Net income : 

Surplus revenue over expenses and taxes $334,453-56 4-932 6.018 5-954 8.137 8.462 8.715 6.976 

Non-operating income 41.00 .000 .014 .024 .008 .006 .019 .012 

Total clear income $334,494.56 4.932 6.032 5 978 8.145 8.467 8.734 6.988 

Deduct rental 100,000.00 1-475 1.469 '-527 1-584 1.609 1639 1.551 

Deduct interest 153,449.81 2.263 2.100 1-995 1.682 1.613 1.618 1.894 

Balance available for dividends $81,044.75 1.194 2.373 2.456 4-879 5.245 5-477 ' 3-543 

Dividends 120,000.00 1769 2.351 4.275 5-070 3-149 5-246 3-976 

Number of miles run by passenger cars 6,781,723 

Number of passengers (including transfers) 39,158,626 

Number of transfers 5,898,528 

company for the year 1907 shows the highest net earnings 
reported for the five summer months from May to Sep- 
tember, both inclusive, during which the net earnings ag- 
gregated $220,443.93 out of a total of $264,476.77; i.e., 83.5 
per cent of the total net earnings for the year. Operating 
expenses and taxes during these months averaged $118,- 
362.12 per month, while during the winter months they 
averaged $101,408.50 per month. Thus the increase in the 
cost of operation during the summer was only $16,943.38 
per month, while the gross earnings increased from a 
monthly average of $107,698.91 for the winter season to 
$162,450.91 for the summer season; i.e., by $54,752. There 
was a net gain of $37,808.62 per month over the average 
winter net earnings. The ratio of operating expenses and 
taxes to gross earnings for the five summer months was 
72.8 per cent, whereas the ratio of operating expenses and 
taxes to gross earnings during the remainder of the year 
1907 was 94.1 per cent. These figures clearly show that 
the summer business is not conducted at a loss, and that 
the increase of that business means an increased profit. 
On the contrary, it is clear that the operating cost of the 
summer traffic is less than that of the winter business. 
The addition to the monthly operating expenses caused by 
the summer business is but 30.5 per cent of the addition 
to the monthly gross earnings. It should be noted, how- 

available, especially when the comparisons are confined 
to a particular road. In his testimony before the commis- 
sion the company's expert objected to the use of the car- 
mile unit on the ground that the company had replaced 
small cars with large cars, and thereby changed the sig- 
nificance of the car-mile as a unit of service. The com- 
pany's reports to the commission, however, show that few 
changes of the kind mentioned have been made in the 
company's rolling stock in the last few years, and there is 
no reason to believe that those changes invalidate com- 
parisons of car-mile costs between 1902 and 1907. 

The statistics on which these car-mile ratios are based 
are derived from the annual reports of the company to 
the Railroad Commission, such reports being made and 
sworn to by the officers of the company. So far as the 
revenues are concerned there is no reason to question their 
substantial accuracy, as they are almost entirely composed 
of cash fares collected from passengers carried. The mis- 
cellaneous earnings, consisting of revenue derived from the 
sale of advertising privileges, rent of buildings, tracks and 
other street railway property, constitute a relatively small 

Taking the figures of operating expenses as given in the 
foregoing table under the four headings of Maintenance, 
Operation of Power Plant, Operation of Cars and General 

July io, 1909.] 

Expenses, it is possible to arrive at a fairly definite figure 
as to the average cost of operating a car 1 mile on the lines 
of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad. In the six years 
embraced in the table, covering the period 1902 to 1907, 
during which a second fare was charged to Coney Island 
on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, the general expenses 
(including the cost of management and the almost equally 
large item of damages and attendant legal expenses) aver- 
aged 3.126 cents per car-mile. In 1907 the general ex- 
penses amounted to almost precisely the same figure, and 
this may therefore be taken as the normal expense on this 
road. The operation of cars in 1907 cost 6.719 cents per 
car-mile, which is also the average for the whole period 
and may therefore be considered as not less than the normal 
cost. The operation of the power plant in 1907 cost 4.635 
cents per car-mile as contrasted with 2.764 cents per car- 
mile in 1902. From the foregoing figures it is apparent 
that omission of proper maintenance and the great increase 
of power cost were the main causes of the deficiencies 
shown at the hearings. Losses on Coney Island business 
were not perceptibly responsible. 

We will now proceed to consider also the operations of 
1908. In the year ending June 30, 1908, there was a fur- 
ther rise in the cost of operation of power plant to 5.868 
cents per car-mile, making a difference between 1902 and 
1908 of 3 cents per car-mile, or $200,000 a year. Inas- 
much as $200,000 would afford a dividend of 10 per cent 
upon the stock of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad 
Company, the significance of this increase in the cost of 
power is sufficiently obvious without further analysis. 
While there has also been some increase in the cost of 
maintenance of the company's road and equipment, it is 
clear that the real seat of the company's financial diffi- 
culties is the enormously enhanced cost of its power 
supply. The company's increased expense in this direction 
could not well escape its notice, and it some time since 
planned to replace its antiquated power plant, which dates 
back to the early days of the electric railway business, with 
a modern system of power supply. The new power plant 
has now been in operation for several months, and the re- 
sult appears in the following figures showing the cost of 
power supply (exclusive of maintenance) per car-mile run: 

July 4.32 cents 

August 4.50 cents 

September 4- 7° cents 

October 5.00 cents 

November 4.12 cents 

December 2.82 cents 

January 2.63 cents 

February 2.42 cents 

March 2.27 cents 

April 1.92 cents 

May 1 .88 cents 

In the ordinary course of business the cost of power per 
car-mile increases in winter, owing to the additional elec- 
tric energy that is consumed in heating the cars or wasted 
by reason of the snow, ice or other impediments on the 
tracks. In the place of such an increase during the pres- 
ent winter the working expenses of the power plant have 
been reduced more than 2 cents per car-mile. If, therefore, 
it be assumed that the normal cost of power to the Coney 
Island & Brooklyn Railroad Company be 2.25 cents per 
car-mile for the entire 12 months of the fiscal year, the 
figures will be approximately correct. 

The remaining item of operating expenses to be consid- 
ered is the cost of maintaining the road and equipment. As 
to this cost the figures at hand afford little assistance, for 
the reason that they cover only such repairs as were ob- 
viously necessary. No allowance seems to have been made 
for the wear and tear that is not reparable, or for the 
growing inadequacy of equipment that has to be replaced 
before it is worn out. Assuming, for example, that the 
average life of a street car is 20 years, it is evident that 
one-twentieth of the capital invested in the car is con- 
sumed upon an average every year that it is in use, irre- 
spective of the amount of money that may be expended in 
keeping the car in thoroughly good repair. No calculation 
of costs is al all satisfactory which omits the proper charges 
for such deterioration of physical property. The commis- 
sion has recognized that fact in prescribing a uniform sys- 
tem of accounts for street railways which requires depre- 
ciation charges as a part of the operating expenses. Under 
ibis system of accounts, which will be in force July 1, 1909, 
the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad Company will be 


required to include proper depreciation in its operating 
expense accounts, and it would therefore be unjust for the 
commission to issue an order which failed to recognize the 
element of depreciation as an item of general cost. How 
much should be allowed for depreciation in the case of the 
Coney Island & Brooklyn Company is a matter that re- 
mains still to be investigated. The accounting order does 
not attempt to fix the rate of depreciation, but requires 
the individual companies to make an investigation as to 
the probable life in service of their operated properties, and 
on the basis of their experience formulate a rule as to the 
amount needed for preserving the capital assets unimpaired. 
Such rule as to the rate of depreciation has not yet been 
formulated by the Coney'' Island & Brooklyn Railroad, but 
is estimated to be 5 cents per car-mile, and this amount 
should either be spent or be put into a fund for use when 

The estimated car-mile costs of the Coney Island & 
Brooklyn Railroad may be recapitulated as shown in the 
following table : 

Maintenance (including depreciation) 5.00 cents 

Operation of power plant 2.25 cents 

Operation of cars : 6.72 cents 

General expenses 3.13 cents 

Total operating expenses 17.10 cents 

Add taxes 90 cents 

Operating expenses and taxes 18.00 cents 

Turning now to the income side of the ledger, it is found 
that for the year ended June 30, 1908, there were the fol- 
lowing revenues from operation : 

"City" fares (5 cents) $1,455,655-33 

Second (Coney Island) fares 89,769.78 

Revenues from carrying mail, etc 800.00 

Miscellaneous earnings 11,232.06 

Total $1,557,457-17 

If the fare were reduced to 5 cents for every day in 
the year it is evident that the receipts from "second" fares 
in the above items would be eliminated, and the question 
arises whether the income from single fares would be cor- 
respondingly increased. It is also questionable whether, 
even if no change were made in the rate of fare whatever, 
the gross revenues would be maintained. There was a 
difference between the two years 1907 and 1908 of over 
$60,000, and for some time there has been a steady de- 
crease. If this were continued throughout the year just 
closing the income would be very materially reduced. 


It is true that other lines in Brooklyn have shown a 
falling off in the last two years which is doubtless due to 
general business depression and to the readjustment of 
traffic incident to the extension of the subway and the 
extension of Manhattan Borough companies in Brooklyn 
across the Williamsburg Bridge. While the falling off 
on other lines would seem to have been checked recently, 
there are special features affecting the Coney Island & 
Brooklyn Railroad lines which would seem to indicate that 
those lines will continue to feel the loss of traffic until the 
density of population shall have considerably increased in 
the territory adjacent to' the outlying portions of the de- 
fendant's routes. The defendant's Coney Island line is 
paralleled on either side by the Brighton Beach line and 
the Culver line of the Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad 
Company, upon which roads express service is maintained 
from Coney Island to Park Row. Within the last few 
years on each of these elevated lines obsolete steam engines 
have been superseded by third-rail equipment, the fre- 
quency of service has been greatly increased and the serv- 
ice otherwise improved. The defendant's DeKalb Avenue 
line also feels the competition of the Lexington Avenue 
line and the Myrtle Avenue line of the Brooklyn Union 
Elevated Railroad Company. On both of these last-named 
lines there has been a marked increase in frequency of 
trains and in the number of cars operated within the past 
few years, and the improvements at the Manhattan end of 
the Brooklyn Bridge permitting through elevated service 
to Park Row have made these lines more attractive to 
large numbers of passengers. With these conditions added 
to the increasing competition from the surface lines of the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit system, the company seems liable 
to show a slow recovery from the falling off in earnings 
that has been evident for the past three years. 




[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

However, if we assume that this decrease 
stayed, that the decrease due to the elimination of the sec- 
ond fare would be offset by gains in other directions, and 
that the total income from operation would be, with a 
5-cent fare, $1,550,000, we have certainly been generous to 
the public, and possibly too severe upon the company. In 
other words, it would seem likely that the total earnings 
would be less than $1,550,000 rather than more with a 
5-cent fare for every day. Assuming that the company 
was able to earn this amount without any increase in car- 
mileage, we would have the following approximate results : 

Total revenue from operation $1,550,000 

Total operation expenses 1,220,000 

Net revenue $330,000 

This amount, which is available for rental, interest and 
dividends, would represent a return at 6 per cent upon 
$5,500,000, at 6>1 per cent upon a little over $5,000,000, and 
of 7 per cent upon a little over $4,700,000. 


There remains to be considered whether this is a fair 
return upon the capital invested in the street railway prop- 
erty. Neither the evidence produced at the bearings nor 
the reports of the company gave any trustworthy state- 
ment of the actual investment. Without information on 
this subject, however, no real progress could be made in 
determining the reasonableness of a 10-cent fare. It is 
plain that the rate that might result in loss on a large in- 
vestment would be reasonable on a smaller investment. 
Total outstanding stock and bonds might or might not be a 
proper criterion. 

Bion J. Arnold, who has been employed to appraise the 
properties, has reported to the commission that the present 
value of the physical property of the road, without includ- 
ing anything for franchise, good will, going concern, or 
development charges, plus such amounts as would be neces- 
sary to put the road in first-class operating condition, due 
to the fact that the road has been allowed to deteriorate, 
would be at least $5,000,000. 

In the opinion of the commission, therefore, a 5-cent 
fare every day in the week would not produce a proper 
return upon the value of the road, plus a sufficient amount 
to bring it up to date, which amount must be expended by 
the company. 

It is possible that a reduction of the rate to 5 cents 
would mean a considerable increase in the number of pas- 
sengers carried, and consequently in the gross income ; but 
it would also mean, probably, an increase in the operating 
expenses. Whether there would be an increase in the net 
income is problematical; and in view of the narrow margin 
allowed the company upon the basis of a 5-cent fare during 
the week and 10 cents on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, 
the commission does not feel that it would be warranted 
in ordering a reduction merely upon an expectation so 


It should be noted that the commission has considered, 
in the amount upon which a fair return should be allowed, 
a considerable sum for rehabilitation. The policy of the 
company for several years past has been to distribute sub- 
stantially all of its surplus revenue to stockholders in the 
form of dividends. As has been pointed out, no provision 
was made for depreciation and the appropriations for 
maintenance were very inadequate up to two years ago. 
As a result the property of the defendant is still in inferior 
condition notwithstanding the recent improvements that 
have been made. While this condition should not be urged 
by stockholders as a valid reason against a reduction of fare 
if such reduction were found to be justifiable, still the com- 
mission is bound to give consideration to the necessity for 
improvements, as a part of its duty of protecting the public ; 
and the commission is unwilling to take any action that 
would make it more difficult for the people of Brooklyn to 
obtain the service to which they are entitled. The present 
depreciated value of the property is very much below what 
would be the value of such a system in first-class operating 
condition. As the commission has considered that it is 
prudent to allow a sufficient amount to restore the road to 
standard condition, it will be its duty to compel the company 
to continue the rehabilitation of the property and it will 
see that replacements are ultimately paid for out of earn- 

ings before earnings are used for dividends. If a rate were 
fixed upon the present depreciated value it might be so low 
as to prevent rehabilitation. However, it should be frankly 
stated that if the company should not put its property in 
first-class operating condition the reasonableness of the 
fare could then properly be reconsidered. 


We now pass to a consideration of the operations of the 
company since on Aug. 31, 1908, it increased the fare on 
ordinary business days from 5 cents to 10 cents. The re- 
ceipts from extra fares show an increase, but the total busi- 
ness done shows a decrease as compared with the previous 
year. We have carefully reviewed the operating figures so 
far as ascertainable since the new method went into effect, 
and although it is claimed by the company that the new 
operation has resulted in a substantial gain in the receipts 
for the company as a whole and also an improvement in the 
class of traffic, yet the figures obtained equally tend to 
show that the advance in the rate means a loss of business 
which just about balances the additional collections directly 
resulting. The company by giving a 5-cent fare on five 
days of the week invited many people to buy property and 
build homes near Coney Island. While this fact does not 
in any way amount to a contract between the company and 
the residents, it would appear that the practice of charging 
10 cents on all days of the week should only be continued 
after a showing that the former practice of charging 5 
cents on five days of the week was the main cause of the 
loss of net earnings. Even if there has been some increase 
in net earnings since Aug. 31, 1908, and even if it could 
be proved that a part of this is due to the increase in fare, 
the fact remains that the main causes of insufficient profits 
have been omission of maintenance and uneconomical power 
production. It is a matter of grave doubt, however, whether 
the old rate was not really more profitable for the company 
than the new rate, for the reason that the former single 
fare to Coney Island induced traffic that was carried in 
more or less empty cars and could therefore be handled at 
a very low cost ; that is to say, the cars which in the morn- 
ing brought people to their work in Brooklyn and Man- 
hattan carried back on their return trip as passengers to 
Coney Island family parties that chose the relatively slow 
surface cars of the Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad in 
order to save the extra fare charged by the elevated roads. 
It is significant that the proportion of children among 
passengers was apparently nearly twice as great on the 
single-fare days as on the double-fare days. When these 
people returned late in the afternoon this special traffic 
was in a direction opposite to the tide of travel away from 
work and was again handled at a low cost because carried 
in large part in cars that would otherwise have been run 
with small loads. It is a well-recognized fact among rail- 
road managers, both passenger and freight, that an unusu- 
ally low rate may be a profitable rate if it induces traffic to 
fill cars that would otherwise have to be hauled empty. In 
fact, the accepted theory of railroad freight rates is based 
on the idea of encouraging traffic to move at a low rate, 
provided that rate covers prime costs and makes some 
contribution toward meeting the fixed charges. 

The action of the company in increasing the fare appears 
to us to have been unjustifiable. The increase appears also 
to have been unreasonable because it places an additional 
burden on the traffic with slight profit to the company or 
none at all. It appears to have been based upon a mis- 
taken theory that recent loss of profits was due to Coney 
Island fare conditions rather than to the substantial causes 
that the analysis by the commission has revealed. The 
complaints, however, in the present proceeding relate only 
to the holiday fare. As a matter of proper procedure the 
scope of the present hearing is not broad enough to lay 
the foundation for an order dealing with the company's re- 
cent increase of fare on business days. The company 
should remedy the matter now that the impropriety of its 
action is called to its attention. It is alleged that the 10- 
cent fare is unlawful. The Coney Island & Brooklyn Rail- 
road Company was organized on Dec. 6, i860, under the 
General Railroad Act of 1850, and in the permission and 
consent granted to it by the Common Council of the City 
of Brooklyn on Jan. 21, 1861, it was provided that the fare 
within the City of Brooklyn should not exceed 5 cents. 
Under the law last cited the company was permitted to 

July io, 1909.] 



charge a rate of fare not exceeding 5 cents per mile. There- 
fore the company was privileged to charge 5 cents within the 
City of Brooklyn and at the rate of 3 cents per mile for the 
distance outside of the City of Brooklyn. The distance out- 
side the former city would be from Prospect Park to Coney 
Island 6 miles. All of the laws and franchises affecting 
this corporation have been placed before the commission 
and examined and we do not find that the legal right of the 
company to charge 5 cents within the former City of 
Brooklyn and 3 cents per mile outside has ever been 
abridged. It is, of course, understood that this statement 
is without derogation of the right and duty of the commis- 
sion to prescribe a lower rate of fare whenever the rates 
charged may be found to be unjust or unreasonable. 

We are therefore of the opinion that the fare of 10 cents 
on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays was not unjust, unrea- 
sonable or unlawful and that the complaints should be dis- 

Respectfully submitted, 
(Signed) E. M. Bassett, Commissioner. 
July 1, 1909. 


The agitation in Chicago for wider spacing between cars 
on adjoining tracks culminated last week in a resolution 
adopted by the Board of Supervising Engineers, fixing the 
spacing of track centers for all future work at 10 ft. 2 in. 
and the width of all new cars to be built hereafter at 8 ft. 
6 in. Brief mention of the adoption of this resolution was 
made in the Electric Railway Journal of July 3, 1909, 
at the conclusion of an abstract of a communication by 
George Weston, member of the board, to the committee 
on local transportation of the City Council. The resolu- 
tions adopted by the Board of Supervising Engineers on 
June 29 are as follows : 

Resolved, That the previous action of the board in fix- 
ing the standard distance between track centers at 9 ft. 
8% in. be and hereby is modified, so that the minimum 
distance between track centers shall be 10 ft. 2 in. for all 
track special work and track, the manufacture or construc- 
tion of which has not actually progressed so far that it is 
impracticable to change it at the present time. 

Whereas, The improvements which have been made in 
the art of car construction, and the demonstrated success of 
the pay-as-you-enter type of car, permit the construction 
of a narrower car than heretofore, with substantially 
equivalent accommodations to the traveling public ; and 

Whereas, The board has recently authorized the con- 
struction of new cars having a maximum width of 8 ft. 6 
in., be it 

Resolved, That it is the judgment of this board that all 
future cars to be hereafter constructed under the direction 
of this board for operation upon the surface lines in the 
city of Chicago shall not exceed 8 ft. 6 in. in width over all. 

B. J. Arnold, chairman of the board, issued a statement 
explaining the action taken, in which he said: 

In reaching this decision the board recognizes the fact 
that the maximum space obtained still makes it extremely 
dangerous for any person to be caught between passing 
street cars. The possibilities of serious injury, if not death, 
to any person who permits himself to get into this situa- 
tion are such that the public should avoid it in every pos- 
sible way. Even the distance of 20 in. cannot be obtained 
upon the tracks already reconstructed, nor so long as the 
present wider cars are operated. In the nature of the case 
this must continue to be done for a considerable period of 
time. The two companies concur now in the policy of wide 
spacing in order to obtain the benefit of comparative ex- 

The Chcmin dc Per du Midi lias just given out the first 
contracts for the electrification of a section nf its main 
line 400 km in length, between Toulouse and Bordeaux. The 
installation will use single-phase, 15-cycle current, and the 
initial section is expected to be ready for operation in 
about a year. 


President James F. Shaw, of the American Street & 
Interurban Railway Association, has announced a partial 
list of appointments on the general committee on trans- 
portation. The committee will be divided into small groups, 
each of which will be headed by a chairman, and each 
group will have general charge of conducting the special 
trains or cars from various cities or sections of the coun- 
try. The following gentlemen have accepted the invi- 
tation to act as members of this committee : 

Charles S. Clark and any gentlemen whom he wishes to 
have act with him will have charge of a special train from 
Boston, Mass., carrying all delegates from the New Eng- 
land States. 

C. Loomis Allen, chairman; J. H. Pardee, James H. Mc- 
Graw and any other gentlemen whom the chairman wishes 
to have act with him will conduct a special train from 
"New York City via the New York Central Lines, which will 
carry delegates from New York City and points in New 
York State. 

W. L. Conwell, chairman; Gen. George H. Harries, C. O. 
Kruger, William A. House, Thomas N. McCarter, George 
Keegan and any other gentlemen whom the chairman 
wishes to have act with him will have charge of another 
through train leaving New York City by way of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and carrying special cars from 
Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington which will take 
delegates from Pennsylvania and the Middle Atlantic 

C. F. Holmes and W. W. Wheatley have accepted as 
members of the committee which will have charge of a 
special train from St. Louis through Kansas City. The 
chairman of this committee has not yet been selected. This 
train will carry delegates from points east of St. Louis as 
far as Indianapolis, Columbus, Cincinnati, Memphis and 

D. A. Hegarty has accepted as a member of the com- 
mittee in chage of a special car or party from the South- 
western States, including Texas, Arkansas and Oklahoma. 
The chairman and other members of this committee have 
not been appointed. 

W. A. Warnock and P. P. Crafts will act as a committee 
in charge of a car or party from the Central Northwestern 

C. N. Black, chairman, S. K. Colby, John A. Britton and 
F. F. Bodler will constitute the committee in charge of a 
special car or party of delegates from cities in California. 

E. E. Potter and F. G. Seixas will act together as a com- 
mittee in charge of a party or car starting from Seattle, 
Wash., and carrying delegates from all of the North- 
western States. 

Committees will also be appointed to take charge of a 
party from Canada and a special train from Chicago. The 
personnel of these committees has not yet been determined. 
The Chicago train will carry delegates from Chicago and 
vicinity and from points east of Chicago as far as Detroit, 
Cleveland and Toledo. 

These sub-committees will have entire charge of all of 
the arrangements for the comfort and entertainment of 
those traveling on the special trains or cars and they will 
carry out a campaign this summer which it is hoped will 
result in good patronage of the special facilities to be 

In the matter of the railroad fares the association has 
received formal notice from the Western Passenger Asso- 
ciation, which has jurisdiction over rates of fare from 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

Chicago to Denver, that the privilege has been extended to 
members of the association traveling to the convention to 
purchase summer tourist tickets good leaving between Oct. 
1 and 5 from Chicago and good for the return trip up to 
and including Oct. 31. The rate on these tourist tickets 
is $30 from Chicago to Denver and return. 


B. V. Swenson, secretary of the American Street & In- 
terurban Railway Association, has issued convention bulle- 
tin No. 3, under date of July 1, which gives complete in- 
formation about hotel rates in Denver during the week of 
the convention and other inteersting facts about the city 
and its surroundings. The text of the circular follows: 


Many of our members are, of course, familiar with Den- 
ver and its magnificent environment, but to those who are 
not doubtless some general information will prove interest- 
ing and instructive. 

The city was founded in 1859 by prospectors who had 
gone to that section in the search for gold, and in the 50 
years of its existence has risen with great strides, until to- 
day it ranks twenty-fifth among the cities of the United 
States in point of population, which aggregates 225,000 
people within an area of 60 square miles. It is not only the 
capital of Colorado, but the commercial metropolis for the 
entire Rocky Mountain region, with 15 steam railroad lines 
entering the Union Station. The city has 14 parks, contain- 
ing in the neighborhood of 1500 acres, and all connected 
by boulevards. A clean, well-built, up-to-date city, with 
the customary Western hustle, its prosperity is best shown 
in the fact that it has nearly 2500 factories, with annual 
payrolls of over $12,000,000, and producing annually prod- 
ucts to the value of nearly $100,000,000, as well as by its 
seven national banks, seven State banks and three trust 
companies, the resources of its financial institutions 
amounting to $65,000,000. Much of Denver's development 
is due to the general custom among those who make their 
fortunes in Colorado of spending their money at home, 
which accounts in a great measure for the city's beautiful 
residences and well-paved, well-kept and well-lighted 

Perhaps no city in the country has been so favored by 
nature in beauty of climate, location and perspective. 
Weather Bureau reports for a period of 20 years show an 
average of over 350 sunshiny days, with a brisk, invigorat- 
ing atmosphere and a minimum humidity. The periods of 
extreme cold rarely occur in Denver until after the Christ- 
mas holidays, and this weather seldom continues for more 
than three or four weeks during January and February. 
The city is peculiarly free from snowstorms, probably more 
so than any of the cities of the Northern States. Sleighing 
is almost unknown, as the snows which do visit the city 
occur during the night and soon disappear in the morning 
sun. The altitude of Denver is about 1 mile, and the out- 
look of the city covers af territory extending for 200 miles 
along the Rockies, from Long's Peak on the north to Pike's 
Peak on the south. 

The side trips from Denver, both in number and scenic 
beauty, are perhaps equaled nowhere in the world, cer- 
tainly nut in America, and for the benefit of our members 
a later bulletin will give a resume of the more famous and 
interesting of these excursions. 

The transportation facilities of the convention city, it is 
hardlv necessary to tell you, are most comprehensive and 
up to date. The splendid system of the Denver City Tram- 
wav Company operates about 175 miles of track, and, as is 
well known to our members, for excellence of equipment, 
facilities and methods of operation Denver's street railway 
system ranks among the leading railways of the country. 

To those unfamiliar with Denver's hotel facilities and 
the ability of the city to accommodate large gatherings, 
the number of leading hotels shown in this bulletin may 
prove a surprise. The city is becoming more and more fa- 
vorablv known as an ideal convention place, and has enter- 
tained conventions of the leading societies, lodges and as- 
sociations within the past few years, among these being 

the reunion of the Grand Army of the Republic with 125,- 
000 visitors, the Order of Elks with 60,000 and the Knights 
Templar with over 40,000 delegates. Our members should 
rest content, therefore, that there will be ample room for 
everybody during the convention week, and also be as- 
sured of fair treatment in the matter of hotel rates. 

The exhibits will be displayed in the new Auditorium, 
completed in 1908 and used for the first time by the Na- 
tional Democratic Convention. This building is unique in 
the fact that it is the first of its kind erected by any of our 
American municipalities. It is located within two blocks 
of the business district of Denver, and is, therefore, most 
convenient to all the leading hotels. The building covers 
an area of 260 ft. long by 168 ft. wide, with walls meas- 
uring between 90 and 100 ft. in height. It is of steel, with 
concrete floors and roof, and splendidly equipped in the 
matter of ventilation and illumination. The Auditorium 
itself and adjacent areas available for convention purposes 
provide an exhibit space of about 45,000 sq. ft., and from 
the information now available this space will be fully util- 
ized by our Manufacturers' Association. 


In recent years it has been the opinion of the official 
representatives of the various affiliated bodies that each 
association should have its own headquarters hotel, and 
this plan has seemed to be most satisfactory to our mem- 
bers. In view of this, no departure has been made from 
this arrangement for the 1909 convention, and the hotels 
listed below have been selected as headquarters, it being 
understood that those in charge of the convention do not 

The Auditorium, Denver 

desire that these particular hotels be patronized to the ex- 
clusion of others, but, rather, used as general meeting 
places for those interested in specific lines of work. 

The Brown Palace has been decided upon as the head- 
quarters hotel of the American Association, and similarly 
of the Manufacturers' Association. The Savoy Hotel will 
be the headquarters of the Accountants' Association, and 
the Adams will be the headquarters hotel of the Engineers. 
The Claim Agents' Association will utilize the Metropole 
as headquarters, and the Transportation & Traffic Asso- 
ciation will establish its headquarters at the Albany Hotel. 


The hotels listed in this bulletin are those which have 
worked in sympathy with the Denver Convention League 
in the matter of our convention, and we respectfully suggest 
to our members the desirability of patronizing the hotels 
here shown. 

The matter of making a proper distribution of the ac- 
commodations provided by the principal hotels has been 
given a great deal of thought and consideration, with a' 
view of arriving at an absolutely equitable division as be- 
tween the delegates of our own and affiliated associations. 
In line with this, we have requested the Denver Conven- 
tion League to arrange that no specific assignment of 
rooms be made in these hotels before July 15, that the 
hotels on that date act on applications then in hand and 

July io, 1509.] 



make tentative assignments, which are at once to be sub- 
mitted to the office of the secretary of the American Asso- 
ciation for approval. On receipt of this proposed distribu- 
tion the secretary will take the matter up in detail with 
the secretary of the Manufacturers' Association, and if 
the assignments seem satisfactory, approval will be given 
and they will be returned to Denver with the request that 
notice be sent to each guest, giving full information of 
reservation made. 

On Aug. 1 and 15 and Sept. 1 additional tentative assign- 
ments of rooms will be forwarded by the Denver hotels to 
the secretary's office, and action similar to the above taken. 
By this plan, it is believed, it will be possible to settle upon a 
distribution of hotel accommodations that will be entirely 
satisfactory to all concerned, and take care equally well of 
the representatives of the electric railway and the manu- 
facturing interests. 

Applications for hotel reservations should be made di- 
rectly to the hotel at which you desire to stop. It will aid 
greatly in avoiding mistakes if the members, when writing, 
will indicate that their reservations are made in connection 
with the convention. In making applications explicit state- 
ments should be made concerning the kind of room desired 
— whether with or without bath — and the dates of arrival 
and departure from the hotel. The special rates are made 
with the understanding that the charges of the hotel will 
be for the full time of reservation, and that they are all to 
be made upon the European plan ; in other words, for the 
room only, without meals. 

In view of the plans above outlined, we respectfully urge 
our members to at once communicate to the Denver hotels 
their applications for reservations, in order that such re- 
quests may be considered in the assignments which it is 
proposed to make under date of July 15. 

Name of Hotel. 


No. of 

Abbott 19th and Curtis 150 

Adams 18th and Welton 350 

Alamo ' 1 41 1 17th Street 120 

Albany 17th and Stout 600 

Aldine 1013 17th avenue 175 

American 16th and Blake 250 

Anthony 1276 Logan street 20 

Arno 1 8 1 1 Grant street 5° 

Astor i960 Broadway 75 

Auditorium 14th and Stout 200 

Belvedere 429 15th street 150 

Bonacord 1)22 Grant street 45 

Broadway 1539 Broadway too 

Brown Palace 17th and Tremont 400 

Carlton 509 15th street 112 

Columbia 17th and Market 200 

Congress 1520 Glenarm place 75 

Dewey . . 1645 Welton street 160 

Drexel 17th and Glenarm 70 

Elk 1 5 14 17th street 200 

Elmore 1.320 Stout street 60 

Grand Central 17th and Wazee too 

Graymont 711 18th street 75 

Harvard 501 Colfax avenue 80 

Holland 1760 Pennsylvania street 50 

Horton 1830 Grant street 10 

Inter Ocean 16th and Blake 100 

Kaiserhof 17th and Welton 250 

Lafayette 1 7th and Lincoln 60 

Law 18th and Stout 750 

Lewiston 731 18th street 100 

Markham 17th and Lawrence 250 

Melrose 1742 Sherman street 40 

Metropole 18th and Broadway 300 

Midland 17th and Arapahoe ion 

Miles 1853 Welton street 150 

Montview 1446 Stout street 75 

Orient 1726 Welton street.... 

Oxford 17th and Wazee 

Pierce 1302 California street. 

Plaza 15th and Tremont 

Plymouth 16th and Broadway... 

Roslyn 607 14th street.' 

Savoy 17th and Broadway. 

.17th and Lincoln 350 


Shirley Annex Broadway mar 1 — 1 1 1 

Standish 1530 California strcc 

St. Elmo 1433 17th street 

St. Francis 411 14th street 

St. James 1534 Curtis street.. 

St. Thomas 1508 California street 

Tours Colfax and Lincoln 1 

Tremont 411 1 6th street 1 

Vallejo 1420 Logan street 

West 1337 California street 

Windsor 18th and Larimer... 

1 40 
1 50 

1 00 

The matter of transportation is being vigorously pushed, 
but at this date it is not possible to give definite informa- 
tion on this point. The association has been able to posi- 
tively secure for its delegates an extension of the summer 

tourist rates from Chicago to Denver, but the matter of a 
similar extension from the Eastern territory has not yet 
been decided, and positive announcement on this point can- 
not, therefore, be made in the bulletin. It is the intention, 
however, to issue immediately after this question is settled 
a bulletin devoted to the matter of transportation, and it is 
hoped to distribute this information on or before July 10. 


Rooms Without Rooms With 
Private Bath. Private Bath. 

1 Person. 2 Persons. 1 Person. 2 Persons. 

Adams $1.50 $2.50 $3-00 $5-00 

Alamo 1.50 2,00 2.00 4-°o 

Albany 1.50 2.50 3-°° 4-00 

American 2.00 4.00 3-0° 

Astor 1. 00 1.50 1.50 2-50 

Auditorium 1.00 2.00 2.00 400 

Belvedere ' 1.00 2.00 2.00 3-50 

Brown 2.00 4.00 3-5° • 5-°° 

Carlton 1.00 2.00 ... • •• 

Congress 1.00 2.00 1.50 3-°° 

DreScel 1.00 2.00 2.00 3.50 

Elk 75 i-5o 

Grand Central 1.00 2.00 ... 

Graymont 1.00 2.00 1.50 3-°° 

Holland 1.00 2.00 2.00 350 

Kaiserhof 1.50 3-°° 2 - 00 4.oo 

Lafayette 1.00 2.00 2.00 3 00 

Law 1 .00 2.00 ... 

Madison 1.00 2.00 1.50 3-00 

Metropole-...' 1.50 2.00 2.50 > 3-5o 

Midland 1.00 1.50 2.00 3-00 

New Broadway 1.00 2.00 ... 

Orient 1.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 

Oxford 1-50 2.00 2.00 3-50 

Pierce 1.00 2.00 1.50 3-°o 

Plaza 1. 00 2.00 1.50 3.00 

Savoy 1.50 2.50 3.00 5.00 

Shirley 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.50 

Standish 1.50 3-00 2.00 3.50 

St. Elmo 1. 00 2.00 

St. Francis 1.00 2.00 2.00 3.50 

St. James i-5° 2.00 2.50 3.00 

Tours 1. 00 2.00 2.00 3.50 

West 1. 00 2.00 1.50 3.00 

Windsor i.oo 2.00 2.00 3.00 

This proposed bulletin will contain as much detailed in- 
formation as possible on railroad fares from various cities 
of the country, with equivalent Pullman rates. The bul- 
letin will also contain information concerning transporta- 
tion committees, which are now well under way, giving the 
names of committeemen and territory assigned. Program, 
meeting halls and other convention matters will be covered 
in later bulletins, as definite conclusions are reached. 


The Mobile Light & Railroad Company has just com- 
pleted the installation of a piping system and storage tank 
for protecting the shop buildings in case of fire. The 
storage tank has a capacity of 50,000 gal., and is mounted 
on a 100-ft. steel tower. From this tank an 8-in. main 
leads to an underground piping system surrounding the 
several shop buildings. The supply tank is fed with water 
from the city mains, and a 6-in. water connection also is 
available for directly feeding the underground piping in 
the shop yards whenever water is not available from the 
storage tank. 

Eight large fire hydrants are located in the shop yards 
and are fed by a line of 6-in. piping. The hydrants are 
not nearer than 50 ft. to the buildings, so that they may be 
approachable at all times. Over each hydrant a special 
hose house with two large double doors is installed, and in 
each house is a 100-ft. length of hose connected to the 
hydrant. Additional hose is carried on a portable reel. In 
each of the shops and car houses are four standpipes, each 
with 50 ft. of hose connected with a Ij^-in. nozzle. The 
hose at these standpipes is hung on a "jiffy" automatic 
hose rack, so that it is immediately available fur use in 
case of fire. 

The shop forces include a man who formerly served in 
the city fire department, and S. M. Coffin, master mechanic, 
has appointed this employee as assistant fire chief. Fire 
drills arc conducted frequently, so that the men may deal 
systematically with any emergency call. 




New York Central & Hudson River Railroad Company, 

New York, July 1, 1909. 

To the Editors : 

In Mr. Farmer's article, "New Method of Plotting Speed 
Curves," on page 1131 of your issue of June 19, a descrip- 
tion appears of a new method of finding the speed at any 
point of a distance-time curve. I beg to call to your atten- 
tion the fact that this method is not entirely correct or 
of universal application. This is to be regretted, for such 
a simple and easy method as this appears at first sight to 
be would be a great labor saver. 

In the accompanying diagram A B C is a distance-time 
curve with distance represented by ordinator and time by 
abcissa?. The scales of time and distance are omitted as 

Distance-Time and Velocity Curves 

not essential to this discussion and the shape of curves 
chosen, while unusual, is such as to emphasize the inac- 
curacy. The curve becomes a straight line at B, and lines 
C B f and h A are drawn parallel, according to the direc- 
tions in the article referred to. The speed at the time 
corresponding to any point on the curve is then said to be 
proportional to the distance of that point from line h A. 
Take at random any point on the curve, as M, and call the 
speed at that point S. Draw line m M parallel to h A. 
At a distance from h A twice as great draw another parallel 
line n N cutting the curve at N. The speed at N is 
then 2 5". 

Now suppose a second distance time curve A D E to be 
precisely the same as the first curve up to the point D, 
where it becomes a straight line. It is obvious that the 
differences beyond D leave unaltered the speed and other 
characteristics in that portion of the curve to the left of 
D. As before, draw Eq, r A, s M and t N parallel. Fol- 
lowing the rule that speeds are proportional to distances, 
from r A, and remembering that the speed at M is S, it is 
apparent upon inspection of the figure that the speed at 
N is about 1.7 5\ But the speed at N is already known to 
be 2 S. 

Taking as the most typical form encountered in practice, 
a curve of uniform acceleration, the errors by Mr. Farm- 
er's method are found to be about 50 per cent at half- 
speed, decreasing at higher speeds, and at lower speeds 
running up to nearly double that value. R. 

The first electrified section of the London, Brighton & 
South Coast Railway Company was opened for operation 
in May, and it is expected that electric service will be ex- 
tended into Victoria Station by Aug. I. 


The accompanying engraving shows a new fare box, 
which collects and registers nickels and at the same time 
allows the conductor access to the cash drawer for making 
change. The device was invented and is being sold by 
H. T. Werden, 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. It is 
known as the "Payee" fare box. 

The nickels are dropped into the hopper on top of the 
box, and slide through the slot down a long slanting chute 
to the registering stop. This chute is provided with a glass 
top, so that both the passenger and conductor can see the 
coin as it drops. If a mutilated or counterfeit coin is 

Registering Fare Box 

dropped in the box and is detected by the conductor, he 
registers the fare and removes the coin from the cash 
drawer, returning it to the passenger. The slot in the 
hopper is just large enough to pass a nickel, and will not 
allow a coin of larger diameter to enter the chute. If a 
dime or penny drops into the hopper it falls through the slot 
into another passageway and drops out of the box in the 
cup shown at the left. 

A detachable key operates the registering mechanism. 
The conductor grasps the box with his fingers and his 
thumb rests on the knob of the key. A slight push on the 
knob actuates the register and allows the nickels to fall 
into the cash drawer below. By means of two small pegs 
only one coin at a time is permitted to pass through the 
opening into the cash drawer. In the normal position one 
of these pegs projects out in the chute and stops the pas- 
sage of a coin dropping down from the hopper. When the 
register knob is pushed this peg is withdrawn, but simul- 
taneously the second peg is forced out above the lowest 
coin and prevents the second coin from dropping further. 
When the register knob is released the upper peg is with- 
drawn and the lower peg again forced out to the normal 

The box weighs only 10 lb. and is but 11^2 in. x 7^2 in. 
x 4 in. in size; hence it is readily portable. It is made of 
punched metal, is neat, secure and, it is claimed, will not 
get out of order. Each conductor may be given a "Payee" 
fare box and be held responsible for its registration and 
cash delivered, thus providing a simple method of check- 
ing up each conductor's receipts. Conductors are furnished 

July io, 1909.] 



with a key which will open the cash box, so that they have 
available at all times an ample supply of change. 

The box is held in place on the platform by a simple 
catch forming part of a base plate permanently bolted to 
the platform railing. The base plate is formed with shoul- 
ders at the sides, from which project at one end two fixed 
metal pins. A spring bolt is provided at the other end of 
the shoulders. Small holes are drilled in the box to engage 
with these pins. To fasten the box it is slipped into en- 
gagement with the two fixed pins and then the spring bolt 
is snapped into place. This attaches the box securely to 
the base plate. 



The special commutator grooving machine shown in 
the accompanying engraving has recently been designed 
and placed on the market by the General Electric Com- 
pany. It will accommodate all sizes of General Electric 
railway motor armatures built to date. It consists of sup- 

Commutator Grooving Machine for G.E. Armatures 

ports for the armature, the commutator of which is to be 
grooved, and a moving carriage, which carries the groov- 
ing motor. The armature supports are pillow blocks with 
V-shaped bearings, one of them being movable horizon- 
tally on the base. The carriage stand has a rough hori- 
zontal adjustment at its base, a vertical screw adjustment 
for the motor carriage slide arm, and an angular adjust- 

Armature in Position in Machine 

ment in the slide arm to be used in case the commutator 
bars are not exactly parallel to the shaft. The rotating 
saw is on the extended shaft of a CQ yi-yk hp, 1200- 
r.p.m., 550-volt, direct-current motor. The shaft is long 
enough to permit of the use of two saws, allowing the 
grooving of two slots at the same time. Owing to the size 
of the motor, no starting resistance is required. The 
weight of the complete apparatus is 750 11). 


The first design of Lyon sheet-steel gear case was pa- 
tented in 1905. The experience gained during four years 
of manufacture has led to a number of changes in details 
which have increased the strength of the cases and reduced 
the maintenance costs. These changes consist principally 
in adding reinforcement at points of greatest strain. 
Cases requiring side brackets are now reinforced by a 
special steel plate placed on the inside of the case, this 
plate being larger in size than the base of the bracket. 
The end brackets on the case are also reinforced by sheet- 
steel plates on the inside. These reinforcements are made 
to lap, giving the case rgidity and preventing its coming 
out of alignment. The latest types of Lyon reinforceed 
cases are furnished with grease doors having compressed 
centers, which not only prevent the grease from flying out 
of the case, but also prevent dirt from working into the 
gears. In the design of recent cases, special attention has 
been given toward avoiding right angles in the metal, as 
it has been conclusively proved that metal bent at right 
angles is more liable to fracture than metal formed with 
rounded corners. 

This improved type of case is now known as the Lyon 
reinforced sheet-steel gear case, and is being marketed by 
the Electric Service Supplies Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 


A new type of sheet lubrication for journal bearings 
has been put on the market by the Strong, Carlisle & Ham- 
mond Company, Cleveland, Ohio. It consists of solidified 
graphite cones or tablets which are molded on a copper 
wire cloth. In babbitting a box, a piece of this sheet is 
cut wide enough to fit not quite one-half way around the 
journal. It is then shaped to the journal and the babbitt 
metal is poured in in the usual way. Afterward the sides 
of the bearings are scraped, so that the journal will turn 

When oil is used, from 75 to 90 per cent of the quantity 

of the graphite sheet which would otherwise be employed 

is cut out, to avoid any tendency of the oil to wash loose 

particles of graphite out of the bearings. This method of 

babbitting boxes has been employed on one of the cars of 

the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company and has 

given very satisfactory results. After a mileage of 23,375, 

the bearings were in such good condition that they were 

replaced for further wear. 

Many letters have been written by residents of Phila- 
delphia to the newspapers of that city regarding the recent 
traction situation. A signed letter published in a recent 
issue of the Public Ledger said in part: "If your paper 
would print a modest suggestion from a plain, blunt man, 
an humble citizen, anent the increase in fare on our street- 
car lines I believe it would end the horrible business, and 
not only that, but that it would prevent a repetition of it. 
My suggestion is simply that we build the suburbs in the 
center of the city, thus doing away with the necessity of 
street-car lines. It should be plain to the mind of even a 
police court judge that if the lines were taken away our 
fellow-citizens could save all their car fare. To show that 
my actions are in accord with my written sentiments, I have 
resolved to walk the longest way home instead of the short- 
est as heretofore. I claim that this is an act of wisdom, 
for by so doing I deprive the company of two fares instead 
of one." 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 


Alabama. — Carriers — Injuries to Passengers — Actions — 
Pleading and Proof — Relation of Carrier and Passen- 
ger — Evidence — Negligence— Prima Facie Case — Mas- 
ter and Servant — Injury to Servant — Street Railroads — 
Care as to Licensees — Care as to Passengers — Railroad 
Company — Care as to Employees — Who Are Passen- 
gers — Employees of Carrier. 
In an action against a carrier for injuries to a passenger, 
the allegation that plaintiff was a passenger on defendant's 
car at the time he was injured is a material allegation, and 
must be proved. 

On mere proof of injury to a passenger, his prima facie 
right of recovery, under counts charging simple negligence, 
is established. 

An employee of a street railroad company, riding on a 
car at the time of his injury by a collision, in addition to 
showing the collision and injury, must adduce some evidence 
tending to show negligence in order to recover. 

The only duty owed by a street railroad company to a 
licensee on one of its cars is not to wantonly or inten- 
tionally injure him. or to exercise due care to avert injury 
after his danger becomes apparent. 

A carrier owes to a passenger the highest degree of care. 

A street company owes to one of its employees, riding 
on a car, the duty of exercising reasonable care not to 
injure him. 

A section hand, injured while riding back and forth to 
work on a car, without charge, pursuant to a rule of the 
company, is not a passenger, but is in the exercise of a mere 
privilege connected with his employment. — (Birmingham 
Ry., Light & Power Co. v. Sawyer, 47 S. Rep., 67.) 
Florida. — Railroads — Personal Injuries — Presumption of 
Negligence — Burden of Proof. 

The statute provides that a railroad company shall be 
liable for any damage done to persons by the running 
of cars or other machinery, unless the company shall make 
it appear that its agents have exercised all ordinary and 
reasonable care and diligence; the presumption in all cases 
being against the company, but this provision does not 
create such a presumption as will outweigh proofs, or that 
will require any greater or stronger or more convincing 
proofs than in any other issue. The statute casts upon the 
company the burden of affirmatively showing that its agents 
exercised all ordinary and reasonable care and diligence to 
prevent the injury complained of. — (Jones v. Jacksonville 
Electric Co., 47 S. Rep., 1.) 

Illinois. — Carriers — Street Railways — Passengers — Action 
for Injuries — Question for Jury — Evidence — Admissibil- 
ity — Subjects of Expert Testimony — Appeal and Error — 
Exclusion of Evidence — Harmless Error. 

Under the evidence in an action against a street railway 
company for injury to a passenger caused by a jerking of 
cars on the grip-iron on a grip car becoming caught, hefd 
proper to refuse to direct a verdict for the company. 

In an action against a street railway company for injury 
to a passenger caused by cars jerking on the grip-iron on a 
grip car becoming caught, the company could not show that 
it had employees who had particular duties to perform, it 
being permitted to prove everything that was in fact done 
by any employee in the way of inspection, superintendence 
and care of the track and appliances, as no matter how many 
employees the company had, or what their duties were, the 
company would be liable to the passenger for their neglect 
of such duties, and since duties unperformed would con- 
stitute no defense. 

In an action against a street railway company for in- 
jury to a passenger caused by a jerking of cars on the grip- 
iron on a grip car becoming caught, the company could not 
ask a witness as to the possibility of a car running into 
the tongue of a switch, since that was not a proper subject 
of expert testimony, and since there was no evidence for 
plaintiff tending to show that the grip caught on the tongue 
of a switch. 

In an action against a street railway company for injury 
to a passenger caused by a jerking of cars on the grip-iron 
on a grip car becoming caught, it was not reversible error 
to exclude a question asked a witness for the company as 
to whether he had ever known of an accident occurring 
through anything getting into the cable slot, since there 
was no evidence tending to prove that anything got into 
the slot on the occasion of the accident, and since, if the 
purpose was to show that no such accident had happened 
before, the testimony would tend to show that something 
was wrong with the slot or appliance, raising an inference 
of negligence of the company. — (Wyckoff v. Chicago City 
Ry. Co., 85 N. E. Rep., 238.) 

Iowa. — Carriers — Carriage of Passengers — Setting Down 
Passengers — Contributory Negligence. 

Where an interurban railway conductor was advised by a 
passenger that he wished to alight, and saw the passenger 
moving toward the rear end of the car, and knew, or should 
have known, that the car had slackened its speed as if about 
to stop at the passenger's request, and the motorman had 
been given the usual signal to stop to discharge passen- 
gers, the conductor and motorman were bound to see that 
the passenger was not in the act of alighting before start- 
ing the car, which had not come to a full stop, with unusual 
force and violence. 

An interurban railway passenger, who had signified his 
desire to alight, was not negligent as a matter of law in 
taking a position on the car step after the car had com- 
menced to slow down. — (Heinze v. Interurban Ry. Co., 117 
N. W. Rep., 385-) 

Louisiana. — Street Railroads — Operation — Care Required — 
Collision with Fire Apparatus — Negligence of Motor- 

It being important that the apparatus for its extinguish- 
ment should reach a fire promptly, and, the men and horses 
of the fire department being expected and trained to use 
the utmost expedition for the accomplishment of that pur- 
pose, the requirement that individuals and vehicles engaged 
upon less pressing missions shall not only accord them the 
right of way, but shall hold themselves in readiness to do 
so when they have reason to anticipate that fire apparatus 
may appear, is not unreasonable, and that condition may 
be said to exist when a vehicle, and more particularly a 
street car, which is confined to its track, approaches a fire 
engine house situated in close proximity to such track. 

The motorneer of an electric car which passes imme- 
diately in front of a fire engine house is guilty of double 
negligence when he drives the car at full speed in approach- 
ing such house, and fails to see, in time to enable him 
to stop the car and avoid collision with an outcoming hose 
wagon, a signal given while his car is 144 feet distant from 
the engine house. — (Dole v. New Orleans Ry. & Light Co., 
46 S. Rep., 929.) 

Massachusetts. — Street Railroads — Injuries to Pedestrians 
■ — Contributory Negligence — -Lighting — Mode. 

As plaintiff was approaching a street on which defend 
ant's street railroad was operated, her view of a car ap- 
proaching from the north, by which she was subsequently 
struck, was and continued to be unobstructed from the time 
such car was 850 ft. north of the point where the accident 
took place until it reached such point. The car was lighted 
by incandescent lights inside and one on the dashboard. 
The accident happened on a dark, misty morning; but the 
fog was not such as to obscure objects like the car in ques- 
tion. Held, that plaintiff was negligent, as a matter of law, 
either in not looking carefully to see the car or in not look- 
ing from the proper position. 

Where, in an action for injuries to a pedestrian in a col- 
lision with a street car, it was not shown that plaintiff knew 
or relied on the use of searchlights by the street car com- 
pany on its cars, it was no excuse for plaintiff's failure to 
discover the car in time to avoid being struck by it that 
it was only equipped with an incandescent light on the 
dashboard, instead of a searchlight in use on some of de- 
fendant's cars for a year prior to the accident. — (Beirne v. 
Lawrence & M. St. Ry. Co., 83 N. E. Rep. 359O 
Michigan. — Master and Servant — Injuries to Servant — As- 
sumption of Risk — Knowledge of Practice as to In- 
spection — Evidence — Admissibility. 

A master may conduct his business in his own way, and, 
unless a servant wishes to assume the risk of the method 
adopted by the master, he should refuse to enter upon 
the employment, or leave it on discovering such method, 
and a servant, knowing the hazards of his employment 
as it is conducted, cannot recover for injuries received on 
the ground that there was a safer method which would 
have prevented the accident had it been adopted. Hence, 
where an experienced lineman employed by defendant street 
railway company knew that it was the practice of the com- 
pany to make no separate inspection of trolley poles, but 
to rely on such as the linemen might make in connection 
with work required of them, and that all changes and re- 
pairs upon poles were made by his crew, he continued, it 
he did not accept, his employment with full knowledge of 
the facts, and he' assumed the attendant risks. 

In an action by a lineman against a street railway com- 
pany for injuries from the falling of a decayed trolley pole, 
evidence that it was the universal custom of such com- 
panies to omit inspection other than that made by the 
repair crew is admissible on the issue of assumption of 
risk. — (Lynch v. Saginaw Valley Traction Co., 116 N. W. 
Rep., 983.) 

July io, 1909.] 



Minnesota. — Street Railroads — Injuries to Persons on 
Track — Actions — Evidence — Sufficiency — Damages — 
Measure of Damages — Injuries to Person — Excessive 

In a personal injury action, the evidence considered, and 
held sufficient to sustain the finding of the jury that the 
defendant was negligent and that the plaintiff was not guilty 
of contributory negligence. 

When an injury to a woman results in a miscarriage, she 
is entitled to recover such damages as will fairly compen- 
sate her for the pain and suffering occasioned by the mis- 
carriage, but not for the pain and suffering occasioned by 
the loss of the child. 

The pain and suffering which the mother would have „ 'fr 
fered when the child was born in the natural course c ^ 
events cannot be deducted from the pain and suffering oc '7 
casioned by the miscarriage, which resulted from the de- 
fendant's negligence. 

The damages awarded held not so great as to show pas- 
sion and prejudice on the part of the jury. — (Morris v. St. 
Paul City Ry Co., 117 N. W. Rep., 500.) 

Missouri. — Damages — Excessive Damages — Carriers — 
jury to Passenger — Instructions — Conflicting Theories 
— Presentation — General Instructions — Carriers — Ac- 
tion for Injury to Passengers — Instructions — Construc- 
tion — Trial — Instructions — Sudden Jerks — Danger of 
Position — Nursing — Limitation as to Amount. 

In an action for personal injuries, it appeared that plain- 
tiff was an unmarried woman 33 years of age, in good 
health, earning $5 per week as a domestic; that blood 
poisoning set in soon after the injury, and plaintiff's physi- 
cal condition made amputation impossible for over two 
months; that both flesh and bone of her foot sloughed 
away, finally necessitating amputation; that the injured 
limb would be 2 in. shorter than the other, necessitating 
a halting walk; that her doctor bill was $500; that she was 
bedridden for several months and was bound for expenses 
for medicine and nursing. Held, that a Judgment for 
$7,500 was not so excessive as to warrant setting it aside. 

In an action against a railway company for injuries to 
a passenger, where plaintiff's testimony tended to show that 
the car had stopped at the proper place to receive passen- 
gers, that there was an implied invitation to enter, that 
while she, in the usual way and with proper care, was en- 
tering the car, there was a sudden movement forward 
throwing her down with one foot under the wheels, and 
defendant's testimony tended to show either that plaintiff 
was forced against and under the car by a crowd pushing 
to get on, or that she negligently undertook to mount a 
moving car before it reached the stopping place, and was 
injured by her own inadvertence, each party was entitled 
to instructions on their respective theories of the case. 

An instruction which puts certain facts to the jury, and 
tells them that if they find that way plaintiff is entitled to 
recover, is a general instruction. 

A general instruction for plaintiff, which, among other 
things, charged that, if defendant's servants in charge of 
the car received plaintiff as a passenger thereon, and if 
while she was on the run-board thereof, etc., they caused 
or suffered the car to start and move forward, etc., in the 
absence of contributory negligence, plaintiff could recover, 
in effect requires the jury to find that plaintiff was invited 
to enter the car, and had accepted the invitation, and is 
not open to the objection that it permits plaintiff to re- 
cover without a finding that the car had stopped when 
plaintiff sought to enter. 

If the instruction was vague as to requiring the jury to 
find that the car had stopped when plaintiff attempted to 
board it, in order to recover, the jury could not be misled, 
where other instructions plainly required them to find that 
the car had stopped at a point where defendant usually 
received passengers, to entitle plaintiff to recover, and fur- 
ther charged that plaintiff rhust establish by the greater 
weight of evidence that she received the injuries in the 
manner she alleged, and that otherwise the verdict must 
be for defendant, and that, before they found for plaintiff, 
they must find she got on the run-board when the car was 
stopped, and that her injury must be found to be the re- 
sult of a subsequent forward movement, and that if plain- 
tiff was in a crowd, which was trying to board the car 
before il stopped, and plaintiff, notwithstanding warnings, 
attempted to board the car before it stopped, etc., or if the 
pressure of the crowd, combined with her attempt, threw 
her under the wheels, or if it was a mere accident without 
fan 1 1 on either side, she could not recover. 

Where plaintiff's testimony placed her with one foot on 
the run-board of an electric car and one on the floor of 
the car raising herself to pass into it al the time (lie car 
started up, it is not error in presenting her theory to as- 

sume that plaintiff was in a position of danger at the time 
of the alleged start. 

In an action by a passenger for injuries, where the peti- 
tion asks no specific amount under any head or item of 
damages, but the elements of damage are set forth with 
particularity, and a general verdict is prayed covering them 
all, an instruction putting the question of damages to the 
jury, as the petition did, is not bad, in the absence of a 
request for a more specific instruction. — (Flaherty v. St. 
Louis Transit Co., 106 S. W. Rep., 15.) 

New York.— Street Railroads— Collision with Vehicle- 
Right of Way. 

\ driver on a street occupied by street-car tracks does 
n<t have an equal right of way with the street-car company, 
exept at street intersections, on that portion of the street 
occipied by the tracks.— (Oilman et al. v. New York City 
Ry. Co.. 107 N. Y. Sup., 770.) 

New York. — Carriers— Injuries to Passenger— Evidence- 

In an action against a street railroad for the death of 
a passenger, evidence held insufficient to show that the 
driver of defendant's car intentionally pushed decedent 
from the platform. 

Where decedent boarded the crowded front platform of 
a horse car, and the drive with an involuntary motion, 
resulting from the necessity of properly managing his 
horses, pushed decedent from the platform, there was no 
liability on the part of the carrier. — (Dubnow v. New York 
City Ry. Co., 107 N. -Y. Sup., 729.) 

New York. — Carriers— \ctions for Injuries— Sufficiency of 
Evidence — Contributory Negligence. 
Where a street raih/ay passenger, without waiting for 
the car to stop, jumped off and immediately started in the 
rear of the car to cross the other tracks, and a moment's 
notice would have apprised him, either by the corner lights 
of the car which struck him or by the sound, that the car 
was approaching, a finding that he was free from con- 
tributory negligence is against the weight of evidence.— 
(Wilson v. Rocheste & E. R. Ry. Co., 108 N. Y. Sup., 117.) 

Washington.— Elec .-icity— Actions for Injuries— Evidence 
—Sufficiency— Existence of Current— Source of Current 
Causing Shock- -Injuries — Negligence— Maintenance and 
Repair of Syst. m. 

_ In an action agaij -,t an electric railway company for in- 
juries to a city elect Ic light trimmer from a shock caused 
by contact of the trc ley wire through various other wires 
with the flexible wire by which the light was lowered, the 
evidence of the contact of wires, the shock, and the fact that 
a car had just passed held sufficient to show the presence 
of a current in the trolley wire at the time of the shock. 

Proof of contact with defendant's trolley wire held suf- 
ficient to sustain a finding that it was the source of a cur- 
rent causing a shock, notwithstanding testimony that it 
might have come from some other source, where there was 
no direct proof of any other source. 

Where a city operating an electric lighting plant removed 
a guy wire supporting a trolley wire from the railroad com- 
pany's pole to its own pole, and the railroad company sub- 
sequently took down and replaced the trolley wire and re- 
fastened the guy wire to the electric light pole, but either 
failed to put in an insulator or failed to replace one that 
was missing, the railroad company was liable for injuries 
from an electric shock to an electric light trimmer received 
from the trolley wire through the guy wire and the flexible 
wire for lowering the light from the pole to which the guy 
wire was attached; it being the duty of the railroad com- 
pany to keep its wires in reasonable repair and to correct 
faults which were dangerous to others. 

Evidence held to sustain a judgment for an electric light 
trimmer for a shock from electricity escaping through a 
guy wire from a trolley wire to the cable for lowering 
the light. — (Garretson v. Tacoma Ry. & Power Co., 96 Pa- 
cific Rep., 511.) 

West Virginia. — Carriers — Injury to Passengers — Negli- 
gence — Directing Verdict. 

Where a passenger, while riding on an electric car seated 
on (lie floor between the ^cats with his feet resting on the 
running board, falls off while the car is rounding a curve, 
the mere I act that the car was crowded and running at the 
rate of speed usual under ordinary circumstances does not 
of itself show negligence on the pari of the company. 

Under such circumstances, the lower court is justified in 
excluding plaintiff's evidence and directing a verdict for the 
defendant. — (Wcnxcl v. City & Elm Grove R. Co., 61 S. E. 
Rep., tool.) 



Colorado. — Street Railroads — Grant of Franchise by Mu- 
nicipality — Term — Right of Appeal — Effect of User. 

A grant by a city to a street railroad company of the 
right to construct and operate tracks in its streets, without 
any limitation as to time, is one at least for the term of 
the corporate life of the grantee. 

Where a city granted to a street railroad company the 
right to construct and maintain tracks "along and across 
the streets of the city," and the company has constructed 
and put in operation lines in conformity to a system which 
contemplates their extension, and the building of branch 
lines as public needs may require or justify, the city cannot 
arbitrarily, and without cause, repeal the grant except j 
to tracks at the time constructed and in operation, and J 
ordinance attempting such repe/il is void. — (Mercan/ 
Trust Co. of New York v. City of "Denver et al., 161 Fed/ 
Rep., 769-) 1 \ 

Connecticut. — Eminent Domain -- Proceedings to Ta t 
Property — Appeal — Effect as Supersedeas — Street Rai' 
roads — Location— What Constitutes. 
Gen. St. 1902, § 3834, provides that any party to any pro- 
ceeding relating to street railways, brought before the 
railroad commissioners on either original application or by 
appeal, aggrieved by the decision of the commissioners, 
may appeal to the Superio. ^ourt in the same manner as 
in appeals taken under sectio.i 3747, and with like effect. 
Section 3747 makes any appeal taken thereunder a super- 
sedeas of the order appealed from until the final action of 
the court thereon. Held, that sect'^n 3834 is not limited 
to such proceedings as may be brought by every street 
railway under the general laws, but applies to proceedings 
brought in furtherance of the exercise of the power of 
eminent domain, which has not been granted to all of them, 
and that approval by the railroao commissioners of the 
location on, and the taking of, laiid for a street railway, 
became, under section 3747, of no binding force on appeals 

The location of a street railway, the charter itself not 
fully prescribing the precise locatic , is the definite and 
final selection and demarcation of its route by its board of 

Though the location of the route of ( street railway must 
be made within the limits fixed by its iranchise, such limits 
will be liberally construed to uphold the location made, 
and it is enough if the limits are substantially observed. — 
(New York, N. H. & H. R. Co. v. S'evens, 69 Atl. Rep., 

Georgia. — Eminent Domain — Injunc ion — Street Railroads 
— Location of Route — Estopp 1 — Evidence — Admissi- 
bility — Amount of Property thjat May Be Taken — 
Grounds of Relief — Inadequacy of Remedy at Law — 
Power to Take — Street and Suburban Railways — 
Words and Phrases — "Street Cars." 
Under the facts of this case the plaintiff was not estopped 
from seeking to enjoin the defendant as prayed in its peti- 

Where a railroad company has the right to condemn 
private property for public uses in the construction and 
operation of its road, it has a large discretion in the selec- 
tion of a location for its route over such property, and, 
unless such discretion has been abused, it will not be con- 
trolled or interfered with by the courts. 

(a) Upon the trial of a case wherein the owner of 
the property through which it is proposed to run such 
road complains that such discretion of the company has 
been abused by it, it is error to exclude testimony relevant 
and material upon the issue as to whether or not the com- 
pany has acted in bad faith in the selection of such location. 

(b) Where the route selected and sought to be con- 
demned by such company for the location of its road ran 
near the cotton mill of the owner of the land, who intro- 
duced testimony to show that another route over such land 
was equally as practicable, feasible, and advantageous to 
the company and the public as the one selected, and that it 
contemplated in a short time making an enlargement of its 
mill, the plant of which was originally designed and con- 
structed with the intention of subsequently making such 
enlargement, and which would have been designed and 
constructed at less cost if such intention had not existed, 
it was error to exclude testimony, offered for the purpose 
of showing that such company acted in bad faith in select- 
ing the route it did select, to the effect that the portion of 
the land over which such route was selected was the only 
location on such land on which its mill could be scientifi- 
cally and economically enlarged, and that to enlarge their 
plant at any other location on said land would necessitate 
the building of a new and independent mill which could not 
be operated in connection with the existing plant. 

A party having the right of condemning private property 
for public purposes can only condemn such amount thereof 
as is useful, needful and necessary for public purposes. 

(a) If such party, in condemnation proceedings, makes 
an effort to condemn more land than is necessary for pub- 
lic purposes, as the assessors in such proceedings can only 
determine the amount of compensation to be paid, the 
owner of such land has the right to have a court of equity 
intervene and enjoin the condemnation of such of his land 
as is not necessary for public purposes. 

(b) Where a party has a right to condemn land for pub- 
lic purposes, it is not confined to such quantity as may be 
absolutely necessary or indispensable for public purposes; 
t ; ' such quantity as may be reasonably necessary may be 


Upon the trial of a case wherein the owner of land seeks 
to have a party having the right cf condemnation enjoined 
from condemning his land, it is not error to admit testi- 
mony of such condemnor that he made an effort before 
instituting such condemnation proceeding to acquire by 
contract the property sought to be condemned and failed 
in such effort. 

Suburban and street railroad companies incorporated 
..idei the general law pursuant to Civ. Code 1895, § 2180, 
have power to condemn private property outside of the 
limits of incorporated towns and cities. 

"Street cars," accurately speaking, are cars which trav- 
erse the streets of a town or city and carry passengers 
who get off and on at various points along the line. They 
have been considered as vehicles of street travel. — (Pied- 
mont Cotton Mills v. Georgia Ry. & Electric Co., 62 S. E. 
Rep., 52.) 

New York. — Easements — Prescription — Acquisition of 
Rights of Way — Evidence — Admissibility — Adverse 
Possession — Title by Prescription — Evidence to Over- 
come — Sufficiency — Right of Way — Abandonment. 
In an action by an abutter to restrain the operation of 
an elevated railroad and for damages, evidence that more 
than 20 years prior to the action the railroad entered on 
the street under a charter from the rapid transit commis- 
sion and the acts of the Legislature and of the municipality 
raised a presumption of lawful entry under a deed which 
had been lost. 

In an action by an abutter to restrain the operation of 
an elevated railroad and for damages, a lis pendens and 
petition in condemnation proceedings, whereby a predeces- 
sor of the railroad sought to acquire title to a right of way 
in front of the premises in question, and also a judgment 
of condemnation and an order appointing commissioners, 
such proceedings having been instituted about five years 
after the erection of the elevated structure and the com- 
mencement of the operation of the trains, and the judg- 
ment of condemnation and order appointing commission- 
ers having been entered several months thereafter, and it 
being thereby declared that the railroad's predecessor had 
not been able to acquire title to the easement required for 
the erection of its elevated structure, and Jhat its offer to 
the owner of the premises had been rejected, were com- 
petent and material to rebut the presumption raised by 
evidence introduced by the railroad that there had been a 
lawful entry under a deed which had been lost. 

But slight evidence to overcome title by prescription is 

An increase in the length of elevated railroad trains, their 
number, change in the method of operation from steam to 
electricity, and as an incident thereto the laying of a third 
rail and building of a walk by the side of the elevated 
structure, do not constitute such an increase in the user 
or change of its character as to be deemed an abandon- 
ment of any right acquired under the original entry. — 
(Betjemann v. Brooklyn Union Elevated R. Co. et al., ill 
N. Y. Sup., 567-) 

New York. — Carriers — Regulation — Carriage of Passengers 
— Excessive Fares — Penalty. 

A corporation, organized as a steam railroad under the 
general steam railroad act, operating as an electric street 
railway a road 5 or 6 miles long, and continuing to claim 
its right under the steam railroad act, instead of conform- 
ing to the law of street surface railroads, must conform to 
that act; and charging fares in excess of rates fixed by 
Railroad Law, Laws 1890, p. 1096, c. 565, § 37, renders it 
liable to the penalty imposed by section 39, provided the 
overcharge is not made through inadvertence or mistake. 

A railroad company, charging excessive fares pursuant 
to plan and intention, rather than under legal advice, is 
subject to the penalty imposed by Railroad Law, Laws 
1890, p. 1096, c. 565, § 39, for charging excessive fares, un- 
less the overcharge was made through inadvertence or 
mistake. — (Petze v. Coney Island & B. R. Co., ill N. Y. 
Sup., 532.) j 


July io, 1909.] 



News of Electric Railways 

New Rapid Transit Proposal in New York 

The Interborough Rapid Transit Company presented to 
the Public Service Commission, of the First District of 
New York, on June 30, a proposition for the addition of 
68j^ miles of new track to" its lines, 44 of which would 
be subway extensions and 24^ would include third tracks 
and extensions of present elevated lines. 

It is suggested that the most favorable way for the com- 
pany to build the subways would be as an extension of 
contract No. i, under which the present subway was built, 
the only change being that the company would furnish 
the money for construction instead of the city. The com- 
pany, however, wants the Public Service Commission to 
grant it indeterminate franchises for the third tracking of 
the Third Avenue, Second Avenue and Ninth Avenue ele- 
vated lines, and conditions its building of subways on the 
granting of the elevated franchises and the adoption by 
the commission of the plan for the Steinway tunnel. 

In detail the subway extensions proposed by the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company, according to a state- 
ment issued by T. P. Shonts, president of the company, 
is as follows: 

1. A four-track subway extension connecting with the 
existing subway at about Thirty-sixth Street and Fourth 
Avenue and running from that point under Lexington 
Avenue to about Forty-sixth Street. 

2. A two-track subway - extension connecting with the 
four tracks above proposed from a point near Forty-sixth 
Street, running north under Lexington Avenue to East 
129th Street and the Harlem River; same to be used for 
purely local service and connecting with all of the existing 
subways and the subways that we now propose. 

3. A two-track subway connecting with the proposed 
four-track subway in Lexington Avenue at about Forty- 
sixth Street and then under Third Avenue northerly, pass- 
ing under the Harlem River to East 149th Street, the Mel- 
rose district of The Bronx, there again connecting with the 
existing subway to West Farms and devoted solely to 
express service of the most rapid kind. 

4. A four-track subway extension on the West Side con- 
necting at Times Square with the present subway and run- 
ning under Seventh Avenue and Varick Street to Canal 

5. From Varick Street or West Broadway, a two-track 
subway extension, southerly by way of West Broadway, 
to Greenwich Street, southerly by way of Greenwich Street 
to the Battery, and there looped into the present subway. 

6. A two-track subway, beginning at Varick Street or 
West Broadway, running easterly under Canal Street to 
and over the Manhattan Bridge to Nevins Street, in 
Brooklyn, and there connecting with the existing city's 
subway to Flatbush Avenue. 

7. A two-track subway extension from Park Avenue and 
Forty-second Street through the Steinway tunnel into Long 
Island City, Queens County, at Van Alst Avenue. 

These plans involve about 18 miles of new tunnel con- 
struction, with 44 miles of new track, and, if completed, 
the city would own a subway route which, beginning on the 
west side of The Bronx at 242d Street, the parade ground 
of Van Cortlandt Park, would run south along the west 
side of Manhattan to the Battery, and from there north on 
the East Side to East 180th Street, at the Zoological Garden 
in Bronx Park, with transverse connections from East 
149th Street, the Melrose district of The Bronx, down 
Lenox Avenue to West 103d Street, through Forty-second 
Street from Fourth Avenue to Times Square, and at Canal 
Street, from Varick Street, or West Broadway, to and across 
the Manhattan Bridge, connecting with the city's subway 
at Nevins Street and running to Flatbush Avenue, Brook- 
lyn, together with a passage through the Steinway tunnel 
into the Borough of Queens, the whole operating under a 
5-cent fare. 

The elevated extensions proposed are as follows: 

1. A two-track elevated extension from Eighth Avenue 
and 149th Street on the West Side over the Macomb's Dam 
Bridge, with a third track beginning at about i62d Street, 
out Jerome Avenue to the reservoir, three blocks beyond 
the Fordham Road. 

2. A two-track Second Avenue extension from Chatham 
Square to the City Hall, thus enabling Second Avenue 
passengers to go directly to the Brooklyn Bridge, and 
providing there a four-track terminal. 

3. One new track for express service on the Second 
Avenue elevated to the Harlem River. 

4. One new track on the Third Avenue road from Chat- 

ham Square to Forty-second Street, which, when connected 
with its present facilities, will provide an additional track 
for express service through to 149th Street. 

5. A center track on the Ninth Avenue elevated, running 
from Cortlandt Street to Fourteenth Street, which, with 
certain station changes at 116th Street and 125th Street, 
will permit an express service on a third track from Rector 
Street to 155th Street, a distance of g l / 2 miles and thence 
along the proposed Jerome Avenue extension, a distance 
of 3 miles more. 

6. Connect two of the existing tracks on the Queens- 
boro Bridge to the Second Avenue elevated line at or near 
Fifty-ninth Street. Between Fifty-fifth and Fifty-ninth 
Streets the Second Avenue elevated line will contain four 
tracks. This will give an elevated railroad connection from 
the plaza of the Queensboro Bridge in Long Island City 
direct to the City Hall or South Ferry station of the Man- 
hattan elevated roads via Second Avenue, together with a 
connection with the existing elevated roads in Manhattan 
Island and The Bronx, with a single 5-cent fare. 

The company also proposes to lengthen the present sub- 
way stations with the use of the city's money. In closing 
it says it is willing to separate this proposition and the 
propositions for the elevated line work, and the proposi- 
tion for the subway extensions, and is willing to go ahead 
with the third tracking of elevated lines, regardless of favor- 
able action on the subway proposition, but the statement 
continues : 

"As at present advised, we are hardly prepared to go on 
with the expensive subway extensions herein proposed 
without the additional support we would derive from the 
third tracking of the elevated roads. We feel, moreover, 
that we must make our propositions with respect to the 
Steinway tunnel, the extensions over the Manhattan and 
Queensboro bridges and the Jerome Avenue extension of 
the Sixth Avenue elevated line, which become practicable 
only if the Interborough Rapid Transit Company can con- 
serve its credit by constructing the subways under the 
most economical plan possible, contingent upon the ac- 
ceptance of our present proposition to build four-track sub- 
way extensions and to third track the elevated railroads." 

President Shonts. of the company, in his letter to the 
commission, says: 

"I think it must be conceded that no private company 
can safely undertake to build new subways with the in- 
creased cost of construction now prevailing, unless relieved 
of the burden of dealing with property owners for the right- 
of-way and of the heavy franchise taxes which might be 
imposed upon the property if privately owned. The favor- 
able construction privileges contained in the original lease 
must also be extended to the new construction." 

The subway plan of the company departs from the former 
plans of the commission by a diversion of two of the four 
tracks proposed for Lexington Avenue to Third Avenue. 
This is done, it is said, because of the narrowness of Lex- 
ington Avenue, which would entail heavy judgments against 
the city for property damages if four tracks should be 
built beneath that thoroughfare. 

The Board of Estimate of New York approved on July 
2 the report of its special subway committee to grant the 
request of the Public Service Commission for permission to 
advertise for bids on all the subway plans now before it. 

The people of the State of New York, reoresented by the 
Public Service Commission, has recovered a judgment of 
$1 against Frederick W. Whitridge, receiver of the Third 
Avenue Railroad, as a penalty for building a loop at the 
Fort George terminal of the railroad without first obtaining 
permission of the commission. The suit was to recover a 
penalty of $5,000 a day for 15 days. For Mr. Whitridge 
Joseph H. Choate, Jr., said that permission had been asked 
from the commission, but that it was so slow in coming 
that, since t he loop was a necessity, the receiver went ahead 
with the construction, not expecting any opposition from 
the commission. 

Cleveland Traction Situation 

The retail and wholesale boards of the Cleveland Chamber 
of Commerce have adopted resolutions condemning the 
course pursued by Mayor Johnson in prolonging the trac- 
tion struggle through the passage of the Schmidt grants. 
The wholesale board has pledged its support to the com- 
mittee of 100, and especially the retail members <>f that 
board, who have been attacked by the Mayor in his circular. 

The executive committee of the committee of 100 has 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

been at work for several days on plans for the campaign 
against the Schmidt grants, but no details have been an- 
nounced. It is expected that the real work will be begun 
about July 15 and that a whirlwind speaking campaign will 
be conducted until Aug. 3, the date of the referendum elec- 
tion. Business men, lawyers and others who are accustomed 
to talking in public will be enlisted in this work. All of 
Mayor Johnson's arguments will be answered. The local 
organization of street railway men will also take part in 
the campaign. They have no desire again to come under 
the superintendence of a company managed by Mr. Johnson. 

Mayor Johnson has asserted several times that he would 
prove from the reports furnished by the receivers of the 
Municipal Traction Company recently that the 3-cent lines 
are^ paying expenses and making sufficient profit to pay 
dividends upon the investment. He has not gone into this 
matter, but says that 85 per cent of the lines in Cleveland 
will be operated at 3 cents if the Schmidt franchise is up- 
held. Every time he speaks in public the Mayor reiterates 
the statement that the Tayler ordinance means a 5-cent fare 
and that the committee of 100 favors the 5-cent rate. As a 
matter of fact, the Tayler ordinance provides for an initial 
fare of 3 cents which may be raised if the returns are not 
sufficient to furnish good service and pay dividends of 5 
per cent on the stock of the company. The cost of trans- 
portation, however, is never to exceed the fare represented 
by seven tickets for 25 cents, except when paid in cash, atid 
then the fare is to be five cents. 

The Forest City Railway owes taxes amounting to 
$18,000, while the Low Fare Railway is indebted $400 for 
the same purpose for the year 1908. No provision has been 
made on the books of the Municipal Traction Company for 
the payment of the taxes and it is not known whether they 
will be classed as general or preferred claims. Some dis- 
cussion has arisen as to the possibility of paying the general 
claims against the Municipal Traction Company, and the 
opinion of some attorneys is that those who have general 
claims will get only a very small dividend. 

New Line Opened Between St. Paul and Minneapolis. — 

The new Fort Snelling Bridge across the Mississippi River 
at Minneapolis has been accepted, and the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company has established a service of through cars 
on the new Snelling-Minnehaha interurban line from Henne- 
pin Avenue and Fifth Street, Minneapolis, to East Seventh 
Street, St. Paul. 

New Nebraska Line Opened. — The Nebraska Traction & 
Power Company, which is building an electric railway from 
Omaha to South Omaha, Ralston and Papillion, has placed 
the line in operation between Forty-fourth Street and Q 
Street, Omaha, and Seymour Lake. It is expected that 
service will soon be extended to Ralston and that in the 
fall the line will be in operation to Papillion. 

New Mail Contract in Brooklyn. — A new agreement has 
been made between the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 
and the Post Office Department for the transportation of 
mail in Brooklyn between the general post office and the 
substations. It is understood that the company will here- 
after receive about $42,000 a year for this service, as com- 
pared with a compensation of about $39,000 a year paid 

Texas Occupation Tax Decision Upheld. — The Supreme 
Court of Texas on June 24, in the case of the Dallas (Tex.) 
Consolidated Electric Street Railway against the State, 
affirmed the decision of the lower courts holding that the 
Act of May 16, 1907, levying an occupation tax consisting of 
a percentage of the gross earnings of street railway com- 
panies does not repeal that part of the Act of 1897 which 
imposes an occupation tax on street railways of $2 per mile 
of road. 

Large Steam Railroad Electrification Proposed in France. 

— The Chemins de Fer du Midi, one of the large steam rail- 
roads in France, has awarded the first of its contracts for 
the electrification of its main line from Bordeaux to Tou- 
louse. The line to be equipped is more than 250 miles long. 
The single-phase system at 15 cycles will be used. The 
order for electrical equipment for the first section of the 
line, which should be in operation in about a year, was 
divided among a number of electrical manufacturing com- 

Franchise Must Go to Highest Bidder. — The Court of 
Appeals of New York has decided that a municipality must 
sell a railroad franchise to the highest bidder, whether such 
bidder is a corporation or an individual. The case in which 
this opinion was handed down involved the sale of a fran- 
chise for the construction of an electric railway on Eighth 
Street, Sixth Avenue and other highways in Troy. Two 
bids were submitted for the franchise, one by Joseph A. 
Powers, representing the Trojan Railway, and the other 

by the United Traction Company, Albany. The former 
bid was the highest by $1. Mayor Mann rejected the Pow- 
ers bid and accepted that of the United Traction Company. 
Franchise Valuations in New York. — The New York 

State Board of Tax Commissioners announced on June 30 
that the aggregate special franchise valuation in the State 
this year, exclusive of four cities, is $578,458,837. The 
assessments for Albany, Binghamton, Mount Vernon and 
New Rochelle have not yet been fixed. Last year the total 
of these cities was $9,055,3751 The total assessment for 
the entire State last year was $607,069,557. The decrease 
this year is due to the revision made in the assessments on 
the properties of the Consolidated Gas Company, New 
York, in compliance with the decision of the United States 
Supreme Court in the 80 cent gas litigation. The total 
assessment in Greater New York last year was $492,492,970, 
as against $474,501,900 for this year, a decrease of nearly 

Conductor Sentenced in Brooklyn. — Frederick Lehefeld, 
a conductor in the employ of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company, who was recently convicted of forgery, was 
sentenced by Judge Dike on June 28 to serve not more than 
5 years and not less than 2 l / 2 years at Sing Sing. Before 
he sentenced Lehefeld, Judge Dike stated that he had in- 
vestigated the case thoroughly and had learned that the 
prisoner had worked for 13 railway companies, and to each 
of them had given a fictitious name. His scheme was to 
write letters to the different companies endorsing himself 
for appointment and signing the name of an official of the 
company. By presenting a letter of this sort to the em- 
ployment bureau, he generally secured work. In investi- 
gating the man's career it was discovered that he kept a 
diary in which he recorded his receipts for each day and 
the amount which he retained for himself. 

Short Tunnel Advocated for San Francisco. — The board 

of directors of the Merchants' Association of San Fran- 
cisco, which has been considering the transit situation in 
San Francisco, advocates that Twin Peaks be tunneled to 
provide a thoroughfare for street cars, wagon and auto- 
mobile traffic and pedestrians as the readiest way in which 
to develop the southern districts of the city. The idea is 
to start the tunnel at about the junction of Market Street 
and Castro Street and to have it emerge near the almshouse 
tract and continue thence down the peninsula. The board 
also favors a street railway express service. In its report 
it says: "It is absolutely necessary that not only should the 
present car lines be extended but also that there should 
be some system of rapid transit provided with express 
trains that would travel with high speed and not stop ex- 
cept at intervals of four or five blocks, so that people could 
travel from the central portion of the city to the outlying- 
districts in 15 or 20 minutes." 

Meeting of General Managers' Association. — The general 

managers of the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction 
Company, the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company, 
the Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Com- 
pany, the Lexington & Interurban Railway and the Ohio 
River Electric Railway & Light Company, all of which are 
controlled by the same interests, met at Fort Wayne, Ind., 
nn June 28 and 29 to discuss subjects of general interest and 
consider problems affecting the different properties. The 
program which was originally intended to take up a large 
part of the second day of the meeting had to be postponed 
until the association meets in Norfolk, Va., in August. 
While at Fort Wayne those in attendance at the meeting 
were the guests of C. D. Emmons, general manager of the 
Fort Wayne & Wabash Traction Company, who took them 
over the lines of the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Trac- 
tion Company and to Lafayette, Anderson, Muncie and 
Bluffton on a tour of inspection of interurban railways. 

Terms Proposed for Camden-Philadelphia Tunnel. — Mem- 
bers of the special committee of the City Council of Cam- 
den, N. J., city officials and a representative of Stern & 
Silverman, who are promoting the Camden Tunnel Railway, 
which proposes to build a tunnel between Camden and 
Philadelphia, conferred recently with E. G. C. Bleakley, 
counsel of Camden, on the proposed ordinance granting a 
franchise to the Camden Tunnel Railway. These terms 
have been proposed for the right to operate in Camden, but 
are subject to approval: At the end of three years the com- 
pany will begin to pay the city an annual rental of $2,500 
which is to be increased progressively each year until at the 
end of six years it will amount to $16,000 annually. These 
amounts are as follows: First year, $2,500; second year, 
$5,000; third year, $6,000; fourth year, $7,500; fifth year, 
$10,000; sixth year, $12,000; seventh year, $16,000 and there- 
after annually the same amount. Unless work on the tun- 
nel is commenced within one year and the entire system 
is completed within five years, the franchise is to lapse. 

July io, 1909.] 



Financial and Corporate 

New York Stock and Money Market 

Report of Hudson & Manhattan Railroad 

July 6, 1909. 

After the three days' holiday the stock market to-day 
was sluggish with prices rather firmly maintained. The 
Harriman shares, especially Southern Pacific, led in the 
trading, due to the fact that foreign reports indicated heavy 
buying abroad. United States Steel common remained 
steady, in spite of the definite announcement that the plan 
for Paris listing had failed. Third Avenue stock was heavy 
during the earlier part of the day, receding to 16. but at 
the close recovered to the highest point of the day. Inter- 
borough shares were fairly active and prices were main- 
tained. The bond market continues strong. 

The money market is still easy, supplies plentiful and 
rates low. Quotations to-day were: Call, lyi to i 7 /s per 
cent; 90 days, 2 z / 2 per cent. 

Other Markets 

There has been less activity in the traction issues in the 
Philadelphia market during the past week. There has been 
no pressure to sell Rapid Transit and prices have remained 
stationary on light trading. Quotations for Philadelphia 
Traction and Union Traction are practically unchanged. 

The most active traction issue in the Chicago market has 
been Kansas City Railway & Light. Although the trading 
has been within narrow limits, prices within the week have 
advanced almost two points. There have also been limited 
sales of all the Chicago Railways issues. 

In Boston there has been little trading in tractions. A 
few shares of Boston Elevated and Massachusetts Electric 
preferred have been in the market, but there have been no 
price changes worth mentioning. 

United Railways bonds have been the only traction 
securities in evidence in the Baltimore market. The closing 
prices for these to-day were: incomes S7 l A, 4s 87 and re- 
funding 5s 82*/2. 

Quotations of various traction securities as compared 
with last week follow: 

June 29. July 6. 

American Railways Company &4$¥i &45A 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (common) 39'/2 2.40V2 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad (preferred) a88 a&7 

Boston Elevated Railway 120 129 A 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies *i6 *i6 

Boston & Suburban Electric Companies (preferred) fji *yi 

Boston & Worcester Electric Companies (common) 10 10 

Boston S; Worcester Electric Companies (preferred) 356 5?A 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 79A 79/4 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 1st ref. conv. 4s 87^2 86^-4 

Capital Traction Company, Washington 3135 ai39 

Chicago City Railway aigo aigo 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (common) *4 "3 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated Railroad (preferred) *i4 *i2 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 1 ai09 aii3 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 2 a$8 a40 l / 2 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 3 a28 a28 

Chicago Railways, ptcptg, ctf. 4s aio aio 

Cleveland Electric Railway _ *78 *78 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey ^78^/2 3.76 A 

Consolidated Trac. Co. of N. j. 5 per cent bonds a,io6'/ 2 aio6^i 

Detroit United Railway a62 a62 _ 

General Electric Company 161 54 16454 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (common) ag3 92% 

Georgia Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 87 87 

Tnterborough-Metropolitan Company (common) 16% i6 7 A 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 503*6 49% 

Tnterborough-Metropolitan Company (4V2S) 79%, 80 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (common) a49 51 

Kansas City Railway & Light Company (preferred) 38454 83 

Manhattan Railway ai47 ai47 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) 3i3}4 ai354 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) 71 70 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (common) ai7 ai7 

Metropolitan West Side, Chicago (preferred) a5o 348^2 

Metropolitan Street Railway 26 18 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light (preferred) *rio *rro 

North American Company 825^ 83% 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (common) a23 a23 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad (preferred) 369'/^ a70 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) 342^' 42 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) 343 43 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 328^ 285-6 

Philadelphia Traction Company 391 A 91 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent col. notes aioo!4 aiooA 

Public Service Corporation, ctfs a88;4 389 

Seattle Electric Company (common) *M2 *ii2 

Seattle Electric Company (preferred) *I02 103 

South Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago ass 14 ass 

Toledo Railways & Light Company 38^2 39 

Third Avenue Railroad. New York 21 18 

Twin City Rapid Transit, Minneapolis (common) 1035-6 ai04 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia 35254 a.53;4 

United Railways X- Electric Comoany, Baltimore an 54 11 

United Railways Inv. Co., San Francisco (common) ,-139 ,'139 

United Railways Tnv. Co.. San Francisco (preferred) 356'/$ 56 

Washington Railway & Electric Company (common) •\42V2 34254 

Washington Railway & Electric Company (preferred) 39056 agi 

West End Street Railway, Boston (common) 92^4 a93 

Wesl End Street Railway, Boston (preferred) 1114 "iort 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 85 385 

Westinchnusc Elec. & Mfg. Company (tst pref.) i2iJ4 M24A 

aAsked. "Last sale. 

The report of the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad for the 
year ended June 30, 1908, as made public by the Public 
Service Commission, First District, shows the following 
income account from Feb. 26, 1908, to June 30, 1908, for the 
portion of line completed and in operation from Nineteenth 
Street and Sixth Avenue, New York, to Hoboken, N. J.: 


Passenger revenue $218,186.10 

Income from station privileges 3,492.64 

Other miscellaneous 736.87 

Total operating revenue $222,415.61 


Maintenance of v/ay and structures $37,267.16 

Maintenance of equipment.. 18,973.50 

Operation of power plant 77,771.20 

Operation of cars 65,527.06 

Damages (including legal expenses) 

General expenses 30,141,69 

Total 229,680.61 

Operating loss. 


From Hudson Terminal buildings.... $110,048.57 
Less operating expenses 38,467.90 

From other real estate 

2,046. 1 



Operating income (revenue less expenses) $66,361.77 

Interest on bank balances, etc 647.96 

Gross income $67,009.73 




Preliminary expenses prior to opening to public. . . 
Preliminary expenses Hudson Terminal buildings. 



Less adjustment in stock material values 

Surplus, for period $47,458.65 


The downtown system which will extend from the Hud- 
son Terminal at Church, Cortlandt, Fulton and Dey Streets, 
New York, to Jersey City, N. J., is still in course of con- 
struction. The entire length of the projected line is about 
8.8 miles of double track and 8.1 single track. All taxes 
during the period of construction are payable by the con- 
struction company. 

The cost of road and equipment stood on the balance 
sheet as of June 30, 1908, at $101,514,348. 

The following additional information is furnished: 

Miles of first track (in operation June 30, 1908) 3.31 

Miles of second track (in operation June 30, 1908) 3.30 

Total track mileage (electrically operated subway and tunnels) 6.80 

Thereof, mileage in State of New York 4.22 

Average number of cars operated 40 to 45 

Total number of trips made (estimated) 27,840 

Total passenger car-miles run 618,742 

Passengers — number of 5-cent fares 4,363,722 

Hearings on Third Avenue Railroad Reorganization 

The hearing before the Public Service Commission of 
the First District of New York set for June 29. on the pro- 
posed plan for the reorganization of the Third Avenue 
Railroad, mention of which was made on page 50 of the 
Electric Railway Journal for July 3, 1909, was postponed 
until July 7. Frederick W. Whitridge, receiver of the 
Third Avenue Railroad, was unable to be at the hearing 
on June 29, and a number of stockholders requested addi- 
tional time in which to consider the plan. 

The argument of the bondholders' committee which drew 
up the reorganization plan was heard first at the hearing 
on July 7. John M. Bowers, counsel for the committee, 
pointed out the merits of the plan. Fie concerned himself 
largely with the legal side. According to Mr. Bowers, the 
plan follows the principles laid down in the reorganization 
of the Erie Railroad, in reducing the fixed charges against 
the company by having the holders of old mortgage bonds 
accept an income bond instead of a security involving a 
fixed charge on the property. Mr. Bowers presented in his 
argument the basis of the exchange of tin' new securities 
for the old by means of this table: 

Old bonds, principal and interest $40,640,000 

Stork' 16,000,000 

Total ■ $56,640,000 

To be issued : 

Refunding mortgage bonds $15,516,800 

Adjustment bonds 31,045,000 

Stock !0,000, 

Total $66..' 

Difference 9,021,800 

To be used to raise cash of 7,500,000 

The refunding mortgage ami adjustmenl bonds in the 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

tabulation are those which it is proposed to issue for the 
old consolidated bonds, plus $6,000,000 of the refunding 
bonds, and $1,000,000 of the adjustment bonds, which are to 
be sold by the syndicate. Mr. Bowers said the plan ap- 
peared to be the only one under which the cash required 
could be raised, and that any other plan would involve 
wiping out the stock. 

Mr. Whitridge followed Mr. Bowers. He said that he 
based the estimates submitted by him to the bondholders' 
committee as to the earnings of the property on the income 
of the Third Avenue system in the December and March 
quarters — the two worst of the year. The net earnings for 
December, after paying the interest on the existing $5,000,- 
000 first mortgage bonds, a small amount of taxes, the in- 
terest on the receiver's certificates, and on about $6,000,000 
additional of underlying liens, were $406,000 in round fig- 
ures, and they were $1; 7,000 for the March quarter. The net 
earnings for April were $106,000; the net earnings for May 
were $197,000, and for June would be less than for May. 
He felt justified in estimating, therefore, that the Third 
Avenue Railroad would begin its reorganized career with 
net earnings, after payment of interest on the prior liens, 
of about $1,500,000, and after deducting an allowance of 
$300,000 a year for depreciation, he felt that $1,200,000 would 
remain applicable to return on the securities to be reckoned 
with in the reorganization. Mr. Whitridge said that after 
the reorganization there would be some increases in op- 
erating cost, but that these would be offset by saving in 
other directions, such, for instance, as an item of $140,000 
which he has paid out this year for lawyers. The develop- 
ment of traffic in the Borough of the Bronx, which has been 
neglected somewhat, would help the earnings of the com- 
pany materially, as that borough is increasing steadily in 
population and many of the residents are largely dependent 
upon the lines of the company for transportation to and 
from the business section of New York. 

It was pointed out that $1,552,000 would be required for 
the full interest on the 5 per cent income bonds proposed, 
and that there would be a deficit on this interest of $900,000, 
an amount which is due before there is any return on the 
stock. Mr. Whitridge was then asked upon what he pre- 
dicated any estimate of value for the stock, on which the 
stockholders are asked to pay $25 a share. According to 
him, the matter of an estimate for the value of the stock is 
a subject for each holder to decide for himself. He said 
that he personally might think the stock to be worth next 
to nothing, but that the stockholders might think it to be 
worth $25 a share. 

Camden & Trenton Railway, Camden, N. J. — Under the 
plan of reorganization of the Camden & Trenton Railway, 
approved by committees representing the first general mort- 
gage bondholders, it is provided that a new corporation 
be formed to take over the property at foreclosure sale, 
which will take place shortly, to be known as the River- 
side Traction Company, and that $124,500 of the preferred 
stock of the new company shall be sold at par for cash to 
provide working capital. The committees report that all 
of this stock has been sold for cash and that the full pur- 
chase price thereof has been paid to the West End Trust 
Company as depository. The remaining funds necessary 
for the rehabilitation of the road will be derived from the 
sale of first mortgage bonds. It is probable that between 
$300,000 and $400,000 will in this way be provided for capital 

Chicago (111.) Consolidated Traction Company. — The 

receivership of the Chicago Consolidated Traction Com- 
pany and its underlying leaseholds has been formally ex- 
tended by Judge Grosscup to the North Shore Street Rail- 
way. David R. Forgan and John M. Roach, receivers of the 
Consolidated Traction Company, were appointed receivers 
for the North Shore Street Railway and the receiverships 
were consolidated. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Electric Railway. — Horace E. Andrews, 
president of the Cleveland Electric Railway, announced 
on June 29 that the $2,026,000 of Cleveland City Railway 
first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds, dated July 1, 1889, 
which matured July 1, 1909, and the accompanying coupons, 
July 1, would, on and after July 1, 1909, be taken up by 
N. W. Harris & Company, New York, N. Y. The Cleveland 
Eiectric Railway has sold to N. W. Harris & Company, 
$2,128,000 of an authorized issue of $3,179,000 of 5 per cent 
gold bonds dated July 1, 1909, and due Jan. 1, 1912, but sub- 
ject to call at par and accrued interest on and after March 
1, 1910, on 60 days' notice. The new bonds will be 
secured by deposit of the bonds retired and also by a 
general lien on the entire property of the Cleveland Railway, 
subject to the outstanding bonds, and on payment of the 
$1,000,000 East Cleveland Railroad bonds (for which the 
escrow bonds of the under the new 2^-year mortgage 
are reserved) in March, 1910. They will be further secured 

by a collateral lien on the portion of the property now 
covered by that mortgage. 

Conneaut & Erie Traction Company, Erie, Pa. — A plan 

has been proposed and assented to for the reorganization of 
the Conneaut & Erie Traction Company, now in the hands 
of Robert W. Watson, Harrisburg, as receiver. It is pro- 
posed to organize the Cleveland & Erie Traction Company 
as the successor to the Conneaut & Erie Traction Com- 
pany. The Conneaut & Erie Traction Company had a capi- 
tal stock of $800,000, $800,000 first mortgage 5 per cent 
bonds and about $400,000 second mortgage 5 per cent bonds. 
In the plan of reorganization the old first mortgage bond- 
holders will receive $500,000 in new first mortgage 5 per 
cent bonds and $500,000 in 5 per cent income bonds. Hold- 
ers of the old second mortgage will receive $500,000 in the 
new incomes and the capital stock of the new company. 
The capital stock will be placed in control of five voting 
trustees. One hundred thousand dollars of the new first 
mortgage 5 per cent bonds will be used to raise new money, 
as will also a like amount of the new incomes. The new 
money will meet all expenses of reorganization and leave 
$50,000 in the company's treasury as working capital. Re- 
ceiver Watson will be president of the new company. 
Present plans of the new management are said to include a 
working agreement with the Cleveland, Painesville & Ash- 
tabula Railroad, which is now controlled by the Cleveland, 
Painesville & Eastern Railroad, which will give the Cleve- 
land & Erie Traction Company a through line from Erie to 

Consolidated Railway & Power Company, Fayetteville, 

N. C. — Wm. D. McNeill, president of the Consolidated 
Railway & Power Company, has been appointed receiver of 
the company. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. 

— Following the decision of the Public Service Commission 
of the First District of New York that it was unnecessary 
formally to grant authority to the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company for the issuance of $10,000,000 of 5 per 
cent bonds for the retirement of an equal amount of three- 
year 5 per cent notes which fall due on March 1, 1910, but 
which are subject to call at 101, it was announced that the 
company had closed negotiations with J. P. Morgan & 
Company for the purchase of the bonds. This $10,000,000 
bonds is the first lot of the $55,000,000 authorized in April, 
1909, to be sold publicly. At the present time $30,000,000 
of the bonds are issued but deposited as collateral under the 
$25,000,000 three-year 6 per cent notes, which were pur- 
chased last year at 97 by a syndicate managed by Morgan 
& Company. 

Interstate Railways Company, Philadelphia, Pa. — The di- 
rectors of the Interstate Railways Company have approved 
the plan of Geo. H. Earle, Jr., for the rehabilitation of the 
company. It is proposed that the 4 per cent bonds be de- 
posited in trust for five years and the income of the com- 
pany be used for necessary betterments. If any surplus 
is available after the expenditure of $500,000 or more per 
year for betterments, it shall go toward paying the in- 
terest. The amount needed to pay the 4 per cent interest 
on the $10,776,600 bonds, or $431,064 per annum, is to be 
obtained by the issue of 6 per cent script. Bondholders 
who prefer cash may so elect and the script they refuse 
will be sold to provide funds for the cash payments. The 
plan further provides that certificates of the Philadelphia 
Trust Company issued to the bondholders who recently 
deposited their bonds under agreement with E. B. Smith 
& Company will be accepted by the trustees in lieu of the 
bonds. The plan is to be declared operative when the 
committee decides that a sufficient number of the bond- 
holders has assented by the deposit of their shares with 
the Real Estate Trust Company. 

Long Island Electric Railway, Long Island City, N. Y. — 

The Long Island Electric Railway has asked the Public 
Service Commission of the First District of New York to 
approve a proposed reduction in its capital stock from 
$2,100,000 to $600,000. Some time ago the New York & 
North Shore Railway, with a capital of $1,500,000, was 
consolidated with the Long Island Electric Railway. This 
stock did not represent actual value, as the property had 
been mortgaged for $1,261,000, and most of it sold out later 
under foreclosure. Stockholders of the New York & North 
Shore Railway have turned over to the Long Island Elec- 
tric Railway by voluntary surrender the $1,500,000 capital 
stock. It was decided to reduce the capital stock to an 
amount which actually represented the value of the 
property. The directors of the Long Island Electric Rail- 
way approved the measure last year, and holders of out- 
standing certificates have since acquiesced. 

New Orleans Railway & Light Company, New Orleans, 

La. — On June 28, 1909, a general meeting of the stockhold- 
ers of the New Orleans Railway & Light Company was 

July io, 1909.] 


9 1 

held at the offices of the company in New Orleans, La., for 
the purpose of considering a plan submitted by the directors 
of authorizing the issuance of $50,000,000 of 5 per cent 
40-year first and refunding mortgage bonds. Out of a total 
of 300,000 shares of preferred and common stock entitled 
to vote 200,524 shares were cast, 182,490 shares voting in 
favor of the proposal and 18,034 shares against it. The pur- 
pose of the issue of bonds was fully explained in the ab- 
stract of the letter of Hugh McCloskey, president of the 
company, to the stockholders, published in the Electric 
Railway Journal of June 5, 1909, page 1058. 

Northampton (Mass.) Street Railway. — The directors of 
the Northampton Street Railway have decided not to pay a 
dividend in July on the $400,000 stock. In January, 1909, 
2 l / 2 per cent was paid; in 1908, 3 per cent semi-annually, and 

3 per cent in July and 4 per cent in January, 1907. 
Peoria (111.) Railway. — N. W. Halsey & Company, New 

York, N. Y., are offering at 98 and interest the unsold 
portion (less than $500,000) of a block of $1,500,000 "first 
and refunding" 5 per cent gold bond of the Peoria Rail- 
way, dated June 20, 1906, and due serially Feb. I, 1910-1920, 
and subject to call at 105 on any interest date. The bonds 
are unconditionally guaranteed by endorsement, both as to 
principal and interest, by the Illinois Traction System. 

Quebec Railway, Light & Power Company, Quebec, Que. 
— On June 25, George H. Thompson, president, and John 
Sharpies, Wm. Shaw and Wm. Hanson, directors of the 
Quebec Railway, Light & Power Company, resigned. New 
officers have been elected as follows: W. G. Ross, of the 
Montreal Street Railway, president; Frank Ross, Quebec, 
vice-president; L. C. Marcoux, N. Bealleau, Wm. Price, 
M.P., and Frank Ross, Jr., Quebec; Robert Mackay, J. N. 
Greenshields and Rudolphe Forget, M.P., Montreal, di- 

San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway. — The San Diego Elec- 
tric Railway has purchased the South Park & East Side 
Railway, San Diego, which operates 2> l / 2 miles of line in 
San Diego. 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction Company, 
Toledo, Ohio. — At a meeting of the directors of the Toledo, 
Bowling Green & Southern Traction Company, on June 30, 
the officials of the company expressed themselves as being 
in favor of increasing the capital stock of the company 
by $750,000, issuing new bonds through the transfer of the 
bonds now held by the stockholders and lifting the receiver- 
ship of and taking over the Toledo, Urbana & Interurban 
Railway. A plan for carrying this proposal into effect will 
be submitted to the stockholders of the Toledo, Bowling 
Green & Southern Traction Company at a meeting to be 
held at Findlay on Aug. 6, 1909. 

Toledo Railways & Light Company, Toledo, Ohio. — The 
bondholders' committee of Toledo Railways & Light Com- 
pany recently sent a letter to holders of the first mortgage 

4 per cent consolidated bonds in which they said that the 
company would not be able to pay the principal or in- 
terest on the $4,866,000 bonds maturing July r, and asking 
that no summary or drastic action be taken against the 
company because of the defaults. Practically all of these 
bonds are deposited with the committee, which has agreed 
not to institute foreclosure proceedings. This is the third 
default on the interest payments. 

Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — 
Under a decree directing the delivery of property and 
approving the deed of conveyance, Judge Edmund Waddill, 
Jr., of the United States Circuit Court, at Richmond, Va., 
on June 30 formally ended the receivership of the Virginia 
Passenger & Power Company, and at midnight the Vir- 
ginia Railway & Power Company assumed control of the 
street railways of Richmond, Petersburg and Manchester, 
with the interurban connections. The company has or- 
ganized as follows: Frank Jay Gould, New York City, 
chairman of board of directors; William Northrop, Rich- 
mond, president; Fritz Sitterding, Richmond, vice-presi- 
dent; Henry W. Anderson, Richmond, vice-president and 
general counsel; Guy Phillips, New York, secretary and 
treasurer; George B. Williams, Richmond, assistant secre- 
tary and assistant treasurer; R. H. Keim, Richmond, gen- 
eral auditor; A. B. Guigon, Richmond, assistant counsel; 
G. H. Whitfield, Richmond, general superintendent of light 
and power department; C. B. Buchanan, Richmond, general 
superintendent of railways. 

West End Street Railway, Boston, Mass.— The share- 
holders' protective committee has sent out a circular letter 
Stating that, at the request of the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way, the matter of consolidation has been referred by the 
Legislature to a commission composed of the Railroad 
Commissioners and the Boston Transit Commission, which 
will hear the parties interested and report to (he next 
Legislature whether or not changes advocated by the com- 
mittee arc judicious and consistent with the public interest. 

Traffic and Transportation 

Regulations of Washington Commission Amended 

At a general session of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission held at Washington, D. C, on June 21, 1909, a num- 
ber of amendments and additions to the rules and regula- 
tions for the operation and equipment of street railway cars 
within the District of Columbia were adopted. Section 5 
was modified so as to read as follows: 

"No street car shall move at a greater rate of speed than 
15 miles an hour in Washington, nor at a greater rate of 
speed than 20 miles an hour in the suburbs of said city. 
Street cars shall not exceed a rate of speed greater than 6 
miles an hour at street crossings. When it is necessary 
for street cars to stop at street crossings they shall stop 
on the near side thereof; the front end of the car or train 
to rest on a line with the curb on the near side of the in- 
tersecting street, except where the mechanical appliances 
make it impracticable to do so: Provided, that in cases 
where stops are now allowed on both sides of a crossing, 
such stops may be continued if the railroad companies so 
desire: Provided, that cars moving south on Seventh Street, 
northwest, shall be allowed to stop on the far side of Rhode 
Island Avenue in lieu of the near side thereof, that cars 
moving east on New York Avenue, northwest, shall stop on 
both sides of Thirteenth Street when requested to do so, 
and that cars of the Capital Traction Company moving 
south on the Fourteenth Street line shall stop after rounding 
the curve at New York Avenue, northwest, in lieu of stop- 
ping before rounding said curve. No motorman or con- 
ductor shall refuse to stop to take up a passenger at any 
street crossing or other regular stopping place unless all 
the seats in the car or train are occupied. No motorman 
or conductor shall refuse to stop to let off a passenger at 
any street crossing or other regular stopping place." 

It was ordered that the following be substituted for 
Section 1: 

"Every street railway car other than trailers operated in 
the District of Columbia shall be equipped with front auto- 
matic or platform-operated projecting pick-up fenders and 
with automatic wheel guards. The front end of projecting 
fenders shall not have an elevation of more than six inches 
above the rail when in their normal position, and the front 
end of wheel guards shall not have an elevation of more 
than four inches above the rail when in their normal posi- 
tion. Wheel-guard gates shall not be more than five inches 
above the rail when in their normal position. Wheel-guard 
gates shall not travel more than six inches from their 
normal position before tripping the guard." 

This section is to become effective on Sept. 1, 1909. 

It was also ordered that Section 3, which says that plat- 
forms of street cars shall be guarded by gates of a con- 
struction and operation approved by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, be amended so as to read as follows: 

"Platforms of street cars shall be guarded by gates. That 
side of open or summer cars adjacent to the track opposite 
that upon which the car is running shall be provided with 
a guard rail." 

This section is to become effective on Sept. 1, 1909. 

It was further ordered that Section 4, regarding that 
fenders must be kept in thorough working order and in 
good repair when in use, be amended to read as follows: 

"The fenders and wheel guards must be kept in thorough 
working order and in good repair when in use." 

This section is to become effective on Aug. 1, 1909. 

It was further ordered that Section 10, requiring that all 
new double-truck suburban or interurban electric cars placed 
in service in the District of Columbia on or after Jan. 1, 
1909, shall be equipped with an approved type of air brake 
in addition to the usual hand brake, be amended so as to 
read as follows: 

"All cars provided with four motor equipments which 
shall be operated in the District of Columbia on or after 
July 1, 1909, shall be equipped with air brakes in addition 
to the ordinary hand brake." 

The following regulations were added: 

"13. All motor cars must be provided with four sand 
boxes. A tube, not less than two inches inside diameter, 
shall lead from each box to the front wheel of each truck, 
terminating in front of and as close as practicable to the 
wheel, directly over the rail and not more than six inches 
above the rail. 

This section is to become effective on Nov. 1, 1900. 

"14. All sand boxes shall In- kept in working order at 
all times and shall be kept well supplied with dry sand 
which shall be best suited to assure the proper How of 

This section is to become effective on Oct. I, 1909. 
"15. Gears shall be provided with complete cases which 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

shall be kept in gocd repair. Gears shall be kept well 
greased and in such proper condition as to reduce to a 
minimum the noise occasioned by the operation of the 
same. Truck bolts and other parts must be kept tight to 
avoid undue noise." 

This section is to become effective on Sept. 1, 1909. 

"16. Brake beams and shoe hangers must be kept tight 
and no more lost motion in these parts than is absolutely 
necessary will be allowed." 

This section is to become effective on Sept. 1, 1909. 

"17. Brake chains must be tested proof and must be kept 
in good repair." 

This section is to become effective on Aug. 1, 1909. 

"18. Link-hanger and slide-brake beams must have a 
safety hanger bolted to the truck." 

This section is to become effective on Dec. 1, 1909. 

"19. Car floors, platforms and steps must be kept in 
good repair." 

This section is to become effective on Aug. 1, 1909. 

"20. All cars must be equipped with grab-handles properly 
located and secured." 

This section is to become effective on Aug. 1, 1909. 

"21. Fuse boxes and circuit breakers on all cars must be 
provided with covers." 

This section is to become effective on Sept. 1, 1909. 

"22. No live contacts which are in reach of passengers or 
pedestrians will be permitted." 

This section is to become effective on Sept. 1, 1909. 

"23. All cars in operation in the District of Columbia 
which are equipped with air brakes shall also be -equipped 
with a hand brake, both of which shall be kept in operative- 
condition at all times. The hand brake shall be tested at 
least once on every round trip at a fixed point to be selected 
by the railway company and indicated to the Interstate 
Commerce Commission." 

This section is to become effective on Aug. 1, 1909. 

New York Commission Disapproves Wheel Guard 

As mentioned briefly on page 47 of the Electric Railway 
Jour\ \l of July 3, 1909. the Public Service Commission of 
the First District of New York has disapproved the type 
of wheelguard in use upon the lines of the Second Avenue 
Railroad and the Central Park, North & East River Rail- 
road, New York, the action of the commission being taken 
upon the recommendation of Milo R. Maltbie of the com- 
mission, who conducted the hearings. In reporting against 
the wheelguard, Mr. Maltbie submitted an opinion in which 
he says: 

"In view of the many cases in which this pilot wheelguard 
has not prevented persons from being severely injured or 
killed, in view of the large sums paid out for damages and 
claims, and in view of the fact that all other lines have 
substituted other types for the type in question, it would 
seem that there was a prima facie case against its con- 

"Mr. McLimont, formerly the electrical engineer of the 
commission, testified that non-automatic, shearing wheel- 
guards (the one under consideration belongs to this class) 
must be carried at a height above the track of not more 
than one inch in order to be effective. 

"The receiver of the Second Avenue Railroad maintained 
that the condition of the paving and track made it im- 
practicable to operate with less than 2^2 inches as a stand- 
ard, and it is generally admitted that i-inch clearance is 
out of the question. 

"The facts and evidence seem to prove, in conclusion, that 
it is impossible to maintain the pilot wheelguard now being 
considered at a height of 1 inch from the rails under exist- 
ing conditions in New York, that such conditions render 
necessary a clearance of at least 2.Vz inches on the lines 
under consideration, that even when special attention is 
given to maintenance there will be frequent cases where the 
guard will not be in a condition to save life or to prevent 
serious injury, and that persons and particularly children 
have passed under the guard and were killed. Out of 23 
accidents since Aug. 5, 1907, in which pilot wheelguards 
were involved, 15 were fatal. In 41 other cases where it is 
believed this wheelguard was involved, there were 10 fatal- 

"The automatic-trip wheelguard. upon the other hand — a 
type manufactured by many companies and of which there 
are many varieties — can be carried normally 4 or 5 inches 
above the rails, out of the way of all ordinary obstruction, 
thus requiring little attention or expense for maintenance. 
When the trip is struck by the person upon the track, the 
apron is released and forced to the pavement by a spring. 
The edge of the apron passes under the body, picking it up 
and carrying it along until the car is stopped. This type 
is in use in hundreds of cities and is being introduced by 

several companies in this city. Experience has proved its 
efficiency and practicability as a type. 

"The commission is of the opinion that nothing is more 
important than the saving of human life, and that no street 
railway company can justify its action in equipping its 
cars with any but the most efficient designs. It may be 
added that the total expense to the two companies under 
consideration, made necessary by the installation of im- 
proved wheelguards throughout, would be about $4,000 im- 
mediately and less than $10,000 ultimately. Even from a 
financial point of view, the saving of one life would more 
than offset the cost of the entire installation." 

C. E. R. A. List of Members 

The Central Electric Railway Association issued under 
date of June 29, 1909, the following revised list of member 
companies with the number of miles of line they operate: 


Members. of miles. 

Angola Kail way & Power Company 4 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway 77 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway 67 

Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Electric Street Railway 32 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad 60 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway 169 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway 50 

Columbus, Marion S Bucyrus Railroad 18 

Columbus, Magnetic Springs & Northern Railway 18 

Dayton & Troy Electric Railway 34 

Dayton & Xenia Transit Company 27 

Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Railway 56 

Evansville & Southern Indiana Traction Company 33 

Evansville Railways 49 

Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway 22 

Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company 139 

Grand Rapids, Holland & Chicago Railway 40 

Indiana Union Traction Company 315 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Company 59 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western Traction Company 45 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company 103 

Lndianapolis & Louisville Traction Company 41 

Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Company 28 

Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon Railway 20 

Lake Shore Electric Railway 160 

Lebanon & Franklin Traction Company n 

Lebanon-Thorntown Traction Companly 9 

Louisville Railway & Lighting Company 21 

Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction Company 32 

Michigan United Railways 117 

Muncie & Portland Traction Company 32 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company 140 

Ohio & Southern Traction Company 5 

Ohio Electric Railway 545 

Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield Electric Railway 33 

Southeastern Ohio Railway. Light & Power Company 15 

Spingfield, Troy & Piqua Railway 30 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company 376 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Railway 41 

Toledo & Indiana Railway 52 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway 49 

Toledo, Port Clinton & Lakeside Railway 51 

Toledo, Urban & Interurban Railway 51 

Western Ohio Railway 112 

Winona Interurban Railway 35 

Total mileage 3,423 

C. E. T. A. List of Members 

The Central Electric Traffic Association issued under date 
of June 29, 1909, the following revised list of member com- 
panies which are using the 1000-mile interchangeable mile- 
age ticket, with the number of miles of line they operate: 


No. Name of company. of miles. 

24. Canuelton, Rockport & Owensboro Rapid Transit Company.. 

3. Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway 77 

8. Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway 67 

2. Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway 50 

19. Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Railroad 18 

14. Evansville & Southern Indiana Traction Company 33 

21. Dayton & Troy Electric Railway 34 

17. Evansville Railways 4g 

9. Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company 139 

10. Fort Wayne & Springfield Railway 22 

6. Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company 41 

7. Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Company 59 

26. Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western Traction Company.. 45 

18. Indiana Union Traction Company 315 

13. Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Company 28 

23. Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon Railway 20 

25. Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company 21 

12. Marion. Bluffton & Eastern Traction Company 32 

20. Ohio Electric Railway 545 

27. Southeastern Ohio Railway. Light & Power Company 15 

4. Springfield, Troy & Piqua Railway 30 

22. Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company 376 

11. Toledo & Chicago Interurban Railway 41 

13. Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway 49 

5. Toledo, Urban & Interurban Railway 51 

1. Western Ohio Railway 112 

16. Winona Interurban Railway 35 

Total mileage ; ■ 2,304 

The revised list will appear on all mileage tickets ordered 
after Aug. r, 1909. 

July io, 1909.] 



Memphis Street Railway Rewards Employees. — The 

Memphis (.Tenn.) Street Railway recently distributed 
$3,000 among its employees as a reward for the faithful 
and conscientious performance of their duties during the 
Confederate reunion in Memphis in June. 

Chicago Elevated Railway to Patrol Track. — The North- 
western Elevated Railroad, Chicago, 111., has decided to 
install crossing gates at nine points in Rogers Park and to 
place two men on guard at each of these crossings. The 
company also proposes to secure police powers for three 
of its employees and have them patrol the right of way of 
the company and arrest trespassers. 

Physical Connection Ordered Between Indiana Electric 
Railways. — The Indiana Railroad Commission having con- 
sidered a petition and heard the evidence has issued an 
order that on or before Aug. 15, 1909, the Evansville, Sub- 
urban & Newburg Railway and the Evansville Terminal 
Railway shall establish a physical connection at the point 
of intersection of the roads in Newburg, Ind., and inter- 
change freight after that date. 

Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad Changes Fare Zone. — 
The Coney Island & Brooklyn Railroad. Brooklyn, N. Y., 
has extended the 5-cent fare limits on its Coney Island lines 
so that visitors to Prospect Park may ride between any 
entrance to the park and Coney Island for a single fare. 
Heretofore the 5-cent zone for passengers island bound 
began at the Park Circle, which was also the second-fare 
point on the return trip from Coney Island. A special 
transfer ticket and identification check is issued to permit 
passengers on Franklin Avenue cars to transfer to Smith 
Street cars, Manhattan bound, and vice versa, at the Park 
Circle. It is about 6 miles from Prospect Park to Coney 

Folder of the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Rail- 
way. — The Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway, 
South Bend, Ind., has published a folder and time-table of 
its line between South Bend and Chicago, printed in black 
on green paper. The company has recently inaugurated 
a fast 3-hour service between Chicago and South Bend, 
called the "Business Men's Special," which leaves South 
Bend at 7 a. m. and arrives at Chicago at 10 a. m. and re- 
turning leaves Chicago at 6:20 p. m. and arrives at South 
Bend at 9:35 p. m. The folder also contains a map of the 
"South Shore Route" and a map of the loop district of 
Chicago showing the principal business houses and the 
route of the road. 

Trespassers at Rochester Warned. — The New York State 
Railways, Rochester, N. Y., is warning trespassers on its 
interurban lines running over private right of way indi- 
vidually of the risk they run in using the right of way as a 
thoroughfare. When a person is seen by the motorman of 
an approaching car on the company's right of way the 
motorman throws out of the window of the cab a sealed 
red envelope with the word "warning" printed in large, 
black letters to attract the trespasser's attention. In the 
envelope is the following notice: "All persons are forbid- 
den to use the tracks or any portion of this company's 
right of way for footways or thoroughfares. The practice 
is dangerous and unlawful. All persons so doing are tres- 
passers and will be subject to prosecution. The company 
is not liable for accidents or injury to trespassers." 

Niagara Gorge Railroad Time Table. — The Niagara 
Gorge Railroad has issued an illustrated folder and time 
table. The cover is in duplicate and shows a view of the 
whirlpool rapids and the line of the company skirting the 
whirlpool. The route of the road is described and there is 
a large panoramic view of the territory in the vicinity of 
the Falls, Niagara Falls, N. Y.. Niagara Falls, Ont., Whirl- 
pool Rapids, Whirlpool, Lewiston, Youngstown-on-the- 
Lake, and Port Niagara Beach all being shown. There is 
also a brief description of all the places mentioned. A 
page entitled "Items of Interest to Tourists," contains infor- 
mation about the Whirlpool Rapids, Whirlpool, the age and 
volume of both falls, the power houses, etc. The publica- 
tion is a work that is almost indispensable to travelers 
visiting the Falls who desire intelligently to understand 
the surrounding territory. 

Trolley Trips in Two States. — This is the title of a folder 
which the Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction 
Company, Olean, N. Y., has issued, in which the attractions 
afforded along the line are described and illustrated. The 
road is an interstate line, and the territory through which 
it passes abounds in beautiful scenes. Rock City is all that 
its name implies, and is said to rank next to Niagara in its 
wealth of natural scenery. The principal office of the com- 
pany is conveniently located at Olcan, though a second 
office is maintained at Bradford. These two cities are the 
terminals of the mountain or Rock City route. The com- 
pany owns and operates the city systems in Bradford, 

Olean and Salamanca. Treating Olean as the center, three 
chief routes radiate from it: A, over the mountain from 
Olean to Bradford; B, from Olean to Shingle House, and 
C, from Olean to Little Valley. A plan of Rock City shows 
the locations of the rocks, the Mineral Springs and the 
recreation park at that place. A map in colors shows the 
completed lines and the proposed lines of the company. 

Folder of the Grape Belt.— The Buffalo & Lake Erie 
Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y.. has issued an attractive 
folder describing its lines, which extend through the "Grape 
Belt," between Buffalo, N. Y., and Erie, Pa., a picturesque 
section of country lying along Lake Erie, which body of 
water the railroad skirts. Scenes in the cities and villages 
show the commercial activity so common to the territory 
traversed, while scenes at the lake resorts show that the 
residents are equally in earnest when they set about to 
amuse themselves. The most pretentious picture is a 
panoramic view of Buffalo Harbor. A map in colors 24 in. 
long and 8 in. wide shows the route of the Buffalo & Lake 
Erie Traction Company's line, the route of the Jamestown, 
Chautauqua & Lake Erie Railway's line, the lines of the 
steamboat companies operating on Lake Erie and the terri- 
tory as far south in New York State as Jamestown. The 
cover is in colors and contains a reproduction of a scene in 
the business section of Buffalo. The folder is concluded 
with a list of the ticket offices of the company and their 

Pittsburgh Railways Company Has Right to Connect 
with Railroads. — In an opinion handed down recently the 
Common Pleas Court No. 1, Allegheny County, Pa., dis- 
solved the restraining order granted in May in the suit of 
A. H. Willis et al. and the Township Commissioners of 
Baldwin Township against the Pittsburgh Railways asking 
an injunction to restrain the Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon 
Railroad and the Pittsburgh & Charleroi Street Railway 
from connecting their tracks. The plaintiffs alleged that 
the consent of the Township Commissioners had not been 
given, as required by the Murphy bill passed at the last 
session of the Pennsylvania Legislature; that such a con- 
nection was forbidden by section 8 of the Street Railway 
Act of 1901, and that municipal consent was necessary, as 
was held in the recent decision of the Supreme Court of 
Pennsylvania in the case of Erie vs. Erie Traction Com- 
pany. The case was argued before the full bench in Com- 
mon Pleas Court No. 1, consisting of Judges Brown, Mac- 
farlane and Ford. In its opinion the court held that the 
Pittsburgh Railways derives its powers from its special 
charter, granted in 1871, and does not need to look to the 
general railroad laws, such as the Murphy bill, for power 
to make this connection, and that the constitutional re- 
quirement of municipal consent for the construction of a 
street railway within any city, boro or township did not 
apply to this case, for the reason that the Castle Shannon 
Railroad was being connected with street railways which 
were already constructed with municipal consent and the 
cars were being operated by the company which owned or 
leased the tracks, for the construction of which municipal 
consent had been given. 

Special Cars for Women Withdrawn. — The Hudson & 
Manhattan Railroad, operating under the Hudson River 
between New York and New Jersey, withdrew on July 1 
the speciai cars for women which it has been operating 
since March 31, 1909, during the rush hours. The follow- 
ing notice telling about the discontinuance of the service 
was posted by the company in its cars and stations: "On 
and after July 1, 1909, the exclusive car for women operated 
from Hoboken to New York between 7:30 a. m. and 8:30 
a. m. and from New York to Hoboken between 5:30 and 
6:30 p. m. will be discontinued, as the patronage does , not 
warrant further maintenance of this service." Subsequently 
William G. McAdoo, president of the company, issued this 
statement: "When the cars for the exclusive use of women 
were established on our line on March 31 last, we stated 
that it was an experiment, and that the company reserved 
the right to discontinue them if they should not be suf- 
ficiently patronized. We have made a long and thorough 
test, and regret to find that there is not a sufficient demand 
on the part of women for an exclusive car. The patronage 
has constantly diminished. We would have made these 
cars a permanent feature of our operation if the women 
had shown by their use of them that they were wanted or 
needed." Shortly after the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad 
placed special cars in service for women the Public Service 
Commission of the First District of New York asked the 
[nterborough Rapid Transit Company to show cause at a 
public hearing why it should not operate special cars for 
women in the New York subway, and a report of the hear- 
ing was published in the Electric Railway Journal of 
May 1, 1909, page 853. The commission has not yet an- 
nounced its finding in the matter. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

Personal Mention 

Mr. William F. McDermott, Chicago, 111., has been ap- 
pointed auditor of the Inter-Mountain Railroad, Denver, 
Col. Mr. McDermott was formerly associated with Lee 
Higginson & Company, bankers, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. H. H. Roseman has been appointed general traffic 
manager of the Illinois Traction System, Peoria, 111., to 
succeed Mr. B. R. Stephens, whose resignation from the 
company was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
June 19, 1909. 

Mr. H. C. Patterson has been appointed mechanical and 
electrical engineer of the Illinois Traction System, Peoria, 
111., to succeed Mr. H. C. Hoagland, resigned, who on 
July 1 assumed the duties of vice-president and general 
manager of the Missouri Central Railway, Columbia, Mo., 
as previously announced in the Electric Railway Journal. 

Mr. J. W. Wolfe, master mechanic of the Ohio River 
Electric Railway & Power Company, Pomeroy, Ohio, has 
been appointed superintendent of the company to succeed 
Mr. I. L. Oppenheimer, who has recently become general 
superintendent of the Lexington & Interurban Railway, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Mr. N. M. Argabrite, who for the past five years has been 
connected with the Winona Railway & Light Company, 
Winona, Minn., in the capacity of superintendent and later 
as general manager, has resigned from the company, effec- 
tive on Aug. 1, 1909. to become general manager of the 
Public Service Operating Company, Belvidere, 111., successor 
to the Belvidere Gas & Electric Company. 

Mr. George F. Hosbury has been appointed district pass- 
enger and freight agent for the Lima-Toledo division of 
the Ohio Electric Railway, Cincinnati, Ohio, with head- 
quarters in Toledo. Mr. J. F. Sadler has been appointed 
district passenger and freight agent, with jurisdiction over 
the Columbus-Zanesville division, the Columbus-Morgan 
division and the branches east of Springfield, and Mr. Harry 
P. Blum will have charge of the branches west of Spring- 
field, together with the Dayton-Richmond and Dayton- 
Union City division, with headquarters at Dayton. Mr. 
Sadler will have offices at Columbus. Mr. F. E. Burkhardt 
remains as district freight and passenger agent of the 
company at Lima. 

Mr. Edward Folger Peck, general manager of the 
Schenectady (N. Y.) Railway, who was elected president 
of the Street Railway Association of the State of New York, 
at the meeting at Bluff Point, N. Y., on June 29 and 30, was 
born in New Britain, 
Conn., in 1861. He entered 
the electrical field in 1880 
with the American Elec- 
trical Company, New Brit- 
ain, which subsequently 
became the Thomson- 
Houston Company. Mr. 
Peck was one of the first 
electrical experts to be en- 
trusted by this company 
to install its apparatus, 
and was in charge of the 
Thomson-Houston Com- 
pany's exhibit at the 
Franklin Institute Fair in 
1884, the first exhibit de- 
voted solely to electrical 
apparatus held in the 
United States. He after- 
ward had charge of the E. F. Peck 
exhibit of the same com- 
pany at the World's Fair in New Orleans in 1884-1885. Mr. 
Peck resigned from the Thomson-Houston Company in 
1885 to become general manager of the Citizens' Electric 
Illuminating Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., and continued in 
this capacity until 1897, when he entered the engineerine 
and supply business in New York City under the name of 
the Peck Electrical Company. In 1899 Mr. Peck was ap- 
pointed general manager of the Kings County Electric 
Light & Power Company. Brooklyn, a position he held 
until 1902, when he was appointed general manager of the 
Schenectady Railway. Mr. Peck has always taken a very 
active interest in the affairs of the Street Railway Asso- 
ciation of the State of New York and has been a member of 
a number of its most important committees. During the 
past year he has been vice-president of the association. 
Besides being general manager of the Schenectady Railway 
Compajiy Mr. Peck is president of the Electric Express 
Company, Schenectady, and is a member of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

Mr. f. L. Oppenheimer, whose appointment as general 
superintendent of the Lexington & Interurban Railway, 
Lexington, Ky., was noted in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal of July 3, 1909, page 54, entered the electric railway 

field in 1899, when he pro- 

I. L. Oppenheimer 

moted the Ohio River 
Electric Railway & Power 
Company. Mr. Oppen- 
heimer succeeded in finan- 
cing this company and 
constructing the line as 
originally proposed in 1900, 
in which year he became 
identified with Mr. John 
Blair MacAfee and Chand- 
ler Brothers & Company 
interests, and he has been 
connected with them since 
that time. During this 
period and up to the time 
of accepting the position 
of general superintendent 
of the Lexington & Inter- 
urban Railway Mr. Oppen- 
heimer was the head of 
the Ohio River Electric 
Railway & Power Company, and still remains a director of 
the company. This was one of the first electric railways in 
the United States to interchange carload freight with a 
steam railroad, a physical connection between it and the 
Hocking Valley Railway being made immediately after its 
completion. During the last two years Mr. Oppenheimer 
has also been identified with the Norfolk & Portsmouth 
Traction Company, the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley 
Traction Company, the Newport News & Old Point Rail- 
way & Electric Company and the Lexington & Interurban 
Railway, being secretary of the board of general managers 
operating these properties. The company with which Mr. 
Oppenheimer has become connected controls 81 miles of 
city and interurban electric railway and does a general 
lighting business. 


John H. Miller, general manager of the Springfield 
(Ohio) Railway, died at his home in Springfield on June 
29 as the indirect result of a stroke of paralysis which he 
suffered in January. Mr. Miller was connected with the 
Springfield Railway for nine years, and previously was 
superintendent of the Springfield (Ohio) Electric Light 

The Public Service Commission of the Second District 
of New York recently issued the following review of its 

"The Public Service Commissions have entered upon the 
third year of their work, being enacted by an Act of the 
Legislature in effect July 1, 1907. The Second District 
Commission had upon the close of business on June 30, 
1909, handled 2990 cases. Two thousand and three of these 
were treated informally, and 1721 of them disposed of and 
closed on the records during the two years' existence of 
the commission. In this period 987 cases were made formal 
and orders served in each case. Eight hundred and fifty- 
nine hearings were given at which formal cases were heard. 

"The number of applications received for capitalization 
was 145 and the total amount authorized $155,708,925. Of 
this amount $111,200,500 were bonds, $19,454,600 capital stock 
and the remainder various kinds of evidences of indebted- 
ness. Of the complaints taken up informally with the differ- 
ent corporations under the jurisdiction of the commission 
and settled without the necessity of formal orders there 
were 1414 in relation to railroads, 110 in relation to ex- 
press companies and 197 in relation to gas and electric 
companies. The building of nine railroads and street rail- 
ways has been authorized and permission to extend lines 
has been granted in 15 cases. The elimination of 25 grade 
crossings has been ordered, but work can proceed no further 
because the Legislature made no appropriation this year for 
continuing this work. Thirty-seven gas and electric cor- 
porations and two municipalities have been authorized to 
exercise franchises, and 15 companies have been given per- 
mission to assign, transfer or lease their properties to new 
corporations. The complaints handled by the commission 
cover a wide range of subjects, including practically every 
phase of operation, service and rates of railroad, street rail- 
way, gas and electric companies. The commission contin- 
ues to receive large numbers of applications and complaints, 
but with its thorough organization is able to expeditiously 
dispose of matters which do not call for unusual examina- 
tion and investigation." 

July io, 1909.] 



Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously 

*Attawaugan Street Railway, Hartford, Conn. — Incorpor- 
ated to build an electric railway from Dayville through 
Attawaugan, Ballouville and Pineville to Killingly and also 
from Attawaugan to Alexander's Lake. Capital stock, 
$50,000, preliminary. 

Iowa & Omaha Short Line Railway, Walnut, la. — Incor- 
porated to build an electric railway between Des Moines, 
Council Bluffs and Omaha, a distance of 140 miles. Head- 
quarters, Pierre, S. D. Local office, Walnut. Capital 
stock, $1,000,000. Incorporators: G. W. Adams, Walnut, 
president; C. L. Kirkwood, North Branch, vice-president; 
A. L. Ingram, treasurer, and P. Kathmann, secretary, 
Treynor, and John A. Holmes, Pierre, S. D. [E. R. J., 
Feb. 20, '09.] 

*Belleville & Mascoutah Traction Company, Mascoutah, 
111. — Incorporated to construct an electric railway from 
Mascoutah to Belleville. Capital stock, $150,000. Incor- 
porators: Emil J. Kohl, Adolph Knobeloch, Belleville; 
Gust. J. Scheve, E. R. Hagist and Peter W. Lill, Mascoutah. 

*Carrollton, Missouri River & Northwestern Railroad, 
Carrollton, Mo. — Incorporated to build an electric railway 
from Carrollton to the boat line on the Missouri River 
and to Northwest Carroll. Capital stock, $150,000. Direct- 
ors: Herndon Ely, Lewis Ely, P. L. Trotter, S. J. Jones and 
W. R. Painter. 

Hannibal & Northern Missouri Railroad, Jefferson City, 
Mo. — Chartered to build an interurban electric railway 
from Hannibal on the Mississippi River through Marion, 
Shelby, Macon and Adair counties to Kirksville, connecting 
Palmyra, Philadelphia, New York, Bethel, Sue City, La 
Plata or Biggs, a distance of 100 miles. Capital stock, 
$2,000,000. Incorporators: F. W. Latimer, Galesburg, 111., 
president," Henry Funk, Clarence. Surveying has been done 
and it is stated that construction work will be begun 
during the summer. [E. R. J., March 27, '09.] 

*Union Railway Gas & Electric Company, Camden, N. J. 
— Incorporated under the laws of New Jersey in the inter- 
est of E. W. Clark & Company, Philadelphia, and Hoden- 
pyl, Walbridge & Company, New York, to take over the 
Springfield (111.) Railway & Light Company, Peoria (111.) 
Light Company, Evansville (Ind.) Light Company and the 
Rockford & Interurban Railway, Rockford, 111., under 
terms given on page 1139 of the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 19, 1909. The authorized capital stock is $18,000,000. 
Of this $12,000,000 is to be preferred stock bearing 6 per 
cent cumulative dividends and $6,000,000 is to be common 
stock. Incorporators: F. H. Hansell, John A. MacPeak and 
Joseph F. Cotter. 

*West Tulsa Belt Railway, Guthrie, Okla. — Incorporated 
to build an electric railway, 5 miles in length, in Guthrie, at 
an estimated cost of $20,000. Capital stock, $25,000. In- 
corporators: W. E. Hawley, C. L. Hoonker, Jr., H. C. Hall, 
John Haver and Gray Erick. 

*Coos Bay & Inland Railroad, Portland, Ore. — Incorpor- 
ated to build an electric railway from Coos Bay to Rose- 
burg, which later will extend to other points. Head- 
quarters, Portland. Capital stock, $1,000,000. Incorpor- 
ators: Jacob Haas, Geo. S. Taylor and Chas. Ringler. 

Virginia Railway & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — 
Incorporated under the laws of Virginia as the successor 
to the Virginia Passenger & Power Company, Richmond 
Passenger and Power Company & the Richmond Traction 
Company, the properties of which it took over on June 30 
in accordance with a plan mentioned on page 1140 of the 
issue of the Electric Railway Journal of June 19, 1909. and 
page 1 1 77 of the issue of June 26, 1909. 


San Francisco, Cal. — The Stockton street railway fran- 
chise has been sold by the Board of Supervisors to Frank 
D. Stringham and associates, who propose to organize a 
company and proceed with the construction of a railway 
involving a tunnel in Stockton Street between Sutter and 
Sacramento Streets and extensions to the water front and 
to the Presidio. [E. R. J., April 17, '09.] 

De Kalb, 111. — The City Council has granted to the De 
Kalb Midland Railway a 50-year franchise to build a street 
railway over certain streets of De Kalb. The franchise 
gives the railway the right to carry freight. This com- 
pany is about to construct an electric railway between De 
Kalb, Elva, Waterman, Somonauk and Sandwich, a distance 

of 28 miles. John F. Pearce, Chicago, president. [E. R. 
J., July 3, '09.] 

Kankakee, 111. — The Chicago, Kankakee & Champaign 
Electric Railway has been granted a 50-year franchise by 
the City Council to construct an electric railway on Schuy- 
ler Avenue and River Street, Kankakee. [E. R. J., June 
12, '09.] 

Moline, 111. — The Tri-City Railway, Davenport, la., has 
applied to the City Council for three 20-year franchises to 
build single or double-track street railways over certain 
streets in Moline. 

Bluffton, Ind. — The City Council has granted a 50-year 
franchise to the Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Traction Com- 
pany to build an electric railway eastward over Washington 
Street. The officials have agreed to have the railway be- 
tween Bluffton and Geneva in operation within a year. [E. 
R. J., July 3, '09.] 

Gladstone, Mich. — The Delta County Board of Super- 
visors has granted to the Escanaba Electric Street Rail- 
way a franchise to build an electric railway connecting the 
cities of Escanaba and Gladstone. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

New Brunswick, N. J. — The Jersey Central Traction 
Company has applied to the Middlesex County Board of 
Freeholders for an extension of its franchise to build its 
tracks across the Amboy Bridge. The company will put 
up a $5,000 bond to guarantee to start construction within 
60 days after the extension is granted. 

New York, N. Y. — The South Flatbush Railroad has 
withdrawn its application as filed on June 11 last for per- 
mission to construct a rectangular street railway from Ave- 
nue Q station of the Brighton Beach Elevated line of the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company to Flatbush Avenue. The 
reason given for such a proceeding was that the company 
is to be reorganized, and later an amended application will 
be filed with the Public Service Commission. [E. R. J., 
June 19, log.] 

Southport, N. Y. — A franchise has been granted to the 
Elmira, Corning & Waverly Railroad to use 1 mile of the 
highway south of Southport for its proposed railway. [E. 
R. J., June 26, '09.] 

Utica, N. Y. — The City Council has granted to the Utica 
& Mohawk Valley Railway franchises to build street rail- 
ways on Whitesboro Street from Saratoga Street west to 
the city line and on Mohawk Street from Bleeker to Pleas- 
ant Street. • Neither one of the franchises becomes oper- 
ative until,approved by the Public Service Commission and 
the franchise on Mohawk Street must by the terms of law 
be sold at public sale on July 30. 

Concord, N. C. — The Board of Aldermen has granted to 
the Piedmont-Carolina Railway, Salisbury, a franchise to 
build a street railway in Concord. The company was re- 
quired to put up $1,000 forfeit to begin work within 60 days. 
[E. R. J., Feb. 20, '09.] 

Gahanna, Ohio. — The Columbus, New Albany & Johns- 
town Traction Company has applied to the City Council 
for a franchise to build a street railway over Mill, North 
and High Streets and Carpenter Road in Gahanna. [E. 
R. J., June 12, '09.] 

Wilmington, Ohio. — The City Council has granted to the 
Cincinnati, Milford & Blanchester Electric Railway a fran- 
chise to build an electric railway over certain streets of 
Wilmington. The franchise provides that the company 
must commence work within six months and have the 
railway completed within a year. 

Marshfield, Ore. — John R. Smith, secretary of the Coos 
Bay, Oregon & Idaho Railway, has applied to the City 
Council for a franchise to build a steam or electric railway 
and terminals in Marshfield. This company, which was 
formed to secure rights-of-way, is now making surveys 
from Coos Bay to Roseburg. [E. R. J., May 1, '09.] 

*Marshfield, Ore. — Application for a street railway fran- 
chise has been made by John R. Smith to the City Council. 
It is stated that a similar request will be made to North 
Bend Council. 

Mifflin, Pa. — Application has been made to the Township 
Commissioners by the West Penn Railways for a franchise 
in build a street railway from Dravosburg to Coal Valley. 

Aberdeen, S. D. — A. L. Ward, Aberdeen, advises that he 
lias been granted a franchise to build a street railway in 
Aberdeen. Application has also been made for a charter. 
I E. R. J., June 2, '09.] 

*Corpus Christi, Tex. — Application has been made t<> the 
City Council by J. M. King, W. B. Tuttle, San Antonio, 
and I. A. Cohen, St. Louis, Mo., for a franchise to build a 
street railway in Corpus Christi. It is stated that the rail 
way, which will be 4 miles in length, will cost approxi 
mately $75,000. 

9 6 


[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 


Northern Electric Railway, Chico, Cal. — This company, 
which has franchises for a street railway in Yuba City, to 
be operated in conjunction with its Marysville line and its 
interurban system, has begun the construction of the lines, 
which will extend over Second, E and Bridge Streets and 
Cooper Avenue. 

*Colfax, Cal.— It is stated that W. S. Fletcher, Forest 
Hill, is interested in a plan to build an electric railway be- 
tween Colfax and Forest Hill. It is the intention to carry 
both passengers and freight. Application will be made to 
the Board of Supervisors at once for the necessary fran- 

Ontario & San Antonio Heights Railroad, Ontario, Cal. — 

It is stated that this company is about ready to let a con- 
tract for the extension of its electric railway from Upland 
through Claremont to North Pomona, a distance of 6 miles. 
The extension will cost about $200,000. [E. R. J., May 8, 

Sacramento & Sierra Railway, Sacramento, Cal. — This 
company, which proposes to construct an electric railway 
from Sacramento to Lake Tahoe via Orangevale Bluffs, 
has filed deeds for its right-of-way. It will cross the 
American River and extend to Seventh Street, where the 
terminal will be located. The company has purchased 80 
acres of land adjoining the terminal site. Construction 
on the railway at Orangevale Bluffs has already com- 
menced. [E. R. J., May 8, '09.] 

Central California Traction Company, San Francisco, 
Cal. — H. J. Gray, Sacramento, has been awarded a con- 
tract by this company to build its proposed 3^2-mile line to 
Agricultural Park. Work on this line will begin within 
10 days, starting from the terminal at Eighth Street and 
J Street. Following this construction, bids will be asked 
within two months for construction work connecting the 
line at Agricultural Park with the present terminus of the 
company's line at Lodi, thus connecting Sacramento and 

*Meriden t Middletown & Guilford Railway, Meriden, 
Conn.— At a recent meeting of the directors of this com- 
pany it was voted to proceed with the construction of the 
proposed electric railway from Meriden to Guilford. Among 
those present were: Charles E. Jackson, Joseph Merriam 
Middletown; A. H. Augur, Middlefield, and James H. White, 
Eugene L. Hall, C. F. Rockwell and Francis Atwater, Meri- 
den. The directors voted to meet again at an early date 
to perfect an organization for the construction of the pro- 
posed railway. 

Oil Belt Traction Company, Oblong, 111. — It is stated 
that this company has completed plans and will be ready to 
place contracts for material for its proposed electric rail- 
way which is to connect Charleston and Bridgeport. U. L. 
Upson, Buffalo, N. Y., will have charge of the construction 
work. G. E. Groves, Oblong, is the promoter of the enter- 
prise. [E. R. J., June 12, '09.] 

Evansville & Mt. Vernon Electric Railway, Evansville, 
Ind. — Engineers have completed the survey of the proposed 
extension of this company's line to New Harmony, a dis- 
tance of 18 miles. Building will, it is reported, be com- 
menced during the fall. 

Covington & Southwestern Railway, Kingman, Ind. — 
This company, which is building an electric railway from 
Kingman to Crawfordsville, has completed the grading to 
a point about 2 miles east of Kingman. The ties have been 
laid for a distance of about 3 miles. The company will lay 
60-lb. Illinois steel rails. Fred Mollenkoph, Fort Wayne, 
engineer. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

*Portland, Ind.— W. H. Ogan, Tipton, is said to be in- 
terested in a proposition to build an electric railway from 
Portland to Celina. 

Centerville Light & Traction Company, Centerville, la. — 

It is announced that this company will build the pro- 
posed extension to Mystic, 7 miles, provided that the 
people will subscribe for $75,000 in bonds, at 6 per cent, 
secured by first mortgage on the property of the entire 
plant, lighting, heating and street railway. This was ac- 
cepted by a committee representing the people. 

Climbing Hill, la. — Robert H. Baldwin, locating engineer, 
has made his final report on the proposed electric interur- 
ban railway from Sioux City to Ida Grove, la. It 
will run southeasterly from Sioux City through Climb- 
ing Hill and Oto, to Ida Grove. Within a few days articles 
of incorporation will be filed and the right-of-Way secured. 
Mr. Baldwin's report on the freight and passenger line as 
proposed, which has Sioux City for its western terminus, 
states that from an engineering and operating standpoint 
it is entirely feasible and would tap a section of territory 
now unserved by adequate transportation facilities. The 

line_ will be le,ss than 55 miles between Sioux City and the 
projected terminals. A sentiment is expressed for a further 
extension in a southeasterly direction to Denison, la., and 
an investigation of such a route may be made after the 
permanent organization is completed. According to the 
report the line can be built for $22,000 a mile with a maxi- 
mum grade of 2 per cent in but few places, and will practi- 
cally serve 342 square miles of rich farming land. The 
population will be more than 1000 to a mile of road. As 
soon as certain details are attended to the preliminary and 
final surveys will be made through Woodbury and Ida 
Counties. [E. R. J., June 12, '09.] 

Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka Electric Railway, Rose- 
dale, Kan. — The Board of Railroad Commissioners has 
granted permission to this company to issue $2,000,000 in 
securities to build its projected electric railway between 
Topeka and Kansas City, 67 miles. R. W. Hocker and 
J. A. Stewart, Kansas City, Mo., are interested in this 
proposed railway. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

North Missouri Central Railway, Mexico, Mo. — This 
company has awarded a contract to the Franklin Construc- 
tion Company, Frisco Building, St. Louis, Mo., for the 
construction of a railway running through Mexico, to 
Columbia from Jefferson City, Mo., a distance of about 63 
miles. The contract involves about $1,800,000. The Frank- 
lin Construction Company is in the market for about 160,- 
000 oak or pine standard ties, also about 6300 tons of 60-lb. 
relaying rails, spikes, bolts, etc. 

Morris County Traction Company, Morristown, N. J. — 

This company placed in operation on June 19 its new line 
between Elizabeth and Springfield. 

Rockland Railroad, Nyack, N. Y. — It is stated that this 
company has completed plans for the building of its pro- 
posed 30-mile electric railway to connect Tappan, Suffern, 
Stony Point and Nyack. At a meeting of the stockholders 
at the office of the company, 165 Broadway, New York, 
the following officers and directors were elected: B. A. 
Hegeman, Jr., president; W. O. Jacquette, vice-president; 
A. C. Miller, second vice-president and general manager; 
Stafford S. Delano, treasurer; W. H. Coverdale, chief en- 
gineer, and Charles J. Hardy, secretary and counsel. 
Directors: H. A. Taylor, Edwin S. Bayer, F. V. Smith, 
H. H. Hewitt. K. B. Smith, Francis Dickson, M. S. Paine, 
Henry O'Neill and Theodore Hofstatter. [E. R. J., June 
19. '09-] 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Fort Wayne Railway, Dayton, Ohio. 

— This company has started surveying for its proposed De- 
liance-Hicksville-Fort Wayne extension. The surveys will 
be completed early in the summer and it is expected to be- 
gin work on the line in the fall. The route from Defiance to 
Hicksville parallels the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, pass- 
ing through the Bend, Sherwood and Mark Center to 
Hicksville. At Hicksville it is proposed to branch off to 
Fort Wayne. 

Cleveland, Barberton, Coshocton & Zanesville Railway, 
Cleveland, Ohio. — This company has filed for record at 

Cleveland a $6,000,000 mortgage in favor of the Windsor 
Trust Company. New York, N. Y. The proceeds are to 
be used in building an electric railway from Cleveland to 
Zanesville, via Elyria, Barberton, Orrville, Millersburg and 
Coshocton. J. J. Breitinger, president. [E. R. J., June 
26, '09.] 

*Muskingum & Morgan Railway, Light & Power Com- 
pany, Zanesville, Ohio. — The promoters of this new com- 
pany have perfected the following organization. Directors: 
Andrew McDonald, president; John J. Adams, vice-presi- 
dent; R. C. Burton, treasurer; W. H. Pierpont, secretary; 
James McDonald and W. H. Atha, all of Zanesville. The 
company contemplates building an electric railway between 
Zanesville and McConnelsville and also expects to furnish 
power and light to towns along the route. 

Zanesville & Meigs Valley Traction Company, Zanesville, 
Ohio. — It is announced that this company will have the 
surveys for its proposed railway completed within 30 days. 
Financial arrangements are said to have been completed. 
The railway will extend from Zanesville through the Meigs 
valley to Beverly. E. R. Meyer, Zanesville, president. [E. 
R. J., April 24, '09.] 

*Medford, Ore. — It is stated that W. S. Dewing and Ed- 
ward Woodbury. Kalamazoo, Mich., are interested in a 
proposition to establish an electric railway from the Pacific 
Coast through Medford to Butte Falls. 

Waynesburg & Monongahela Street Railway, Waynes- 
burg, Pa. — This company has filed a $5, 000 bond with the 
Waynesburg Council and has begun construction work on 
the line in Washington Street. It will extend from Waynes- 
burg to Monongahela River. W. J. Sheldon, Waynesburg, 
general manager. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

July io, 1909.] 



Cumberland Railway, Carlisle, Pa. — This company has 
awarded to the United Ice & Coal Company, Harrisburg, 
the contract for the removal of about 10,000 cu. yd. of earth 
on its proposed railway on Cemetery Hill, Newville, and 
4000 cu. yd. near Plainfield. A contract was also awarded 
by the company for the furnishing of 13,000 tons of 70-lb. 
rails to the Pennsylvania Steel Company. The Carlisle 
Construction Company has the contract for the general 
work. [E. R. J., May 22, '09.] 

Nashville Railway & Light Company, Nashville, Tenn. — 
The Secretary of State has granted an amendment to the 
charter of this company, whereby permission is given to 
build extensions from its present system over practically 
all the roads leading out of Nashville. [E. R. J., June 12, '09.] 

Red Springs Street Railway, Mount Pleasant, Tex. — It is 
stated that this company has completed the laying of tracks 
between Mount Pleasant and Red Springs, a distance of 
1% miles. Cars have been received and the line will be 
placed in operation within a few days. It is the intention 
to extend the line to Pittsburg, 12 miles south, by next 
summer. [E. R. J., June 19, '09.] 

Northern Texas Traction Company, Fort Worth, Tex. — 
Tt is said that this company is considering plans to extend 
its railway to Riverside at an early date. 

*San Angelo, Tex. — At a mass meeting recently held in 
San Angelo the proposition of J. J. Lanin and others to 
build an electric railroad from San Angelo to Sterling 
City was accepted. San Angelo is to donate $40,000 and 
right-of-way through Tom Green County, and the pro- 
motors state that in return the repair shops and head- 
quarters will be located at San Angelo. 

Uvalde (Tex.) Street Railway. — This company, which re- 
cently began operating a 3-mile street railway in Uvalde, is 
said to be considering a plan to extend the railway to 
Batesville, a distance of 20 miles. The company operates 
gasoline motor cars. 

Whatcom County Railway & Light Company, Belling- 
ham, Wash. — It is announced that this company will spend, 
during the summer, approximately $100,000 for improving 
its system in Bellingham. Track will be relaid with 73-Ib. 

Grand Rapids (Wis.) Street Railway.— G. M. Hill, secre- 
tary of this company, has issued a call for a 10 per cent 
assessment on the stockholders of the company to raise 
funds for immediate use in constructing the interurban 
electric railway between Grand Rapids and Nekoosa. 
Graders and the construction material have been received 
and work will be started at once. The plan of the com- 
pany is to extend the line to Stevens Point, Wausau and 
Merrill. [E. R. J., June 5, '09.] 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. — This company has just placed in operation a 
new line, 8 miles in length, extending from the pavilion in 
Lake Park down Folsom Street, and thence west on Center 
Street until it forms a junction with the Fond du Lac Ave- 
nue line. 


Pacific Electric Railway, Long Beach, Cal. — This com- 
pany contemplates building a comfort station, south of the 
Salt Lake depot in Long Beach. 

Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort Smith, Ark. 

— This company is enlarging its power house by the ad- 
dition of a 500-kw generator. The work is being done 
under the supervision of H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn. — 

This company is erecting a one-story substation on East 
Seventh Street in Minneapolis. The cost will be $10,000. 
Morris County Traction Company, Morristown, N. J. — 

This company has completed the foundations for a new 
power house on East Blackwell Street, Dover. The build- 
ing will be 150 ft. x 100 ft. and will be built of concrete and 

Portland, Eugene & Eastern Railway, Portland, Ore. — It 

is stated that this company will build a power plant this 
year at Martin's Rapids, about 30 miles east of Eugene, fur- 
nishing power for all its railways as far north as Albany. 
J. O. Story. Portland, president. 

Chattanooga (Tenn.) Railways. — This company has pur- 
chased and is installing in ils main power station a 2500-hp 
cross-compound engine and d.c. generators. This com- 
pany has also installed in its Ridgedale substation a 500-kw 
rotary converter. 

Texarkana Gas & Electric Company, Texarkana, Tex. — 

This company has just installed in its power station a 300 
kw General Electric rotary converter. 

Manufactures & Supplies 


Detroit (Mich.) United Railway is asking for bids on five 
interurban express cars. 

Capital Traction Company, Washington, D. C, is reported 
to have ordered four city cars from the Cincinnati Car 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway, South 
Bend, Ind., has purchased two sets of trucks from the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works. 

Chicago (111.) Railways Company is planning to purchase 
20 motor and 60 trail garbage dump cars. Plans and specifi- 
cations for these cars have not yet been prepared. 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company, Buffalo, N. Y., 
has placed an order with the Cincinnati Car Company for 
10 cars to be built under license of the Pay-As-You-Enter 
Car Corporation. 

Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Company, Fairmont, 
W. Va., reported under date of July 3 that it is negotiating 
for the purchase of new cars, but that no definite action 
had been taken up to that time. 

Columbus (Miss.) Railway, Light & Power Company, 
which was contemplating the purchase of several new city 
cars mounted on maximum traction trucks, has decided to 
purchase four second-hand cars. 

Parsons Railway & Light Company, Parsons, Kan., has 
placed an order through the Dwyer Construction Company, 
Dayton, Ohio, with the St. Louis Car Company for seven 
21-ft. single-truck semi-convertible city cars. Allis-Chal- 
mers motors are specified. 

Lawrence Railway & Light Company, Lawrence, Kan., 
has ordered from the St. Louis Car Company five 21-ft. 
single-truck semi-convertible city cars, equipped with Allis- 
Chalmers motors. The order was placed through the 
Dwyer Construction Company, Dayton, Ohio. 

Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, Fort 
Wayne, Ind., announces that it will purchase a total of 26 
city, 4 interurban passenger, 2 motor freight, 4 freight trailer 
and 10 gondola cars. The interurban cars are to be similar 
to the 300 type now in use. The freight cars will be the 
company's standard type. 

Salt Lake & Ogden Railroad, Salt Lake City, Utah., has 
made no definite plans for rebuilding its 40 steam railway 
passenger cars for operation on its electrified line. It is 
expected that recommendations for rebuilding the cars will 
be made at an early meeting of the directors of the 

Rogue River Valley Railway, Jacksonville, Ore., has 

changed its plans regarding the gasoline car for which it 
was reported to be in the market, and is arranging to build 
for itself at San Francisco, Cal., a small 25-passenger gaso- 
line motor car to run on four wheels, the car to be made 
of an omnibus-truck body remodeled to suit railroad work. 
It is expected that the car will be completed in about three 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y., 

has awarded contracts for 600 trucks for the 350 cars which 
it ordered recently, apportioned as follows: American Car 
Company, 170 trailer trucks and 190 motor trucks; Stand- 
ard Car Truck Company, 40 trailer trucks and 60 motor 
trucks; St. Louis Car Company 40 trailer trucks; Wason 
Manufacturing Company, 100 trailer trucks. Orders for 
roo trucks remain to be placed. 

Long Island Railroad, Long Island City, N. Y., has pre- 
pared specifications for the 100 all-steel motor cars ordered 
from the American Car & Foundry Company, as mentioned 
in the Electric Rait. way Journal of July 3, 1909. The cars 
will seat 70 persons, will be 63 ft. 4J4 in. long over vesti- 
bules, 54 ft. 4 T/ 2 in. body length; width over all, 9 ft. 11 in.; 
height from top of rail to sills, 41 ->6 in. The bodies will 
weigh approximately 53,000 lb. each. Other details follow: 

\ir brakes Westinghouse Roofs Welded steel 

Control system. Westinghouse Seats II. & K. walkover 

Couplers Kiesel type Seating material Rattan 

Curtain fixtures .. Nat'l L. W. Springs. .. .Union S. & Mfg. 

Curtain material .. .Pantasote Step treads Mason 

Headlights Dressel Trucks.. ..Steel P. R. R. Std. 

Journal boxes .... Symington Wheels Steel 

Motors 2 West-308 


Crocker-Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J., has recently 
received an order from the Marshall (Tex.) Traction Com- 
pany for a 125-kw 550-voIt direct-current generator for use 
in electric railway service. 

9 8 


[Vol. XXXIV. No. 2. 

George E. Austin, president of the American General 
Engineering Company, New York, sailed for Europe July I. 
Mr. Austin is to make an extended trip through England 
and the continent in the interest of his company's foreign 

Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass., announce that Eliot 
Wadsworth was admitted on June 30 as a partner in the 
firm. The members of the firm now are: Charles A. Stone, 
Edwin S. Webster, Russell Robb, Henry G. Bradlee and 
Eliot Wadsworth. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa., a stock 
company organized under the laws of Pennsylvania, have 
purchased the entire property, business and good will of 
the long-established partnership of Burnham, Williams & 
Company, Philadelphia, and have assumed all their assets 
and liabilities. There will be no change in the management 
of the company. 

Mead-Morrison Manufacturing Company, New York, has 
taken over the business of George W. McCaslin and John 
A. Mead & Company and now owns the sole rights to 
manufacture and sell the McCaslin overlapping gravity 
bucket conveyor for carrying coal, ashes, cement and other 
similar materials. The company has opened offices at 11 
Broadway, New York. 

Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has furnished equipment for lighting the 
tunnels and terminals of the Pennsylvania Tunnel & 
Terminal Company, operating the Pennsylvania Railroad 
tunnels under New York City and the rivers. This equip- 
ment is being installed in the Long Island City power 
house and consists of 2 turbine-alternator sets of 2500-kw 
capacity. The alternators will supply 3-phase, 60-cycle 
current at 440 volts. 

Lindsley Brothers Company, Spokane, Wash., dealers in 
cedar poles and cross-arms, announce that C. P. Lindsley, 
formerly president of the company, has become interested 
in the Craig Mountain Lumber Company, Lewiston, Idaho, 
and will hereafter act as general manager of that com- 
pany. E. A. Lindsley has assumed active management of 
the Lindsley Brothers Company at Spokane. G. L. Linds- 
ley will remain as manager of Eastern sales with offices at 
1261 Monadnock Block, Chicago. The company reports 
that its cross-arm factory which was opened at Portland, 
Ore., in 1908 is meeting with excellent patronage. 

A. Bradshaw Holmes, secretary and treasurer of the In- 
dependent Pneumatic Tool Company and the Aurora Auto- 
matic Machinery Company, Chicago, 111., died on June 30. 
1909, from injuries sustained by accidentally falling from 
the piazza of the hotel at which he was living. He was 
31 years of age and unmarried. Mr. Holmes was well 
known in the pneumatic tool business, having been con- 
nected with the Standard Pneumatic Tool Company and 
the Rand Drill Company for a number of years prior to his 
connection with the Independent Pneumatic Tool Com- 
pany, of which corporation he had been secretary and 
treasurer since its organization. 

Western Electric Company, New York, N. Y., reports 
that for the first half of its fiscal year ended May 31, the 
gross business was at the rate of approximately $46,000,000. 
This is an increase of 40 per cent over 1908 and at the rate 
<>f 87 per cent of the 1907 record, which was $53,000,000. 
The business for. May, 1909, showed an increase of 60 per 
cent over May, 1908, and April, 1909, showed 50 per cent 
over April, 1908. For the past six months the increase of 
the company's orders was 30 per cent over the same period 
in 1908. The European business of the company gained 
30 per cent over a year ago and was 12 per cent greater than 
in 1907, which previously held the high record. 

Keystone Lubricating Company, Philadelphia, manufac- 
turer of Keystone grease, reports the results of some re- 
cent tests under heavy pressure of this lubricant, which is 
composed of high-grade petroleum oils reduced to suitable 
consistency or "density." In these tests, which were made 
on the Olsen testing machine, the lubricant was supplied 
to a journal zVa in. in diameter, running in a babbitted bear- 
ing, and the pressure was increased by steps of 86.2 lb. per 
square inch up to the high maximum pressure of 431 lb., 
a full 60-minute run being made at each pressure. During 
the entire run at each pressure the lubricant maintained true 
fluid friction between journal and bearing, and withstood 
the temperature rise without a sign of any disintegration, 
such as oils and greases of animal or vegetable origin are 
liable to on account of their readiness to decompose. Ac- 
cording to the manufacturers, this was due to the permanent 
consistency of the grease. 

H. M. Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., announce that 
C. E. Groesbeck, of San Diego, Gal., has been elected vice- 
president of the company and will hereafter have charge 
of the company's interests on the Pacific Coast. Mr. 

Groesbeck's headquarters will be at Tacoma. Wash., where 
the company has purchased and is operating the Tacoma 
Gas Light Company's property. The company is supervising 
the rebuilding by American District Steam Company, Lock- 
port, N. Y., of all the underground steam-heating system of 
the Ottumwa Railway & Light Company, Ottumwa, la., in 
which work $100,000 is being expended. The Ottumwa 
Railway & Light Company has maintained an exhaust 
steam-heating plant for the last 20 years and it has proved 
so successful that the company recently decided to rebuild 
and extend the service. The system which is being installed 
is founded on the meter basis and it is to be provided with 
new underground drains. The back pressure will not ex- 
ceed 3 or 4 lb. The rebuilding of the system will include 
the relaying of about 4 miles of steam mains. 


Grip Nut Company, Chicago, 111., has issued illustrated 

catalog No. 17, containing descriptions, illustrations of, and 
tabulated information regarding, its universal window fix- 
tures and accessories. 

Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass., have issued a circular 
dated July 1, describing a number of issues of investment 
securities of electric railway, gas and electric light com- 
panies controlled by them. - ■ 

Scofield & Company, New York, N. Y., are sending out 
a pamphlet describing their "Equipoise" telephone arm for 
desk use and Peterson's desk companion for keeping ink- 
wells and pencils on roll-top desks. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has prepared an attractive folder, "Electric 
Power for Domestic Purposes," which offers many valu- 
able suggestions for the use of small motors in the home. 

Glacier Metal Company, New York, N. Y., and Richmond, 
Va., has issued a four-page circular about its "Copper- 
Tin," a bearing metal for lining armature and motor bear- 
ings. The circular is addressed particularly to purchasing 
agents and master mechanics. 

J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, Pa., publishes in the 
June number of its magazine an interesting article on the 
conditions which govern the type of car for city service in 
London, Eng. Another article describes some additions 
to the Brill plant at Philadelphia. 

Joyce- Cridland Company, Dayton, Ohio, has just pub- 
lished a new catalogue describing various jacks of the lever 
type manufactured by this company, and also the mechan- 
isms by which many of the automatic features are accom- 
plished. Recent improvements in automatic geared jacks 
are also described. 

Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft, Berlin, Germany, 
has issued a descriptive pamphlet on d.c.. turbines from 
45 kw upward, and another publication describing the 
power house of this company's turbine works in Berlin. 
The company has received orders for 18,782 kw in d.c. 
turbines, of which machinery totaling 9658 kw is in service. 

Duff Manufacturing .Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
printed a new 16-page catalog describing the Duff-Bethle- 
hem forged steel hydraulic jacks. The company is pre- 
pared to furnish jacks in all styles and capacities for a 
vertical or horizontal lift. Many of the different types are 
illustrated. Tables giving complete information for 
prospective purchasers accompany the text. 

MacGovern, Archer & Company, New York, N. Y., show 
in their July list of electrical and steam machinery consid- 
erable apparatus directly applicable to railway work. 
Among these are G. E. Nos. 57, 1000 and 800 street railway 
motors, Westinghouse Nos. 56, 49 and 68 railway motors, 
and d.c. 500-volt generators up to 500 kw. The company 
also shows several types of cars which it has on sale. 

Root Spring Scraper Company, Kalamazoo, Mich., shows 
its latest railway spring scrapers in a pamphlet which has 
just been issued. The scrapers are of several types to meet 
all city and interurban conditions. The spring attachment 
is one of the strong features of this device, as it will hold 
the scraper free from the track when not in use and is said 
to reduce the maintenance cost of scrapers fully 50 per cent. 
The company has also issued a circular giving a list of the 
repair parts of its five types of scrapers. 


Westinghouse ET Air Brake Instruction Book. New York: 
The Norman W. Henley Publishing Company, 1909; 
242 pages, with index. Price, $2. 
This is a manual on the No. 5 and No. 6 Westinghouse 
locomotive air brake equipment. It is printed in large, 
clear type and contains many excellent color plates which 
do much to make the subject matter clearer for the student 
who is unfamiliar with the details of the apparatus. 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XXXIV. 


No. 3 

Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, President. J. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-president. 

A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-president. C. E. Whittlesey, Sec. and Treas. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. Rodney Hitt, Associate Editor. 

Frederic Nicholas, Associate Editor. 

NEW YORK, 239 West Thirty-ninth Street. 

Chicago: Old Colony Building. 

Philadelphia: Real Estate Trust Building. 
Cleveland: Schofield Building. 

London: Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand. 

Cable Address, Stryjourn, New York; Stryjourn, London — Lieber's Code. 
Entered at the New York Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter. 
Copyright, 1909, by the McGraw Publishing Company. 

J>''.\ I j E g 


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Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9000 
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Hugh M. Wilson and Technical Journalism 

As announced in our personal columns this week, Hugh 
M. Wilson, former proprietor of the Electric Raihvay Re- 
view and The Railway Age, has entered the manufacturing 
field, and we cannot chronicle this fact without expressing 
our appreciation of the high standards set and consistently 
followed hy Mr. Wilson while engaged in technical news- 
paper work, lie believed that to deserve and secure the 
support of the industries to which his journals were de- 
voted they should not only record all of the important 
engineering and financial news in their respective fields, hut 

should also assist so far as they could in solving the im- 
portant problems of every character with which these in- 
dustries were confronted. In carrying out this plan, Mr. 
Wilson's policy was essentially constructive, and while he 
did not hesitate to criticise faulty methods, he aimed al- 
ways to combine with this criticism suggestions which 
would be helpful in securing the reforms which he desired. 
His ideal of a technical journal was that it should be a 
force, and a potent one, in any direction in which it could 
be useful in the field to which its energies were devoted. 
His connection with railway journalism was beneficial to 
those who were subscribers to his papers, to the manufac- 
turers of railway apparatus who advertised in them and to 
all others who were connected with the industry. His jour- 
nalistic experience and the knowledge of the railroad field 
thereby gained should be of great assistance to him in the 
ne*v work in which he has embarked, and in his career as 
a manufacturer he will have the best wishes of his former 
associates in journalism. 

Third Avenue Reorganization Problems 

Considerable interest is being excited in New York by 
the proposed plan of reorganization of the Third Avenue 
Railroad Company, as outlined by the bondholders' com- 
mittee and published in these columns. Briefly, the scheme 
contemplates a larger total par value in securities than now 
exists, as stock will be issued for the cash assessment to 
be paid by the present stockholders and bonds for the un- 
paid bond interest, but the fixed charges will be reduced, so 
that it is estimated that the company will be able to earn 
the interest on its funded indebtedness. According to F. 
W. Whitridge, the receiver of the company, the stock will 
possess very little present value, but will represent the 
expectations of the owners in the future prosperity of the 
company. In some quarters, the plan has been termed an 
injection of water, but if this is the case, the definition of 
watered stock will have to be modified from that which is 
usually accepted for the term. No claim is made that any 
part of the stock has been issued for less than its par 
value or the bonds for less than about par. But, through 
a number of circumstances, some of which are due to obso- 
lescence of equipment, and some to conditions over which 
the company had no control, the physical assets no longer 
equal the capitalization. The case differs materially from 
that of a solvent corporation whose stock is in the hands 
of the public. Subscribers to the junior securities, whose 
assistance is necessary to carry through the reorganiza- 
tion, must be given the hope of large profits in the future 
if they arc to forego an immediate return. On the other 
hand, the capitalization of future earnings and any material 
disproportion between capitalization and assets of a coin 
pany are two of the principal charges which have been 
made against railroad corporations in the past. The Third 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 

Avenue plan has met with considerable opposition from the 
stockholders, some of whom claim that they are being too 
heavily assessed in the proposed reorganization. The de- 
cision of the commission on the whole scheme will undoubt- 
edly have a bearing upon other reorganization plans in New 
York City, so that the outcome has an importance which it 
might not otherwise possess. 

Supervision of Street Railways in England and Prussia 

The forthcoming report of the Public Service Commis- 
sion, First District, New York, will contain two interesting 
articles by Robert H. Whitten, one on the supervision of 
street railways in England, and the other on their super- 
vision in Prussia. These articles are available through 
advance publication, with a foreword prepared by the com- 
mission. This introduction states "that to an American 
the striking feature of State supervision of street railways 
in England and Prussia is that it is devoted chiefly to the 
prevention rather than to the correction of abuses." It then 
explains that all construction plans of electric railway com 
panies in the countries mentioned have to be approved, even 
down to the smallest details, before a line is built, and com- 
mends such supervision strongly. But it does not add that 
this fact, with the necessity of securing the approval to con- 
struct electric railway lines, not from one body, but in most 
cases from a number of local authorities, has been one im- 
portant reason for the small amount of electric railway 
track built in Prussia and England since electricity came to 
be applied to railway service. Thus in the United Kingdom 
only 1400 miles of electric railway track were constructed 
between 1898 and 1908, and the roads under private owner- 
ship increased only 230 miles, although this decade wit- 
nessed the principal part of the electrification of the Brit- 
ish roads. During the same period approximately 23,000 
miles were added to the electric railway trackage of the 
United States. The figures for the 10-year period for Ger- 
many are not available, but according to recent statistics, 
the street railway mileage in Germany at present is 2345, 
of which only about 83 per cent is electric. Several single 
States in this country have a larger mileage than either 
Germany or the United Kingdom. 

Opening of the Downtown Hudson Tunnels 

On July 19 the two submarine tubes under the Hudson 
River connecting the new terminal station of the Hudson & 
Manhattan Railroad Company at Cortlandt and Church 
Streets on Manhattan Island with the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road station in Jersey City will be opened for traffic. Two 
weeks later trains are to be run to the Erie station in Jer- 
sey City and the Lackawanna station in Hoboken, con- 
necting there with the Morton Street tubes, which were 
opened in February of last year. The opening of the down- 
town river tunnels and the connecting land tunnel under 
Jersey City and Hoboken will mark the completion of the 
major part of the Hudson Tunnels system, leaving yet to 
be finished the Sixth Avenue extension north from Twenty- 
third Street to the Grand Central Station and one or two 
projected extensions in Jersey City. The enterprise is 
chiefly remarkable for the large investment of nearly $70,- 
000,000, subscribed entirely by private capitalists within 
the last eight years. The complete system of tunnels com- 
prises only 9 miles of double track, but it reaches all but 
two of the steam railroad terminals on the New Jersey side 

of the river, and eventually will connect with the two rail- 
road stations in New York City. From the nature of its 
route, crossing twice under the river, the traffic will be 
largely short haul. While there will be the same congestion 
of travel during the morning and evening rush hours 
that takes place on all other rapid transit lines in and 
around New York, the constant incoming and outgoing 
stream of passengers to and from the steam railroad ter- 
minals will, no doubt, provide a well-balanced load during 
the non-rush' hours. The plan of operation is to run trains 
on a regular headway, increasing or decreasing the number 
of cars per train according to the traffic. 

The new terminal station of the downtown tunnels, which 
is described elsewhere in this issue, has been designed with 
the view of segregating inbound and outbound passengers 
and avoiding conflicting channels of movement, both be- 
tween the trains and the concourse and the concourse and 
the street. The use of separate loading and unloading plat- 
forms, center and end door cars and the four loop tracks 
give the station a capacity in excess of that of the single pair 
of tubes under the river. With trains running at 1 ^-min- 
utes headway through the river tunnels, six minutes can be 
allowed for unloading and loading a train in the station. 
When the through service to Newark is begun and the Erie 
and Lackawanna commuter traffic must also be handled, the 
large capacity of the terminal station will probably be well 

The Use of Condensers 

How far is it justifiable to expend capital upon con- 
densing plant in a power station? This is a problem that 
will rarely offer itself in respect of large stations with 
good load factors. In the case of small stations with small 
load factors the problem "assumes a more intensive aspect. 
The justification for condensing to the power station man 
is one of a commercial order. In favor of it there is the 
direct economy of fuel and perhaps of feed water that has 
to be paid for: there is the increase of output from the 
rest of the plant — the engines and boilers — and this will 
vary in value according as the existing plant is or is not 
sufficient to deal with the present or prospective load with 
satisfaction. On the other side, there is the capital cost, 
which may be difficult to find, and there are the usual in- 
terest and other capital charges to be met annually. And 
there may be repairs. Labor may be saved in one part of 
the plant and expended in another part. The labor charges 
may be more or they may be less, according to whether 
existing labor is at present fully occupied or not, for one 
cannot reduce the firemen below one in number, though we 
may ease the duty on the one. 

In considering the question of condensation the engineer 
will therefore take all points into consideration. If a con- 
denser will effect an economy of 20 per cent in fuel it does 
not follow that this saving is always worth having. To 
save 20 per cent the plant must be large enough to do so 
when under full load. If the price of condensing plant 
varied exactly with its capacity and condensation were 
applied to a station with a load factor of 10 per cent and 
condensing plant cost $5 per unit of capacity, what would 
it cost for this particular station? Obviously ten times 
$5, or, in other words, the interest charge on the plant on 
the above assumption as to cost would amount to tenfold 

July 17, 1909.] 



what it would do for a steady load plant. So with depre- 
ciation and maintenance, all charges would be multiplied 
by the ratio of the cost of plants for 100 units and 10 units 
of power. A full scale plant may therefore cost so much 
as to be inadmissible. Can anything be done to modify it? 
All depends on the nature of the load. An electric railway 
load with occasional high peaks should certainly not be 
provided with a plant equal to dealing continuously with 
the maximum load. It may be but little in excess of the 
mean load. But it must not be so small that the rush of 
steam will cause a stoppage of the water flow in an injec- 
tion condenser. With a surface condenser this does not 
occur. At most an overpressed condenser will yield a poor 
vacuum during the peak periods. 

A load which has peaks of the more continuous order 
requires a larger condensing plant than the foregoing, but 
in all cases of low load factors it seems wise to moderate 
the expenditure on the plant so that while ample for the 
average load, it shall be only capable of giving a two-thirds 
or other selected vacuum on the peak loads. A distinct 
economy may thus be secured with an outlay that does not 
bear a very much greater ratio than one to what may 
be called steady load plant cost. 

With a traction load it is not possible to vary the air 
pump speed so as to suit the load, for this changes so 
rapidly and frequently as to render this practically impos- 
sible. But with a lighting load it may be possible to vary 
the air pump speed over a wide range. 

By such methods of design the range down to which a 
condenser may be applied with commercial economy will 
probably be extended considerably. 

Violations of Rales on Interurban Railways 

The recent deplorable head-on collision between two in- 
terurban cars in northern Indiana, in which 10 persons were 
killed and many others injured, affords a text for a timely 
preachment. The cause of the accident was disobedience 
of a positive meet order on the part of the crew of one car. 
All the evidence goes to show that the crews of both cars 
received and correctly repeated the meet order ; that the 
orders were delivered 35 minutes before the collision oc- 
curred ; that the crew of one car ran past the meeting point, 
stopped at a siding one-half mile beyond, then started out 
again and collided with the opposing car i)/ 2 miles beyond 
the meeting point while running at high speed. But one 
of three conclusions can be reached after a consideration 
of these facts; either that the crew at fault forgot their 
orders; that they lost their bearings on the road; or that 
they deliberately disobeyed the order and took a chance on 
getting farther along the road before meeting the opposing 
car. The reliability of the dispatching system, the condi- 
tion of the track and rolling stock or the speed of the col- 
liding cars were not in any degree contributing causes. 
This was distinctly and solely a "man failure." 

Individuals will err, often through ignorance, and occa- 
sionally through wilfulness. These errors do not always 
cause accidents. Ninety-nine times out of a hundred noth- 
ing happens, but the hundredth time is fatal. The principle 
of rigid and unceasing discipline is to prevent not the one 
hundredth error, but, if possible, every one of the other 
ninety-nine. Tf a man makes a mistake, or takes a forbid- 
den course once and is not dealt with summarily, the prob- 

ability is that he will repeat the mistake or the disobedience. 
The punishment in every case requiring discipline should 
fit the crime, and the seriousness of the crime should be 
reckoned not so much by what actually happens as by what 
might have happened. 

The standard of discipline on electric railways should be, 
if anything, higher than on steam railroads. The single- 
track, high-speed interurban electric roads operate at higher 
running speeds and with greater traffic density than most 
single-track steam roads. It may be argued that a single 
car is more easily controlled than a long train, and that 
electric schedules are more regular than the mixed freight, 
passenger and extra schedules of the stef m .' roads. This is 
admitted, but it is also true that the mt,f- or Jnan of an inter- 
urban car, knowing how quickly his car responds to the 
movement of the controller or brake handle, is tempted to 
take chances that a steam railroad engineer would not as- 
sume. Also, the very regularity of the electric schedules 
fosters slovenly observance of many rules, which in an 
emergency, when cars are not running on schedule time, 
are vital to safe operation. 

Some interurban lines have made a point of employing 
only former steam-road employees as trainmen, believing 
that better results could be obtained with experienced rail- 
road men than with men recruited from other occupations. 
Other things being equal, this expectation may be, and no 
doubt is, realized; but experienced railroad men not only 
know the rules, but also know when they can violate the 
rules without being detected. If the discipline maintained 
on the electric road is in any respect less rigid, and the 
consequences of a disobedient act even a trifle less severe 
than on the steam roads from which the men were drawn, 
only one result can be expected. Running an electric car 
on a regular schedule of short runs is an easy job for an 
ex-employee of a steam railroad. He is inclined to look 
on it as such and treat it with a lack of respect which is 
reflected in every move he makes. Nothing can counteract 
this feeling and its inevitable results except iron-handed 
discipline, dealing out punishment as severe as any ever 
encountered in the man's experience on the steam roads for 
which he formerly worked. 

One difficulty in enforcing strict discipline which is rec- 
ognized by all railway officers is the attitude assumed by the 
blameless member of a car crew in attempting to protect the 
guilty member, either by failing to report breaches of rules 
or corroborating a fictitious explanation. There is only one 
remedy for this. When one member of a crew is detected 
in violating a rule, and the violation must have been plain 
to the other member, discipline should be administered im- 
partially to both if the blameless member makes no report 
of the occurrence. 

Another difficulty, which in many cases, no doubt, pre- 
vents administering severe punishment of long suspension 
or discharge for gross violations of (lie rules, is the scarcity 
of men who are competent to run cars. If within a short 
period three or four motormen out of a total of 10 or 12 
should be discharged for cause, their places could not be 
filled immediately from the extra men ordinarily employed 
by a small road. Even at the risk of crippling the service, 
however, it would be better to turn out a man deserving of 
discharge rather than overlook his disobedience and invite 
his contempt. 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 


On July 19, at 10 a. m., the first train, carrying a number 
of invited guests, will run through the newly completed 
downtown tunnels of the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad 
Company under the Hudson River from the terminal sta- 
tion at Cortlandt and Church Streets on Manhattan Island 
to the Pennsylvania Railroad station in Jersey City. At 3 
p. m. on the same day the tunnels will be opened to the 
public, and trains will begin running on a regular schedule. 


These downt^^n tunnels are the second pair of tubes 
under the Hudsk n River to be put in operation. The con- 
necting land turl r .is between the Pennsylvania and Erie 
stations in Jersey City and the Hoboken station of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western will be opened on Aug. 2. 
When this latter section is put in operation trains will run 
through the tunnels completed in 1908 from Twenty-third 
Street and Sixth Avenue, Manhattan, to Hoboken and Jer- 
sey City, and thence under the river again to the downtown 
terminal at Cortlandt and Church Streets. This will pro- 
vide uptown and downtown tube connections for three of 
the five steam railroad passenger stations on the New Jersey 
side of the river. The West Shore Railroad, with terminals 
at Weehawken, opposite Forty-second Street, and the Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey, with terminals at Communi- 
paw, opposite the Battery, will be the only railroads on the 
west side of the river not served by the present system of 

Two branch extensions of the Hudson tunnel system are 
Hearing completion, and will be ready for operation in 
about six months' time. One of these is a double-track ex- 
tension for shuttle service from the Ninth Street station 
on the Sixth Avenue line east to a connection with the In- 
terborough Rapid Transit Company's subway at Astor Place 
and Fourth Avenue. The second is a tunnel for foot pas- 
sengers from the Hudson Terminal Buildings to the Dey 
Street station of the Interborough subway under Broadway. 

The present terminal of the Sixth Avenue line is at 
Twenty-third Street. Work is being pushed on the exten- 
sion of this line northward, and it is expected that within 
six months the station at Twenty-eighth Street will be 
opened as a temporary terminal. A large retail department 
store is now being erected on the corner of Thirty-third 
Street and Sixth Avenue on property owned by the Hudson 
& Manhattan Railroad Company, and by the time the build- 
ing is completed the Sixth Avenue extension will have been 
finished that far north, and a station to be built in the 
basement of this department store building will be opened as 
another temporary terminal. Plans are completed and work 
will be started this summer on the recently authorized ex- 
tension of the Sixth Avenue line north from Thirty-third 
Street to Thirty-ninth Street, where a station will be located, 
thence diagonally across under Bryant Park to Forty-second 
Street. The tunnels under Forty-second Street will be on 
a level below that of the present Interborough subway. A 
station is to be built at Fifth Avenue, and also a terminal 
station on the south side of Forty-second Street between 
Park Avenue and Lexington Avenue, opposite the Grand 
Central Station. This extension is expected to be com- 
pleted and ready for operation by Jan. 1, 1911. 

On the New Jersey side of the river an extension is 
planned to follow under the right-of-way of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad from the station in Jersey City to Summit 
Avenue, where the tracks will emerge from the tunnels and 

run up on the railroad right-of-way across the meadows to 
Newark. It is the ultimate intention to operate trains from 
Newark over the Pennsylvania Railroad tracks as far as 
Summit Avenue, and thence by way of the tunnels direct 
to the downtown terminals in New York. Another con- 
templated extension on the Jersey side is south from the 
Newark tunnel to Communipaw, connecting there with the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey. This extension ultimately 
may be carried south to Bayonne and Staten Island. These 
two projects in New Jersey, however, will not be under- 

Hudson Terminal — Map of Tunnel System and Connections 

taken until after the completion of the extensions now 
planned on Manhattan Island. 

The complete system of tunnels and the connections with 
steam railways and other rapid transit lines are clearly 
shown on the accompanying map. 


The twin tubes under the river from Jersey City to the 
Terminal Buildings have been built after the same design 
as that employed in the new part of the tunnels under the 
river at Morton Street. They are circular tubes formed 
by a segmental cast-steel lining bolted together in the rear 

July 17, 1909.] 



of the excavating shields as they were driven forward. 
The tubes are lined with concrete up to the level of the 
top of the cable ducts, but the top half is unlined. The 
diameter in the clear is 15 ft. 3 in. The land tunnels from 
the Pennsylvania station in Jersey City north to the junc- 

. in ";; , in > |H 
1 1" " 1 hi > 

I «< 1 !'h I!! ' UtJ 

Hudson Terminal — View of Buildings from the River 

tion with the first tunnels, which run to the Hoboken station 
of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, are also twin 
tubes lined with segmental cast-steel plates. The junction 
with the uptown tunnels south of the Lackawanna station 
is accomplished without grade crossings, so that there is no 
interference of traffic. There is only one station on this 

The Erie station consists of a single island platform at 
the level of the tubes, with stairways leading up to a con- 
course above the tubes, on which are located the ticket 
offices. From this concourse stairways lead up to the street 
and the railroad station. There are also two electric ele- 
vators, having a capacity of 50 persons each, which carry 
passengers up and down from the level of the railroad 

The station under the Pennsylvania Railroad terminal 
is 100 ft. below the level of the concourse of the railroad 
station, and provision has been made for carrying passen- 
gers up and down from both the street and the railroad 
station in hydraulic plunger elevators. Six of these ele- 
vators have been installed. Four elevators, with cars 10 
ft. x 10 ft., holding 50 passengers, have a lift of 92 ft. 9 in., 
and rise to the railroad station concourse. Two elevators 
of similar size and capacity have a lift of 63 ft. 7 in., and 
carry passengers to the street entrances. The tunnels turn 
northward just beyond the Pennsylvania station, but the 
Newark extension tubes have been driven straight west for 
a short distance, and tracks have been laid in them. These 
short stub tracks will provide storage and switching space 
for the temporary shuttle service between Jersey City and 
New York pending the opening of the Jersey City tunnels 
north to Hoboken. They will be used for storage purposes 
only until the Newark extension is completed. 

The two tubes under the river diverge after leaving the 
Pennsylvania station in Jersey City. The inbound tube 
runs up under Cortlandt Street, while the outbound tube 
runs under Fulton Street, two blocks north. The two tubes 
are connected on the New York end by the five loop tracks 
in the terminal station. 


The new terminal station occupies three floors below 

Hudson Terminal — Concourse Level, Showing Stairways Leading to Train Platforms Below 

section, that under the Erie Railroad terminal. This station 
has exits and entrances from the street as well as from the 
concourse of the railroad station above. The station under 
the Pennsylvania Railroad terminal also has exits and en- 
trances on the street and from the concourse of the station. 

ground of the enormous Hudson Terminal Buildings, front- 
ing on Church Street and extending from Fulton Street to 
Cortlandt Street. These twin buildings, which are separated 
by Dey Street, are the largest office buildings in the world. 
They have a frontage on Church Street of 400 ft., a depth 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 

of 175 ft., and rise 22 stories above ground. They contain 
nearly 25 acres of floor space. 

There are four main entrances and exits from the station 
concourse, which occupies the first level below the street. 
While the concourse was planned to have two main en- 

trances of the two loading platforms on the track level. 
The exits from the concourse are broad curved inclines or 
ramps running up to the sidewalk on Cortlandt Street at one 
end and to Fulton Street at the other end. The stairways 
up from the unloading platforms on the track level direct 


Hudson Terminal — Plan of Concourse Level 

trances and two main exits, all four may be used by either 
incoming or outgoing passengers. The accompanying plan 
of the concourse floor shows the arrangement of entrances 
and exits, which is designed to segregate the incoming 
crowds from the outgoing crowds, so as to prevent as far 
as possible any confusion or counter movements. The en- 

their streams of passengers toward these exit ramps without 
mingling or crossing the streams of incoming passengers 
who are about to take trains. 

The loop tracks, five in number, occupy the level imme- 
diately below the concourse, and below this is still another 
level, on which are located the substation, ventilating ap- 

Tunnet to Broadway- 

Dispatcher's office 
Tram destination Sign 

Hudson Terminal — Plan of Track Level, Showing Position of Eight-Car Train* 

trances to the concourse are from both sidewalks on Dey 
Street. Wide corridors in both buildings lead to stairways 
running down to the concourse level. These stairways di- 
vide at the landing half way down, and discharge inbound 
passengers in two streams, each directed toward the en- 

paratus, workroom, miscellaneous storage space and the en- 
gine and boiler rooms of the power station which supplies 
the Utilities of the buildings. 


The public has free access to all parts of the concourse 

July 17, 1909.] 



floor. Much of the space on this floor is taken up by small 
shops and booths, in which almost every conceivable kind 
of merchandise will be sold. Included among the conces- 
sions for which space has already been rented are a meat 
market, drug store, trunk store, restaurant, etc. Both the 
Western Union and the Postal Telegraph companies have 
offices on the concourse and ample telephone service, with 
local switchboard operators, is to be provided in a con- 
venient location next to the parcel room. The stands and 

Hudson Terminal — Cross Section at Dey Street 

booths are of uniform and attractive design, harmonizing 
with the simple but handsome finish of the main aisles and 
walls. They occupy the space between the building columns 
and in the corners, leaving unobstructed broad aisles leading 
to all the entrances and exits and the stairways to the train 
platform level. The walls and columns of the concourse 
level are painted light cream color above a white tile wain- 
scoting. The wainscoting is surmounted by a molding 
of dark green tile, ornamented with circular medallions of 
conventional flower design. The concourse is brilliantly 
lighted with rows of ceiling clusters of incandescent lamps 
inclosed in ground-glass bowls. 

On the west side of the concourse floor will be a large 
restaurant, baggage room, ticket offices of the Pennsylvania, 
Lehigh Valley and Erie railroads, the terminals of which 
are reached by the tunnel trains, a general waiting room, 
with toilet rooms for men and women, and a parcel check 
room. The three steam rail- 

The westerly track will be used for baggage trains and sup- 
ply trains carrying coal to the power station of the building 
and removing ashes. The passenger cars to be operated in 
the tunnels are built entirely of steel and all have end doors 
and center side doors. The platforms in the station have 
been arranged to completely segregate passengers board- 
ing and alighting. A train coming into any one of the 
tracks in the station is inclosed by a loading platform on 
one side and an unloading platform on the other side. The 

three doors on each side of the 
cars permit unrestricted en- 
trance from one platform and 
simultaneous exit to the other 
platform without creating any 
confusion or interference. Sep- 
arate groups of stairways lead- 
ing to each platform from the 
concourse above prevent any 
interference in the movement of 
passengers up or down. 

The station platforms are 370 
ft. long, which permits the op- 
eration of eight-car trains. The 
entrance curves to the station 
loop tracks are of 90-ft. radius. 
The plan of the track level 
shows an eight-car train standing in the station. It will 
be seen that the length of straight track is sufficient 
to permit all of the cars to be entered or left without dan- 
ger, from any one of the three doors on either side. The 
three platforms which serve tracks on each side are approx- 
imately 21 ft. wide. The two unloading platforms for the 
outside tracks, Nos. 1 and 4, are narrower in width. The 
supporting columns of the building rise through the plat- 
forms, but they are not symmetrically placed along the cen- 
ter lines. There is ample room, however, between the col- 
umns or the staircases and the edges of the platform to 
permit movement of passengers toward or away from the 
doors of the cars without jostling or crowding. 

Four stairways lead down from the concourse to each of 
the two loading platforms and six stairways lead up from 
each of the unloading platforms. Ticket boxes are placed 

roads mentioned will sell 
through, commutation and local 
tickets. These three roads will 
also prepare their timetables for 
through and local trains so as to 
show arrival and departure from 
the tunnel station. 

The women's toilet, rest par- 
lor and check rooms will be 
most comfortable and elaborate, 
occupying together some 900 sq. 
ft. A large towel and a special 
cake of soap will be furnished 
to those who want them for 5 
cents. Hairpins and other smal 
provided gratis, and a maid will 

at the top of each of the stairways leading down to the 

L, is- » 




2 3 BP ST. N.Y. 

Hudson Terminal — Train Announcer Sign 

I toilet necessities will be 
be in constant attendance. 
A lung pier glass will also be one of the attractions of the 
waiting room. Except in the larger hotels of New York, 
no such conveniences for women have ever been provided. 


As will be seen from the plan of the track level, the 
station contains five tracks and six platforms. Only four 
of these tracks, however, will be used by passenger trains. 

loading platforms, so that passengers drop their tickets 
just before descending and boarding the trains. The ticket 
selling booths, 15 in number, arc situated on the concourse 
floor, so as to be conveniently reached by passengers enter- 
ing the station by any of the entrances or exits and before 
reaching the stairs to the loading platforms. The ticket 
booths are built of oak and, as will be seen in one of the 
illustrations, are triangular in shape, SO as not to obstruct 
the entrances to the aisles leading to the stairways. A 



number of portable ticket booths mounted on wheels will 
be used during rush hours. 

The train platforms are built of reinforced concrete with 
granolithic finish. The walls and columns on the platform 
level are covered with white glazed tiles from floor to ceil- 
ing. Frames for displaying advertising posters are formed 
by white tile moldings which harmonize with the plain 
white finish of the walls and will not accumulate dirt. 
These frames are built in on all four sides of the columns 
on the platforms, and at frequent intervals along the side 


The platform level is lighted with five-lamp ceiling clus- 
ters inclosed in ground glass bowls. The edges of the 
platforms are also illuminated with rows of incandescent 
lamps. Most of the ceiling clusters are connected on the 
240-volt, three-wire, direct-current light mains, which also 
supply the offices on the upper floors of the building. At 


Inasmuch as the new tunnels will make connections with 
the steam railroad stations on the New Jersey side, pro- 
vision was made for handling baggage as well as passengers 
to and from the terminal station. A baggage receiving 
and delivery room has been built on the street level facing 
on Dey Street. From this receiving room two hydraulic 
plunger elevators run down to the basement level under the 
train platform level. It was the original intention to run 
a baggage car as the last car of each passenger train, and 
baggage elevators were installed at both ends of. each of 
the two loading platforms. These elevators run down to 
the floor below, where trucking passages are provided, lead- 
ing to the two main baggage elevators running up through 
the westerly platform to the receiving room on the street 
level. Since the station was completed a change has been 
decided upon in the method of handling baggage, as it was 
thought that an attempt to operate baggage cars as part 

Hudson Terminal — Ticket-Selling Booths on Concourse Level- 

frequent intervals, however, a cluster of five incandescent 
lamps, forming part of the ceiling illumination, is connected 
to the third-rail power circuit. This insures against total 
darkness in the station in case the lighting circuits to 
which most of the ceiling clusters are connected should fail. 
The lamps on the edges of the platforms are also connected 
to the third-rail power circuit. No automatic switches have 
been installed to cut in outside sources. of current in case 
the local supply should fail, but the switchboard in the sub- 
station in the basement of the building is connected through 
a hand-operated cut-out switch with the mains of the New 
York Edison Company. This makes available almost in- 
stantaneously an independent source of current. A large 
storage battery which floats on the building lighting cir- 
cuits affords a supply of current for short periods without 
any interruption to the lights in case the rotaries in the 
substation or the generators in the power house should mo- 
mentarily fail. 

of the regular passenger trains would introduce chances for 
delay. The company is having built two special baggage 
cars, which will run as a separate train, loading and un- 
loading only from the baggage platform on the west side 
of the station and making as many trips as are necessary 
during the day. 


The initial service in the downtown tunnels will be only 
to the Pennsylvania railroad station in Jersey City and 
return, but after Aug. 2 trains will be run on three routes : 
To the Pennsylvania station and Newark Avenue, Jersey 
City ; to the Pennsylvania, Erie and Lackawanna stations, 
and to the Pennsylvania and Erie stations in Jersey City, 
returning under the Morton Street tubes to Twenty-third 
Street and Sixth Avenue. To avoid confusion on the plat- 
forms, illuminated train announcer signs have been in- 
stalled, six on each loading platform. The construction of 

July 17, 1909.] 


these signs is shown in one of the drawings. The sign 
consists of a narrow box, 6 ft. 6 in. long, 2 ft. high and 5 
in. thick, supported transversely from the ceiling near the 
edge of the platform. Both sides of the box are formed 
of three panels of ground glass, behind which are sheet 
brass stencils showing the three routes for trains. Mounted 
between each pair of panels are six incandescent lamps con- 
nected in groups of three. The panels are surmounted by 
a sign with two arrows pointing toward the track and read- 
ing, "Train For." The lamp circuits are controlled either 
from the signal cabin on the baggage platform or the dis- 
patcher's office. As a train enters the station a switch is 
closed illuminating the proper route panel in ail three signs 
on the side of the loading platform from which the train 
departs. Similar signs actuated automatically on the ap- 
proach of a train, through contacts alongside the track, are 
being installed at all stations on the Sixth Avenue exten- 


The track construction in the station is shown by one of 
the drawings. The substructure under each rail consists 
of two truncated triangular prisms of concrete. The an- 
chor bolts for holding the short pieces of ties on which the 
rails rest are embedded in the concrete as it is set. These 
bolts are 14 in. long and are threaded for a length of about 
5 in. Before setting in the concrete the nut and washer 
on the lower end are screwed up on the threads about 3 in. 
and the head of the bolt is held in position a distance of 

the bottom of the ties with hard boiler cinders. The space 
between the inside ends of the ties is then covered over 
with iyi in. of cement. The space between ties under the 
rails and outside of the ends of the ties is filled in flush 
with the bottom flange of the rail with concrete laid on top 
of the boiler cinders. The rails are fastened to the short 
pieces of ties with tie plates held by two screw spikes. This 
construction provides a smooth, hard surface for the top 

h 6 

Hard BcUer : :-;},. 
Cinder :-~f: f : 

r! ■ 

* m 4 \ \/>"sq Hd- bo'.t 14 long 
1 • AJ^ Position for first 

--r-s'-fi — - 

/ •Jj MI Washer 

d Boiler 

Hudson Terminal — Train Standing in Station 

about in. below the top of the ties while the concrete 
is allowed to set. When the concrete is set the bolts are 
turned out of the nuts embedded in the concrete and the 
short pieces of ties, from 28 in. to 32 in. long, are put in 
place on top of the two concrete prisms, with a spacing of 
18 in. center to center. The anchor bolts are then screwed 
down tight in the nuts embedded in the concrete and the 
space below the ties between the two' truncated prisms un- 
der each rail and between the rails is filled up level with 

Hudson Terminal — Track Construction in Station 

of the roadbed, which can be washed off at frequent inter- 
vals. A gutter is formed in the center of the track sloping 
to drains connected to the sewer to carry off water. 

The third-rail is an inverted channel section weighing 
75 lb. per yard, and is mounted on porcelain insulators sup- 
ported by malleable iron brackets bolted to every seventh 
tie. It is protected by a 9-in. plank mounted above it. 

All special track work in the station is of Manard steel, 
furnished by the Pennsylvania Steel Company. The frogs 
are of solid construction and the switches are of the double- 
tongue type. Both tongues are 
connected to the switch-oper- 
ating mechanism so that they 
work together. 


Experience in the operation 
of the uptown tunnels of the 
Hudson & Manhattan system 
proved to the engineers that 
with trains running in separate 
tubes, which for the most part 
pass through soil saturated at 
all times with water, there was 
little difficulty in maintaining 
good natural ventilation in both 
the tunnels and the stations, and, 
furthermore, that the tempera- 
ture of the air in the tunnels 
was uniformly cooler than that 
on the streets during warm 
weather. In designing the 
downtown tubes and terminal 
station, therefore, dependence 
was placed largely on natural 
ventilation. Fans have been 
provided in the station, how- 
ever, to accelerate the move- 
ment of air if it is found 
necessary, and suitable chambers have been provided in the 
land tunnels on the Jersey side, so that ventilating apparatus 
can be installed in that section if found necessary. 

The ventilation of the concourse and track level of the 
terminal station is entirely independent of the general ven- 
tilating scheme installed in the building for the offices on 
the upper floors. An intake tunnel has been driven under 
the inbound train tunnel for some distance toward the river 
and suitable openings connecting the intake tunnel and the 



[Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 

train tunnel have been provided. Air is drawn out of the 
inbound river tunnel through these openings and the intake 
tunnel by two fans located in the basement below the track 
level. These fans, which were furnished by the Massa- 
chusetts Fan Company, have a capacity each of 57,000 cu. 
ft. of air per minute. They are 160 in. in diameter and are 
driven by direct-connected motors. They exhaust the foul 
air drawn out of the tunnels into an uptake flue, which 
extends up to the level of the roof of the building. Ad- 
joining this exhaust flue is a fresh-air flue, which also 
passes down to the basement level, and from which air is 
drawn for cooling the transformers and rotaries in the 
substation. No air is drawn from this flue directly into the 
terminal station. At the north end of two of the platforms 
of the station there have been installed motor-driven fans, 
each with a capacity of 15,000 cu. ft. of air per minute. 
These fans draw air out of the station and discharge it 

lamps and locking circuits in the four interlocking machines. 

The automatic block signals have been located so that 
trains running on a two-minute headway at the normal 
operating speeds in the different parts of the tunnel will 
always have a clear distant signal ahead of them. The 
automatic stops are connected on the two-block overlap 
system; that is, two block sections always separate one 
train from another. At the entrances to the stations the 
overlaps have been considerably shortened so as to reduce 
the delay in running into the stations to the minimum. The 
block signals consist of two circular iron casings mounted 
one above the other on the tunnel wall. The upper case 
or home signal shows on red and one green lens, behind 
each of which are two incandescent lamps connected in 
multiple across the lighting mains. The lower case or dis- 
tant signal shows two similar lenses of yellow and green 
glass, behind each of which are mounted two lamps. The 

Hudson Terminal — Station Under Erie Railroad Terminal in Jersey City 

through suitable passages into the outbound tunnel some 
distance beyond the station. With the aid of these four 
fans it is believed that the piston action of the trains in the 
two tubes will be ample to maintain a satisfactory circula- 
tion of air in both levels of the station. 


The installation of the interlocking switches and auto- 
matic block signals in the new tunnels was made by the 
Union Switch & Signal Company. Interlocking machines 
have been installed at the terminal station, the Jersey City 
station, and at the junction with the uptown river tunnels 
south of the Hoboken station. Between the limits of the 
interlockings both tracks have been equipped with automatic 
home and distant block signals and automatic stops. The 
distinguishing feature of the entire signal installation is 
the use of alternating current throughout, both for the track 
circuits and for the operation of all signal relays, signal 

lamps burn continuously behind one of the two lenses in 
each case. Current is shifted from one pair of lamps to 
the other when the signal changes from stop to clear or 
caution to clear by auxiliary relays controlled by the track 
circuit relays. No slides or shutters are employed, and in 
this respect the signals differ from those installed in the 
uptown tunnels, which employ only one set of lamps and 
have a moving shutter which passes between the lamps and 
the lenses, blanking one lens to display the other. 

Double-rail, alternating-current track circuits are em- 
ployed with inductance bonds at each cut-section. This is 
substantially the same system of track circuits as that in- 
stalled by the Union Switch & Signal Company on the 
West Jersey & Se?„ Shore Railroad. 

A compressed air supply pipe is carried through the tun- 
nels to operate the automatic stops, which are of the 
electro-pneumatic type, substantially the same as those used 


July 17, 1909.] 

in the Interborough subway. The only difference is in the 
use of alternating-current magnets on the control valves. 

The interlocking plant at the terminal station consists of 
a 23-lever standard electro-pneumatic machine mounted 
near the center of the baggage platform, on the west side 
of the station. This machine has eight levers which con- 
trol eight switches and two derails, six levers controlling 
14 signals, four levers for check locking between the ter- 
minal station and the Jersey City station and five spare 
levers. The interlocking signals are of the same type as 
the automatic block signals, and the switch-operating 
mechanisms are of the standard electro-pneumatic type, 
with alternating-current magnet valves. No detector bars 
are used on the switches, the switches being locked up in 
the machine by track circuit locking. 

The principal signals in the station are the starting sig- 
nals mounted on the north end of each of the platforms. 

Hudson Terminal — Automatic Block Signals in River 

Similar signals are mounted on the south ends of the plat- 
forms for emergency use in case it is necessary to reverse 
the direction of traffic in the tunnels. These emergency 
starting signals are connected with repeating signals which 
are mounted in plain view of the motormen at the platforms. 
The remaining signals are the route signals at the entrances 
to the station loop tracks from the inbound main track. 

The signal tower which contains the interlocking ma- 
chine is located in such a position that the operator cannot 
see all of the trains in the station. This difficulty is over- 
come by the use of an illuminated track diagram mounted 
above the interlocking machine and showing by lights 
whether any section of the station tracks is occupied or 
unoccupied. The diagram consists of a ground glass plate, 


on which the tracks are marked, and behind it are groups 
of small incandescent lamps. These lamps burn when the 
tracks are unoccupied and are extinguished behind each 
section of the tracks shown on the diagram which is oc- 
cupied by a train. The illumination of the diagram is con- 
trolled through relays inserted in the track circuits within 
the station limits. The illuminated diagram not only in- 
cludes the station tracks, but also includes both of the river 
tunnels as far as the Jersey City station, and the movement 
of a train from the time it leaves Jersey City is continuously 
indicated in the diagram. Track circuits within the limits 
of the interlocking cover the entire length of each track 
and use only a single rail circuit instead of both rails, as in 
the automatic block sections. 

At the Jersey City station a 17-lever electro-pneumatic 
machine controls the movements of trains through the junc- 
tion to the Hoboken extension tunnel and the Newark Ave- 
nue tunnels. As already mentioned, the Newark Avenue ex- 
tension tunnels have been constructed for a short distance 
to provide storage and switching tracks, and the interlock- 
ing machine has been installed at this point to handle the 
temporary shuttle service. When the tunnels to Hoboken 
are opened this machine will not be required under normal 
operating conditions. 

Provision has been made for reverse movement of trains 
between the terminal station and the Jersey City station 
by the introduction of check locking between the two ma- 
chines at each end of the tunnel. This, in effect, creates 
a single block section between the terminal station and 
the Jersey City station, which can be occupied by only one 
train at a time. 

At the junction of the Jersey City tunnels with the Ho- 
boken tunnels the tubes are at two different levels and two 
separate 11 -lever machines have been installed, one for 
each track. Both of these machines, however, are mounted 
in a signal tower at the level of the north-bound track. 
Illuminated track diagrams have been provided in connec- 
tion with both machines, and it is believed that there will 
be no difficulty in manipulating the machines, even though 
the operator cannot see the approaching trains on the south- 
bound track. 

Current for the operation of the signals and interlocking 
plants is taken from 1100-volt mains leading from the power 
house in Jersey City. Small transformers are installed at 
each signal to step down this current to 55 volts, 25 cycles. 
Twenty-five-cycle current at a low voltage is used for the 
track circuits. 


In the basement of the building, below the train platform 
level, a large substation has been constructed which will 
convert the high-tension alternating current from the power 
house in Jersey City into 600-volt direct current for the 
third-rail circuits on the New York side, and also will sup- 
ply 240-volt, direct current for all lighting and power cir- 
cuits in the Terminal Buildings. This substation occupies 
a space 87 ft. x 59 ft., and is entirely enclosed from the 
surrounding space on the lower level by heavy fire walls. 
It contains at the present time two 1500-kw G. E. rotary 
converters for the railway load and four 750-kw G. E. ro- 
taries for the lighting and power load in the building and 
station. Foundations have been provided for two addi- 
tional 1500-kw units, giving the station a total ultimate 
capacity of 9000 kw. Each of the railway units has a sep- 
arate set of three 750-kw, air-cooled transformers, taking 
1 1,000-volt, 25-cycle current from the transmission line lead- 
ing through the river tunnels from the Jersey City power 




[Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 

house and delivering 390 volts on the secondaries. The ro- 
taries deliver direct current at 625 volts to the third-rail 
feeders. The four lighting and power units supply all the 
lights in the buildings, as well as the elevator motors, elec- 
tric pumps and ventilating fan motors. Each unit has three 
air-cooled transformers delivering current at 178 volts, 
which is converted into direct current at 240 volts. A three- 
wire distribution system is used throughout the building, 
giving 120 volts across the lamps. Potential regulators are 
attached to the circuits of each of the lighting and power 

The switchboard is on the operating floor at the north 
end of the room, and the oil switches on the high-tension 
line are mounted on a gallery above. Overhead crane run- 
ways divide the station longitudinally into two bays, each 
served by a hand-operated traveling crane. The station is 
lighted by Cooper Hewitt mercury vapor lamps suspended 
from the ceiling. Cooling air for the transformers is sup- 
plied by motor-driven fans, taking cool air from a fresh-air 
intake flue running down from the roof level of the build- 


The initial service in the downtown tunnels will be a reg- 
ular 3-minute headway during the day and early evening. 
Five-car trains will be run during hours of light traffic, and 
during rush hours the number of cars per train will be in- 
creased to eight. 

The traffic to be handled is very large. Careful studies 
indicate that the ferries to New Jersey carry 128 million 
passengers each year. It is estimated that the tunnels 
should carry at least 60 per cent of this traffic, or 77 million 
passengers, based on present travel. Allowing for the nat- 
ural growth of traffic with improved facilities, the number 
of passengers which will be carried under the river within 
a few years will probably increase to 100,000,000 per an- 
num. This traffic, of course, will be divided between the 
uptown and downtown tunnels. The maximum capacity of 
the tunnel system is estimated to be 220,000,000 passengers 
per year when eight-car trains are operated on iJ/2-minute 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has announced that all tickets 
to and from New York over its lines will be honored for 
passage through the tunnels to the terminal station only 
on and after July 19, the date of opening the tunnels. The 
ferry service from Jersey City to Cortlandt Street, Des- 
brosses Street and Twenty-third Street will be continued, 
and passengers will have the option of using either the boats 
or the tunnels. All tickets, whether commutation, local, ex- 
cursion or through interline, will be honored at the ter- 
minal station for passage to Jersey City. In the opposite 
direction, tunnel coupons will be attached to all one-way 
and excursion tickets to New York from Philadelphia and 
points east of Philadelphia, which will be collected at the 
entrance to the elevators in the Jersey City station, where 
commutation tickets will also be punched. Passengers on 
through trains from the south and west will be supplied 
with tunnel tickets on application to the train conductor be- 
fore arrival at Jersey City. For the present, baggage will 
not be handled through the tunnels. For each of the 
through trains leaving from Jersey City a special connect- 
ing tunnel train will leave the terminal station 5 minutes 
after the leaving time of the Cortlandt Street ferry and 10 
minutes after the Twenty-third Street boat. The running 
time of trains to the Pennsylvania station in Jersey City 
will be 3 minutes, to the Erie station 6 minutes and to the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western station in Hoboken 10 

The men who have been conspicuous in the promotion 
of the Hudson Tunnel System are : Walter G. Oakman, 
president of the construction company, known as the Hud- 
son Companies; William G. McAdoo, president of the 
Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Company, and Pliny Fisk 
and William N. Barnum, of the banking house of Harvey 
Fisk & Sons. The civil engineering features of the tunnels 
and the design of the stations have been worked out by 
Charles H. Jacobs, chief engineer, and J. Vipond Davies, 
deputy chief engineer, who have had direct supervision over 
the construction forces. During a part of the time since 
the work began as many as 6000 men have been employed. 
The design and installation of the power house in Jersey 
City, substations, third-rail, feeders and miscellaneous elec- 
trical equipment and also the rolling stock were in charge 
of L. B. Stillwell, consulting engineer, and Hugh Hazelton, 
electrical engineer. 

The cost of the system when fully completed will be 
about $70,000,000. 


The Los Angeles Railway Company recently placed in 
service a funeral car designed and built in its own shops. 
The car body is placed on one of its standard double trucks, 
which are arranged for the narrow gage of 3.5 ft. It 
contains a compartment for the casket placed at right 
angles to the length of the car. This compartment is 
equipped with rollers similar to those of the usual hearse, 
and is provided with doors at either side of the car. A 
passageway opens from this compartment into the passenger 
compartment, from which the casket with its covering of 
flowers can be viewed. The passenger compartment, which 
is designed to seat 24 persons on wickerware chairs, can 
be subdivided at any desired point by means of heavy cur- 
tains to separate the immediate relatives from the other 

Although no attempt has been made at drapery, the in- 
terior of the car has a neat chapel appearance, as the arched 

Funeral Car of Los Angeles Railway Company 

windows and ventilators are built of stained glass, and ap- 
propriate colors are used for the silk curtains. The ex- 
terior of the car has been given a gray color with gold 
trimmings, thus proclaiming the mission of the car in a 
modest way. 

The car is equipped with two 50-hp Westinghouse mo- 
tors, for the operation of which there is an isolated motor- 
man's cab at either platform. When in service, the car is 
completely enclosed from front to rear, without any exposed 
platform or passenger step. It was designed by E. L. 
Stephens, master car builder of the Los Angeles Railway 
Company, and built under his direction in the company's 

July 17, 1909.] 




A few years ago an electric railway company in the 
Central States built a 30,000-volt transmission line about 
as shown in the accompanying sketch. Sections A-B-C-F 
were six wires, the balance three wires. The poles were 
spaced about 100 ft., and, allowing for double-armed 
poles, there were approximately 31,000 high-potential in- 
sulators on the 112 miles of transmission line. The 10- 
mile section B-C was first constructed, and in this section 
about 4000 glass insulators were used, of a type which 
will be designated as "A." Contracts for the balance of 
the line were let later, and for the remaining 102 miles 
approximately 27,000 glass insulators of a type "B" were 
bought. The two insulators were of somewhat different 
designs, but about the same size and weight : 

Insulator "A" Insulator "B" 

Outside diameter 7 in. 7^ in. 

Total arcing distance, tie wire to 

pin • 6^ in. 6 15/16 in. 

Total surface leakage distance, tie 

wire to pin 11^ in. 10^ in. 

Distance on surface, tie wire to edge 

of skirt . 4 in. 354 in. 

Arcing distance, edge of skirt to pin 2% in. 3 n/i6in. 
Surface leakage distance, edge of 

skirt to pin 7^ in. 7 in. 

Weight 4 lb. 1 2 oz. 4 lb. 8 oz. 

Manufacturer "A" refused to make any electrical guar- 
antees whatever. Manufacturer "B" guaranteed his in- 
sulators to withstand certain electrical tests, such as the 
salt water puncture test at 60,000 volts, a test between a 
wire tied to the neck of the insulator in the usual manner 
and the leadfoil-covered surface of the pin upon which 
the insulator was mounted at 90,000 volts, etc. 

Insulator "B" was finally chosen for the 102 miles re- 
maining to be constructed, for the following reasons : 
Willingness of manufacturer to make electrical guaran- 
tees ; similarity in size and weight of the two insulators, 


Diagram of High-Tension Transmission Line 

"B" having the advantage as to greater arcing distance, 
which was considered important; and a much lower bid 
price on the "B" type insulator. The contract for 27,000 
insulators furnished by manufacturer "B" specified the type 
and design of the insulator by its catalog or trade designa- 
tion, and also specified that each insulator furnished 
should be capable of withstanding the electrical tests be- 
fore mentioned. The contractor guaranteed the fulfilment 
of these specifications, and also that, "except where other- 
wise specified, material shall be of the first quality, and 
workmanship of the best." 

Abstract of paper by Albert S. Richcy, E. E., and Frederick Bonnet, 
r., Ph. D.i read before the Worcester Polytechnic Institute chapter of the 
i«rna Xi Society. 

The transmission line having been built and operation 
started with a line voltage of approximately 30,000, the 
"B" type insulators began to break down. From the first 
accurate records were kept, showing in each case of break- 
down the date, hour, length of time during which opera- 
tion was interrupted, weather and temperature conditions, 
etc. Although there was no absolute uniformity, the break- 
ages occurred most frequently in rainy weather. The fol- 
lowing statement shows the total number of failures, by 
months, during the period in which the "B" type insu- 
lators were in service :- 

October (half month)... 28 August 18 

November 33 September 28 

December 24 October 16 

January 66 November 59 

February 60 December 102 

March 63 January 51 

April 5 February 40 

May 6 March (nine days) 9 

June 24 

July 17 Total 649 

This list includes only the "B" type insulators, of which 
the total number in service was about 27,000. During this 
period but one "A" type insulator failed in the same serv- 
ice, of a total of 4000 in use. 

About 100 miles of electric railway was dependent upon 
this transmission line for power. Four of the six substa- 
tions contained regulating storage batteries which were 
capable of carrying the ordinary total load on those sub- 
stations for 20 to 30 minutes. Failure of power supply 
for even five minutes was sufficient to interfere with 
schedules, while a failure lasting 20 minutes or more 
meant their complete demoralization. If the defective in- 
sulator was in sections A-B-C-F, where the transmission 
line was in duplicate, it was sometimes possible to operate 
all substations through the remaining one of the paral- 
lel transmission lines. Often, however, both circuits would 
be affected; in this case, or if the trouble was in one 
of the other sections with but a single transmission line, 
all substations beyond the defective section were without 
power until the defective insulator was located and re- 

The company repeatedly called upon the manufacturer 
to replace the "B" type insulators. At first this was met 
by a policy of delay, the manufacturer holding that a few 
defective insulators were to be expected in so large a lot. 
Later, he refused to replace the insulators, and the com- 
pany, declining to pay for them, replaced them with "A" 
type insulators. Since that time the operation of the 
transmission line has been entirely satisfactory, and the 
number of insulator breakages has been normally low — a 
total of about 20 out of some 31,000 insulators in service 
for four years. 

Following the traction company's refusal to pay for the 
"B" type insulators the manufacturer sued for payment. 
His claim was that a certain type of insulator had been 
specified and that type furnished, also that such tests as 
were specified in the contract had been made and success- 
fully met. These claims the traction company did not deny, 
but raised the point that the guaranty as to workmanship 
and material had not been met, in that the insulators had 
been improperly, imperfectly or unevenly annealed. The 
effect of poor annealing was shown to decrease the specific 
resistance of glass, thus allowing more leakage current to 
pass through to the pin and abnormally heat the insulator; 
also to set up uneven and abnormal stresses in the glass, 
thus rendering it less able to withstand the mechanical 
strains due to expansion and contraction. This argument 

I 12 


[Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 

was strengthened by these facts: That insulators broke 
after current was applied to the line; that more insulators 
broke during rainy than during dry weather, and that the 
"A" type insulators on the same transmission line suffered 
practically no breakage during the time that the "B" type 
was breaking constantly. 

Tests by polarized light proved type "B," although of the 
same chemical composition, was subjected to stresses caused 
by improper annealing, while in type "A" there was an al- 
most entire absence of stresses. In carrying out the tests 
each insulator was so mounted that when it was rotated 
about its pin axis the same thickness of glass skirt was 
always presented between the polarizer and the analyzer, 
which previously had been arranged so as to allow no 
light to pass. Stresses in the insulator were indicated by 
the varying intensity of light and by color changes. The 
insulators showing stresses had been poorly annealed. 
Under service conditions they became heated on account of 
conductive leakage and were destroyed. 

The polarized-light method is valuable in detecting poor 
insulators, although the tests can be considered as only 


The Evansville (Ind. ) Railways Company has recently 
installed a limited service in connection with a fast motor 
boat line serving towns on the Ohio River, both above and 
below Rockport, the eastern terminus of the interurban 
route. Two limiteds make the run each way daily from 
Evansville to Rockport, 31 miles, in one hour and four 
minutes. Local trains on hourly headway make the same 
run in 1 hour and 20 minutes. The boat service is op- 
erated between Rockport and Cannelton, 25 miles up the 
river, and Rockport and Owensboro, Ky., 10 miles down 
the river. Each limited connects with a boat for Owens- 

Electric lit/. Journal 

Map of Evansville Railways Company System 

boro. The Cannelton boat connections, with one exception, 
are local trains. The success of this service has been due 
largely to its regularity. The fast passenger motor boat 
which connects with the interurban trains is 90 ft. long 
and has a capacity for 150 passengers. The interior of 
the boat is attractively finished in leather, and it is driven 
by a 75-hp gasoline engine. The railway company has im- 
proved the wharf at Rockport so that the transfer from 
trolley to boat and vice versa is made without discomfort. 

This combination interurban and boat service is in com- 
petition with local service on a steam line which crosses 

the river south of Evansville and extends parallel with the 
river to Owensboro. The one-way steam fare is $1.50, 
while the electric fare is 85 cents. The round-trip steam 
fare is $3 and the electric round-trip fare is $1.45. The 
running time of the steam trains is 1 hour and 45 minutes, 
and of electric trains in combination with the boat service 
1 hour and 55 minutes. This paper is indebted to W. H. 
Carson, general manager of the Evansville Railways, for 
the above information regarding this interesting combina- 
tion of boat and trolley service. 


For the last two years the Birmingham Railway, Light 
& Power Company has been publishing a number of articles 
in the daily papers of that city in connection with a vigor- 
ous publicity campaign which it has been conducting. The 
service supplied by the company is lighting and power as 
well as railway, so that the announcements referred to both 
its lighting and railway interests, but most of them dis- 
cussed 'matters relating to the railway service, as that is 
the one in which the relations of the company with the 
public are most intimate. 

One of the announcements early this year was entitled 
"Some Facts About the Lighting Business." The point 
was made that if a man buys an automobile he figures that 
it will not last over two or three years, and improvements 
in manufacture are so constant that existing machines are 
relegated in a few years to the scrap pile. The company 
explains that this condition also holds true with a lighting 
plant, and states that with the exception of one small ma- 
chine and a single boiler there are no machines in its power 
plant that were in operation in 1901. Since that time the 
company has installed 19,000 hp of boilers, with a corre- 
sponding equipment of generating apparatus, and has ex- 
pended $1,696,000 in the equipment. Nevertheless, the 
rate for current has been reduced from 16 cents per kw- 
hour in 1905 to 12 cents for lighting and 7 cents for 
power. At the same time the company has improved its 
rolling stock, and its latest cars cost $8,200 each. 

Another advertisement calls attention to the increase in 
taxes and licenses paid during the past years, and is as fol- 
lows : 

An Increase of 486.31 Per Cent in Our Taxes and Licenses in 6 years. 

Will any other business firm or corporation in the State of Alabama 
show such an enormous increase in taxes and licenses as ours, 486.31 per 
cent in six years? 

And in that time our earnings have only increased about 100 per cent, 
so that our taxes and license charges are increasing at a ratio almost five 
times as rapidly as our earnings. 

In 1903 we paid $26,525 for State, county and city taxes, and licenses, 
and in 1908 we are paying $155, 519-53. an increase of $128,994.53 in six 
years, or 486.31 per cent. The following table will show the amount of 
taxes and licenses paid each year, the amount of increase and percentage 
of increase over the preceding year: 

Amount Per cent 

Amount increase over increase over 

Year. taxes, etc. preceding year. preceding year. 

1903 $26,525 

1904 35.879 $9,354 35-3 

1905 42,3" 6 .432 17-9 

1906 66,480 24,169 57.1 

1907 127,911 61,431 92.4 

1908 155,519 27,608 21.6 

Total increase 6 years $128,994 % inc 6 yrs. 486.31 

Thus it will be seen that taxes, licenses, etc., have grown out of all 
proportion to the growth of our business or the -enhancement of our 
property value. Weigh these figures carefully and think of what a drain 
an increase of 486.31 per cent in taxes would be on your business in 
six years. 

The statement above shows that we are doing more than our share 
toward paying the expenses of the State, city and county. 

Another calls attention to the greater luxury and higher 
speed furnished by the modern cars, and cites the increased 
cost of living expenses, with the exception of lighting and 
transportation. The figures on the cost of foodstuffs and 

July 17, 1909.] 



the general expenses of living are quoted from the United 

States Bureau of Labor. This bulletin follows: 

Cost of Living Constantly Increasing; Public Service Is Cheaper. 

Every housekeeper, every head of a family, every merchant, every man 
or woman who buys food, fuel or clothing knows that the cost of living 
has increased rapidly in the past 10 or 12 years, and is constantly 
increasing. > . 

While that portion of your necessary living is growing more expensive, 
public service has been getting less and less costly all these years. By 
public service we mean gas, electricity and street car service. Our state- 
ment can be easily confirmed by turning to any records, or by exercising 
the memory a little.. And while this service is being furnished to you 
cheaper, labor, fuel, raw materials, finished products and everything else 
that is used in the manufacture of gas and electricity and furnishing car 
service has become more expensive. More modern methods, better man- 
agement and increased business enable us to reduce the cost of public 
service to you. t . ; . . 

For instance, as late as July, 1905, electric current for lighting was 
16 cents per kilowatt. Now it is 12 cents, a reduction in four years of 
25 per cent. ' ' 

At one time gas cost $2.65 per thousand cubic feet. In 1901 gas in 
Birmingham cost the consumer- $1.65 per thousand. On the consolidation 
of this company it was reduced to $1.35 per thousand, and about a year 
later the cost was still further reduced to $ per thousand, a reduction 
of 33 l /3 per cent in less than eight years. 

To-day the passenger on the street car rides farther for 5 cents than he 
did in 1901, and, in addition, receives a transfer which materially increases 
the earning power of his nickel. The following table shows the average 
fare per passenger earned by this company since 1902, showing that travel 
has grown constantly less expensive to the patron of the cars: 

Earnings per 

Year. passenger. 

1902.' -0520 



! 0450 



,„„ 0412 

Since 1901 the amount received per passenger has decreased from .0520 
cent to .0412 cent, a falling off of .0108 cent, which is a reduction of 
20 per cent in the cost per ride to passengers. Transfers over all lines 
and the rapidly increasing use of transfers are responsible for the 
reduction. . 

On the other hand, foodstuffs and the general cost of living have 
advanced, as the following figures from the bulletins of the United States 
Bureau of Labor show: 

Article. How sold. 1904- '9 7- 

Dried apples per pound .1250 

Dry beans per quart .1250 1390 

Rib roasts per pound .1750 .2104 

Chuck steak per pound .1000 .1250 

Round steak per pound .1500 .1667 

Sirloin per pound .1788 .2050 

Bread per loaf .0500 .0500 

Bread per pound .0667 .0667 

Canned beef per pound .1250 .1250 

Butter per pound .3500 -3792 

Chicken per pound .1925 -1933 

Coffee per pound .2500 .2500 

Meal per pound .0177 .0222 

Flour one-eighth barrel .8458 .9125 

Leaf lard per pound .1250 .1500 

Leg mutton per pound .1700 .2167 

Pork chops per pound .1563 .1813 

Salt pork per pound .1250 .142s 

Potatoes per peck .3136 -3375 

To summarize our statements, you, as our customer or street car patron, 
are getting more service for less money and you are getting better service 
for less money, in nearly all cases, and in others you are getting better 
service for the same money, which is equivalent to the same service for 
less money. 

In still another bulletin there is a graphical representa- 
tion of the distance which a passenger can travel on the 

1906 . 
1908 . 

ChiiDREN piny/Tscr iff the 

TJ10UGtfTLE>SSLY fttfff- ItE. FRONT 
OF A ^TJ?EET CATS.. s-\s~* 
<Tt-~, T>A7?E//TA £noi/£D\ WAR!/ 
^T/fEN TO} BE- r 

f~~ir^ C- VEXY CAKEFUE. \ 

paign to reduce accidents it had applied automotoneers to 
the controllers to get rid of the sudden jerks often claimed 
in damage suits. It had placed guards on all bumpers to 
prevent people standing on them. It had published articles 
dealing with the most common kinds of accidents, and had 
warned the public against them. It had placed cards on the 

Poster Illustrating Accidents to Children 

lines of the company in 1909 for a single fare as compared 
with that possible 10 or 20 years ago. 

The bulletins, however, have not all been devoted to 
financial matters. Several of them discuss the subject of 
accidents. One told what the company was doing to pre- 
vent accidents. It explained that every modern device 
has been applied, with the result that the company has prac- 
tically eliminated certain kinds of accidents. In its cam- 

Poster Illustrating Accident to Person Alighting from Car 

cars, illustrating the right way and the wrong way of 
getting off the cars, and the management had frequently 
had earnest talks with the motormen and conductors, indi- 
vidually and in meetings, urging them to be careful. 
Finally, it had installed gates on all loop cars. The notice 
in regard to these gates is contained in the announcement 
following, which was illustrated by views of the platform, 
showing the gates closed and open. 

Gates on Street Cars. 

Commencing to-day we will inaugurate a new system for the prevention 
of platform accidents. 

On all loop cars, commencing this morning, will be found wire gates 
which will be opened and closed by the motorman to allow passengers to 
get on and off the cars. There are gates on both the front and rear end 
of the cars, and the motorman closes the gates by a lever before he starts 
the car. This prevents any one from getting on the car after it has 
started. When the car is stopped, the motorman opens the gates with the 
same lever. When the gates are closed no one can get off the car. 

We have studied this system as applied elsewhere and find that it 
secures excellent results in preventing platform accidents. We are install- 
ing it on all our cars as fast as they can be sent to the shops. 

There is a double reason for trying to reduce accidents; the greatest 
being our desire to prevent suffering in all forms as caused by street car 
accidents, and in this effort the public should join us heartily, and the 
other reason is to reduce our annual expense caused by damage suits and 
claims growing out of accidents. 

Before passing judgment on the gates, see how they operate, study the 
humanitarian question involved and bring the matter of accidents home to 
your own family. If the use of gates prevents accidents, we are mutually 
benefited and should be satisfied. 

Two of the bulletins which illustrate two forms of acci- 
dents are also reproduced. 

Another series of announcements related to the ques- 
tion of transfers. One was entitled "Two Uses of Trans- 
fers," and read as follows: 

Two Uses of Transfers. 

There are two ways to use a transfer — the right and the wrong. 

We believe that fully nine-tenths of our patrons use transfers as they 
are intended to be used. The other one-tenth are abusing the privilege and 
violating the law. 

Transfers are a convenience granted the public in order that they may 
use two different car lines for the price of a single fare, or which makes 
it possible to make a continuous journey although using more than one 
line. When persons accept a transfer they bind themselves to use that 
transfer themselves and not to give it to some one else. Only one person 
is entitled to use the transfer, the person who paid the cash fare. Only 
one person is entitled to give you a transfer — the conductor. 

The courts have held that any person giving or receiving a transfer is 
violating the law. At first the use of the transfer was nominal, but it 
has grown wonderfully in the past two years, until to-day it seriously 
affects our revenue. Seventeen per cent of the passengers we carry use 
transfers; therefore it will be seen that the abuse of the privilege is a 
serious loss to us. 

We only, want to be treated by the public as the public would have us 
treat them. We are trying to do what is right and just on all occasions. 
Give us the same treatment that we give you. 

If you are entitled to a transfer, we urge you to use one. We 
want you to have one. But if some one offers you one, you do wrong to 
accept it, just as the person who tenders it does wrong. 

After all, it is merely another instance of applying the Golden Rule. 
Think of this if you have unconsciously been a member of the one-tenth 
who abuse the privilege. 

Another cited the number of passengers carried on trans- 
fers since the year iqoj, and showed that during the pre- 

ii 4 


[Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 

vious years the number who had used transfers amounted 
in fares to $1,160,480.15, and the average was $193,413.36, 
or $537.26 per day. 


The accompanying illustrations show two very striking 
posters of a series advertising the special car service of 
the Old Colony Street Railway, Boston. Others described 
the feelings which Hoofitalot, the Hottentot, and Patago- 

For rooming the wilds of his native land. 
Bent on forage, business, or pleasure. 
Chief HUufJgiWnagaH, the gay cannibal 
Thought his ostrich the traveller's treasure. 
But that wa* before his trip to this shore 
Where he changed this quite silly notion, 
For 5PECIAL CAR. rides, he quicKly decides 
Most delightful of all locomotion. 


Old Colony Street Railway Co. 

Advertisements of Special Car Service 

nian Pete would have experienced had they been able to 
have patronized these cars. These posters, and others, 
were used in the racks in the center of the cars last sea- 
son, and, according to H. A. Faulkner, passenger agent, 
undoubtedly brought in considerable business. 


The accompanying table has been compiled from statistics 
contained in the annual report of the Indiana Railroad 
Commission for 1908. It gives various figures relating 
to traffic and unit earnings and expenses. Some of the 


In a paper read before the Association of Railway 
Telegraph Superintendents in Detroit, June 26, H. P. Fol- 
som, of the Universal Pole & Post Preserving Company, 
Circleville, Ohio, described a new method of preserving 
wooden poles and posts from decay at the ground line. 
The unique feature of this method is in surrounding the 
base of the poles with a fiber cylinder which incloses a 
mixture of powerful germicides packed around the pole 
above and below the ground line. 

In applying this method of preservation to poles which 
have begun to decay, a hole is dug around the pole to a 
depth of 14 in. below the ground line. All decayed wood 
is removed from the surface of the pole, and the bottoni 
of the hole is then covered with a thin layer of Portland 
cement mixed with sand. A cylindrical jacket of "hydro- 
bestos" about 4 in. larger in diameter than the butt of the 
pole is then put in place in the hole and the lower edge 
of the jacket is embedded in the cement. The two edges 
of the jacket are lapped over about 2 in. and fastened with 
a specially prepared cement. The hydrobestos jacket is 
made in the form of a sheet composed of a special mix- 
ture of asbestos and asphaltum. This mixture is subjected 
to a pressure of about 27,000 lb. per square inch during 
manufacture, and it is claimed that it is practically inde- 
structible, being impervious to water, acids or alkali. 

When the jacket is put in place around the pole the in- 
tervening space is filled with a germicide mixture, packed 
in dry. In selecting the germicide the aim was to use a 
mixture which was powerful and effective in destroying 
animal organisms, and which would not injure the fiber 
of the wood or be too costly to be practicable. The mix- 
ture ordinarily used consists of hydrated lime, rock salt 
(chloride of sodium) and a small quantity of sulphate of 
copper, mixed with coarse sand. After the germicide is 
in place in the shell or jacket, a reinforced cap or collar 
made of Portland cement and sand is formed around the 
pole on top of the jacket. For the reinforcement, one or 
more turns of the old telegraph or telephone wire are used. 
The reinforced cap protects the chemicals and the jacket 

Old Blubberbalow. the fat Esquimaux, 

From (he land of the midnlpht sun, 
Hitched up his dogtt and sped Car away 

To the south on a trip, just for fun. 
Mis aboriginal mind was wise of its kind. 

Quich to tumble to new Tangled ways. 
He found it was jolly-the SPECIAL CAR trolley — 

And now talks himself dumb .in its praise. 


Old Colony Street Railway Co. 


Names op Roads 

ings Per 

form Ex- 
Per Pas- 

Car Ser- 
vice Ex- 
Per Pas- 




ses Per 


Main- Main- 1 Plat- 
Total ' tenance ] tenance form Ex 
Car i Way and; of Equip-' penses 
Mileage I Struc- i ment Per 
tures Per Per Car 
Car Mile Car Mile ' Mile 

Angola Railway & Power Co 

Cincinnati. Lawrenceberg & Aurora Electric 

Street Railway 

Chicago. South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. 
Evansville & Mt. Vernon Electric Railway. . . . 
Evansville & Southern Indiana Traction Co. . . 

Evansville & Eastern Electric Railway 

Ft Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co 

French Lick & West Baden Railroad 

Indiana Union Traction Co 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Trac. Co. 
Indianapolis. Crawfordsville & Western Tr. Co. 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co 

Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Co 

Lebanon & Thorntown Traction Co 

Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Co. 
Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Co. . . . 

Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction Co 

Muncie & Portland Traction Co 

Ohio Electric Railway 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac. Co. 
Winona Interurban Railway 

$0 12.500 




09.734 '$0 01.047 $0 00.312 $0 01 .3 18 $0 01 .139 








02 110 






202 436 















$0 03.253 






$0 01.951 $0 02.571 
02.548 04.245 





Car Ser- 
vice Ex- 

Car Mile 

Cost of 

Car Mile 

ses Per 
Car Mile 

$0 00.767 $0 03,186 $0 02,798 
01.287 04.445 02.112 





















companies in the State did not make reports to the com- 
mission containing uniform information, so that the rec- 
ords are not complete in each case. The effect of the in- 
terurban business on the average revenue per passenger 
carried is shown by the relatively large amount given in 
most of the companies, indicating that long distance travel 
is being rapidly developed. 

from the action of rain and snow, and also protects the 
pole against damage from grass fires. The chemicals en- 
closed by the jacket are slowly dissolved by the natural 
moisture in the pole, and they pass into the cell structure 
of the wood by capillary attraction. This continuous ab- 
sorption, it is claimed, destroys all fungi which may be in 
the pole at the time the preservative is applied, and the 

July 17, 1909.] 



jacket and cap prevent the lodging of other germs in the 
wood near the ground line. The reinforced cement cap 
gives a finished appearance to the pole, and experience 
has proved that there is little or no tendency for the con- 
crete to crack or disintegrate, as there is no expansion or 
contraction in the pole which it surrounds. When applying 
this method of preserva- 
tion to a small number of 
poles the men work in 
gangs of three. One man 
precedes the other two 
and digs around and 
cleans the poles. The 
other two men follow with 
a wagon containing the 
chemicals, and finish the 
treatment. If the poles 
are located along a rail- 
road the material can be 
distributed in small sacks 



Method of Applying 

at each pole from a hand car. Three men can treat from 20 
to 30 25-ft. poles per day. The cost per pole for labor and 
material is from 75 cents to $1. Some very large poles 
cost $1.50 to $2.50. A few poles were treated by this 
method nine years ago, and it is stated that the protecting 
sleeve is still in good condition. 


The , Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, of Fort 
Smith, Ark., has adopted an unusual method of advertis- 
ing games held at the home baseball park during the sum- 
mer. A panel sign is placed on either side of an ordinary 
car, which is run over all the lines up to 4 o'clock on the 

Advertisement on Car 

days when games are played. These signs can be attached 
to any car which is not operating on schedule time, and 
if all passenger cars are in service it can be placed on a 
construction car. 

A curious error appeared in the New York World in a 
statement regarding the annual convention of the Street 
Railway Association of the State of New York. It said 
that at the meeting C. S. Sims, of the Delaware & Hudson 
Railroad, declared that a large number of electric railway 
motormen are now habitual users of cocaine, and are taking 
the <lrug in the form of snuff. The only speech which Mr. 
Sims made at the convention was at the banquet, when he 
responded to a toasl, and the subject of cocaine was not 
mentioned in any way by him. 

Considerable interest has been excited by the issue on 
May 25, 1909, of two patents on register mechanism to Leo 
Ehrlich, of St. Louis, Mo., and assigned to the American 
Register Company, of St. Louis. These patents are num- 
bered 922,867 and 922,868, and as the application for the 
first patent was filed Dec. 10, 1894, and that for the second 
patent Dec. 23, 1895, they have been dormant in the patent 
office for over 14 years and 13 vears, respectively. 

Patent,. Xo. 922,867 is for a machine which will register 
two or more classes of fares with separate totalizers, both 
registers being operated from the same lever, and a shifter 
being employed to connect the operating mechanism with 
one or the other register. The text describes two forms of 
double registers, one with a dial and two pointers, the other 
with two sets of numbered wheel registers. The patent has 
92 claims, three of which are as follows : 

( 1 ) In a fare register the combination with the dial of 
the trip register of a plurality of pointers co-operating 
therewith to indicate different classes of fares, a single 
actuating device for said pointers and combined actuating 
and shifting or setting means operated by a single uni- 
form movement to cause said device to actuate either 
pointer at will and register the corresponding class of fare. 

(17) In a fare register the combination, with a multiple 
trip register for separately registering fares of different 
classes received during a trip, of a plurality of permanent 
registers for permanently registering fares of different 
classes, a fare indicator for indicating fares of different 
classes, and means for actuating by a single movement 
either desired number of the trip register and the corre- 
sponding permanent register and moving the fare indicator 
to indicate such class of fare. 

(84) In a fare register the combination with a multiple 
trip register employing a plurality of registering devices, 
indicating different classes of fares, of a corresponding- 
plurality of permanent registers, and means for actuating 
any one of the registering devices, together with its cor- 
responding permanent register by a single movement, such 
movement being the same in degree for each class of fare 
and without previous adjustment. 

Patent 922,868 describes a method of operating a double 
register by a rock shaft operated in one direction to regis- 
ter one class of fare and in the opposite direction to regis- 
ter another class of fare; also a method of attaching the 
register to the wall of the car by means of a plate with 
posts which fit into corresponding sockets on the register, 
the posts being fitted with flanged heads and, if desired, 
with locking screws. 

The patent specifies that the rock shaft can be operated 
by one set of operating handles or by two sets, extending 
along opposite sides of the car. This patent has 50 claims, 
of which two are as follows: 

( 1 ) In a fare register the combination with the trip 
register wheel of a shaft permanently in gear therewith, 
a permanent register, a clutch member for connecting and 
disconnecting the shaft and permanent register, resetting 
means for the trip register, and means for shifting the 
clutch at each resetting of the trip register, to disconnect 
the permanent register from the trip register and permit 
the resetting of the latter. 

(40) The combination with a fare register of an attach- 
ing plate adapted to be permanently secured to the wall 
of the car and provided with a series of integral posts 
having flanged heads co-operating with holes in the back 
plate of the register, and means co-operating with one of 
said posts for binding or clamping the register in position 
upon all of the posts, with the flanged heads of the latter 
engaging the back plate of the register and preventing its 

It is understood that these two patents have been ac- 
quired by the Ohnicr Fare Register Company, of Dayton, 

■Scale of f eei. 




152 ; 154 

156 : 158 i 160 

162 | 164 

ie 6 

168 : 169 ! 170 ! 172 


176 j 178 ! 180 



186 ! 188 : 190-C' 



An announcement was printed in the issue of this 
paper for July 3 in regard to the exhibits at the Denver 
convention, and last week a view was published of the 
Auditorium in which these exhibits are to be shown. The 
accompanying diagram shows the plan of the Auditorium, 
as approved July 11 by the executive committee of the 
American Street & Interurban Railway Manufacturers' As- 
sociation. As will be seen, the space available for exhibit 
purposes consists of the ground floor and balcony of the 
Auditorium and the areas on two sides of the Auditorium 
marked "Annex" in the diagram. This area consists of 
portions of Fourteenth Street and Champa Street, which 
will be boarded over and provided with a roof. The main 
entrance to the hall will be at the corner of Fourteenth 
Street and Curtis Street, with the registration office of the 
railway associations on the right, that of the Manufacturers' 
Association on the left and the headquarters of the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal just inside the entrance. 

At a meeting of the executive committee of the Manu- 
facturers' Association, held July 11, an average rate of 30 
cents per square foot of space was decided upon for ex- 
hibitors. The exhibit committee of the Manufacturers' As- 
sociation is now preparing blank applications for space, and 
these blanks will be sent out in the course of the next few 
days. It is very important that all in- 
tending exhibitors should forward their '° *° 30 
applications to the committee as quickly 
as possible. A date will be fixed for ap- 
plications for space. This date will ap- 
pear on the blank, and all applications 
received on or before that date will be 
treated alike. Applications received after 
that date will be treated on the principle 
of first come, first served. 

The exhibits are in charge of Kenneth 
D. Hequembourg, vice - president in 
charge of exhibits, and general sales 
agent, Walker-Bennett Manufacturing [j 136 j j ; 36 
Company, West Twenty-ninth Street, 
New York. The other members of the 
exhibit committee are : C. M. Atwood, 
Sherwin-Williams Company, Denver; 
R. M. Babbitt, Electric Railway Jour- 
nal, Chicago ; L. M. Cargo, Westing- 
house Company, Denver; G. W. Cox, 
Electric Service Supplies Company, Keo- 
kuk, la. ; Arthur T. Herr, American 
Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, Den- 
ver; H. J. Kenfield, Electric Traction 
W eekly, Chicago ; Charles Knight, 
American Steel & Wire Company, Chi- 
cago ; Ft. G. McConnaughy, Dearborn 
Drug & Chemical Company, New York ; 
S. P. McGough, The Lorain Steel Com- 
pany, Chicago; C. J. Olmstead, Westing- 
house Traction Brake Company, Chica- 
go ; R. H. Thompson, The J. G. Brill 
Company, Denver; A. L. Wilkinson, 
Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio. 

The committee has issued the follow- 
ing circular in regard to exhibits : 

The Denver Auditorium, with tempo- 
rary buildings in Fourteenth Street and 
Champa Street, will provide about 35,- 
000 sq. ft. of exhibit space, exclusive of 
aisles, on the main floor level with street, 

[Vol. XXXIV. No. 


Plan of Exhibit Space in Auditorium Building 

July 17, 1909.] 



and about 6000 sq. ft. in the balcony of the Auditorium, 
one flight up. Additional space can be secured on Champa 
Street if necessary by extending the temporary building. 

The temporary buildings, called Annex, will be construct- 
ed of heavy canvas with board floor and suitable floor cov- 
ering to match the color scheme, similar to Annex or Build- 
ing No. 3 at 1908 convention on Million Dollar Steel Pier. 

The exhibit committee is working with the railroads to 
secure a one-half rate from Chicago and St. Louis, or other 
Missouri River points. A meeting with the freight offi- 
cials has been held, the result of which enables us to pre- 
dict that we shall secure this concession. We have also 
under consideration from a Chicago forwarding and ware- 
house concern a proposition to consolidate all L.C.L. ship- 
ments at Chicago and Newark, N. J., wherein they claim 
they can save us between Chicago and Denver on 

Per cwt. 

Electrical appliances, machinery and supplies. . . .98c. 

Class "A' machinery, from 98c. to $2. 

Railway equipment and supplies 10c. 

Street car material, Division B 18c. to 98c. 

A proportionate saving on all consolidation L.C.L. ship- 
ments will result from consolidation at Newark, N. J. If 
we are successful in securing what is desired to make a 
large exhibit, the freight charge to Denver from Chicago, 
or other "Missouri River points," and return, including con- 
solidation charges for L.C.L. shipments, will range from 
97c. to $1.17 per cwt. 

A much lower charge for carting shipments to the exhibit 
space has been secured in Denver than we have enjoyed at 
recent conventions. 

The charges for furniture and other details will be about 
the same as last year. 

The charge for exhibit space is 30c. a square foot, and 
includes practically everything enjoyed at the 1908 con- 
vention at Atlantic City. 

The plan above shows the admirable layout secured, and 
with a large number of new hotels available, coupled with 
the enthusiasm shown by the railway officials and manu- 
facturers in the Central, Western and Southern States, it 
is expected that a very large attendance will result. 

Application blanks and detail circulars will be mailed as 
soon as arrangements have been completed. 

Exhibit Committee, 
(Signed) Kenneth D. Hequembourg, 


The Manufacturers' Association has just issued a 22- 
page pamphlet giving considerable information of interest 
to members of the association and those who are thinking 
of joining the association. It includes a history of the as- 
sociation, a list of the conventions at which the association 
has had charge of the exhibits, and all past and present 
officers of the association. The constitution and by-laws, 
a list of the members and a printed copy of the report of 
the treasurer is appended. This report shows the balance 
on hand Dec. 11, 1908, $6,851. Copies of this pamphlet are 
being distributed by Secretary Keegan. 


The Pennsylvania Railroad is planning to set out more 
than 1,000,000 trees. This will make a total of 3430,000 
trees planted in the last three years to provide for some of 
the company's future requirements in timber and cross- 
ties. This constitutes the largest forestry plan yet under- 
taken by any private corporation. Heretofore the com- 
pany's forestry operations have been confined to a limited 
area between Philadelphia and Altoona. This year, how- 
ever, 65,000 trees are being set out on tracts of land near 
Metuchen and New Brunswick, N. J. In addition, there 
are to be planted within the next month 207,000 trees near 
Conewago, Pa., 186,000 in the vicinity of Van Dyke, 334,- 
000 at Lewistown Junction, 7000 at Pomeroy and 205,000 
at Denholm. 


Since the announcement in the last issue of this paper 
of the appointment of the transportation committees to 
take charge of special trains to the Denver convention, the 
following plans for special trains from New York and Bos- 
ton have been announced : 


It has now been decided to run at least two special trains 
from New York City, one over the New York Central Rail- 
road and the other over the Pennsylvania Railroad. The 
New York Central train will run as a second section of 
the Twentieth Century Limited, and will leave New York 
at 3 130 p. m. on Thursday, Sept. 30. It will arrive in Den- 
ver at 4 p. m. on Saturday. If a sufficient number of ap- 
plications are received for a second train over the New 
York Central lines, the second train will leave New York 
at 3:30 p. m. on Friday, Oct. 1, and will arrive in Denver 
at 4 p. m. on Sunday. The special train over the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad will leave New York at 4 p. m. on Friday, 
arriving at Denver at 4:40 p. m. on Sunday. If there are 
sufficient applications, a second train will be run over the 
Pennsylvania Railroad at a time to be announced later. 
Both trains will be run via Chicago, but the routes, after 
leaving Chicago, have not yet been definitely determined. 

Both trains will be made up in the same way. Each will 
consist of one baggage car, one buffet car, one observation 
car, one dining car and Pullman compartment and drawing 
room sleeping cars. The fare to be charged will be $60 
from New York to Denver and return. Tickets can be pur- 
chased for this same amount to Pueblo and Colorado 
Springs, so that if any delegates are planning to visit either 
of the latter places while in Colorado, they should pur- 
chase their tickets to include these cities. The Pullman 
fares on each train will be: Berth $11, section $22, draw- 
ing room $39, stateroom in a compartment car $31. These 
charges are for one way only. An arrangement has been 
made with the railroad companies to make the following 
charges for meals served in the dining cars: Breakfast 75 
cents, luncheon $1, dinner $1.25. 

Those desiring accommodations on the New York Cen- 
tral train should apply to J. H. Pardee, who can be ad- 
dressed in care of the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York. 
Those who wish to travel on the Pennsylvania train should 
apply to W. L. Conwell, at the same address. 

No attempt will be made by either of these committees 
to organize a special train for the return trip, as it is 
thought that some delegates will desire to return promptly, 
while others will undoubtedly wish to spend some time in 
Colorado, or else go farther West. The return tickets, 
however, are available on any of the trains on either line 
and by any route of the initial line. That is, the passenger 
by the New York Central train which goes via Chicago 
will be permitted to return via St. Louis if he so desires. 
The same privilege is allowed the passengers on the Penn- 
sylvania train. 


In addition to the New York trains, a special train will 
be run from Boston, under the auspices of the Massachu- 
setts Street Railway Association. This train will he unique, 
because after the convention it will go to the Pacific Coast 
and visit Seattle, San Francisco and Los Angeles and other 
Coast cities. The exact route has not yet been determined, 
but will be announced later by Charles S. Clark, secretary, 


Massachusetts Street Railway Association, who has charge 
of the train. While in the far Northwest the passengers on 
this train will have an opportunity to inspect the Stone & 
Webster properties at Seattle, Tacoma, Everett and Bel- 
lingham by invitation of Messrs. Stone & Webster. They 
will also be able to visit the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exhibi- 

Soon after the date of the Denver convention had been 
changed to that which has now been selected, Mr. Clark 
received the following cordial letter from Messrs. Stone & 
Webster, and it was largely on account of this invitation, 
which, it is understood, includes all attendants at the con- 
vention, that the train was organized : 

147 Milk St., Boston. 

Boston, Mass., July 12, 1909. 
CHARLES S. CLARK, ESQ., Secretary, 

Massachusetts Street Railway Association, 
70 Kilby St., Boston, Mass. 
Dear Sir: 

We understand that the effort to change the date of the American 
Street and Interurban Railway Association Convention at Denver to one 
enough earlier to make it possible for such of the members as desires, 
after the convention, to go to the Pacific Coast and visit the Alaska- 
Yukqn-Pacific Fair, which is now being held in Seattle, was successful, 
and in your opinion many of the delegates to the convention will be glad 
to avail of the opportunity to visit the Puget Sound country. As is 
generally known, the street railway and interurban companies, including 
electric and gas lighting companies at Seattle, Tacoma, Everett and 
Bellingham, Washington, are managed by the Stone & Webster Manage- 
ment Association for the owners, and illustrate, to a marked degree, the 
operation of public utilities companies in fast growing cities and towns 
in that country. 

We should be glad to have you extend to such of the delegates as 
wish to go to the Puget Sound district a cordial invitation, and we will 
do our best to properly entertain those who make the journey. We 
believe they will be interested in the country and what it has to show. 

Very truly vours, 

(Signed) ' STONE & WEBSTER. 

This opportunity, together with the very favorable rates 
for the round trip from Boston to Seattle and return will 
undoubtedly induce a great many to make this trip, espe- 
cially those who have never visited the Pacific Coast. Mr. 
Clark announces that the railroad fare by this special trail: 
from Boston and return via Denver, Seattle, and through 
California, will not exceed $115, and it is expected that 
by chartering Pullman cars by the day that the meals 
and Pullman accommodations for the four weeks' trip, in- 
cluding the Denver convention, will not exceed a like 

The Boston train will consist of a combination baggage 
and buffet parlor smoking car (with bathroom and barber 
shop), a dining car, standard sleeping cars, a compartment 
car, and a compartment car with observation end. It will 
be lighted by electricity, and at all points visited will 
be side-tracked for occupancy by those persons who 
desire to make use of it. The party will have the 
exclusive use of all portions of the train from Boston 
until they return to Boston. This will avoid the annoy- 
ance of transfer from the train to a hotel at the various 
points visited. While en route members of the party will 
have access to their baggage at any time, as it will be in 
charge of a special baggage master. 

The following route has been tentatively settled upon : At 
the close of the convention the train will leave Denver, 
passing through Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Canon City, the 
Royal Gorge of the Arkansas, and stopping at Glenwood 
Springs. A part of a day will be spent at Salt Lake City. 
The train will then proceed to Seattle, and the party, at 
the invitation of Stone & Webster, will spend several days 
visiting the exposition and electric railway properties there, 
Mt. Ranier, Victoria and Vancouver, B. C, or other points 
of special interest in the vicinity of Seattle. Two or more 
days will be spent in San Francisco, Los Angeles and other 
interesting places, the Mt. Shasta route of California, and 
possibly the Canadian Rockies will be traversed. To avoid 
any possible chance for discomfort, the accommodations 
for the party will be limited to 80. 

AY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXIV. No. 3. 

The entire trip will be on the personally conducted plan, 
and the cost will include not only the railroad fares, but 
Pullman accommodations and meals en route. 

A large number of New England street railway people 
have already engaged accommodations for the round trip! 
Those who cannot make the trip to the Coast will accom- 
pany the party as far as Denver. Some of those who have 
applied for accommodations on this train are: 

James F. Shaw, president, American Street and Interurban Railway 

R. N. Wallis, president, Accountant's Association. 
Paul Winsor, president, Engineering Association. 
Charles C. Peirce, vice-president, Manufacturers' Association. 
E. G. Connette, general manager, Worcester Consolidat